"Reading Achievement of ELLS and Response to Intervention Model" presented by Dr. Jung
OF ELLS AND RESPONSE
Adrian Jung, Ph.D.
Response to Intervention
Is a model used by schools around the US.
Result of the Individuals with Disabilities
Education Improvement Act of 2004 (IDEA,
2004) and No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB).
Scientifically-based instructional practices to be
used (Cummings, Atkins, Allison, & Cole, 2008,
Basis for RTI Model
RTI relies on quality instruction
Needs of ELLs and at-risk students identified by
skilled teachers (McMaster, Kung, Han, & Cao
All can benefit
Language abilities no longer an issue
Instruction starts where children are at
Instruction tied to evidence/scientifically-based
practices (Xu & Drame, 2008).
regarded as alternative to current
numbers of children qualifying
for special ed. services and
increase in ELL student
English Language Learners
ELLs often placed in special education
classrooms (Orosco & Klinger, 2010).
RTI important in decreasing the over
representation of ELL populations in special
education settings, (McMaster, Kun, Han, &
Importance of RTI for ELLs
Additional source of data
gathered from instruction.
RTI procedures assist schools
(Rinaldi & Samson, 2008).
Students can be identified and
academic failure addressed early
“Identifying students who are not
achieving at the same level and
rate as their peers and providing
appropriate interventions are two
features that RTI advocates
emphasize” (Mellard, 2004, p.
There are gaps in the research on how
RTI affects the academic performance of
ELLs often grouped with English Only
Districts given freedom in their
interpretation of RTI guidelines.
There are correlations between oral language
delay and reading difficulties. (Lovett et al.,
The success of RTI may be validated after a
review of instruction.
ELL participant data results have been
Measurement of reading achievement
happens at the end of second grade.
Concerns are warranted.
Teacher competency in teaching reading
acquisition is limited (Brown & Doolittle, 2008).
Fidelity to research based practices needed
ELLs respond to direct reading instruction
(Haager, Calhoon & Linan-Thompson, 2007).
ELLs benefit from effective instructional
practices, targeted assessment (Brown &
Doolittle, 2008, Wanzek, Wexler, Vaughn, &
small group support
The purpose of this
study/research was to
RTI and the reading
acquisition of ELLs.
Targeted Areas of Research
RTI and ELLs in general education settings.
Pre-service teacher programs.
Acquisition of grade level reading skills
ELLs as an independent population
Setting and Participants
An Urban K-8 school district in LA and OC
Two of the seven elementary schools in the
130 (EL) & 227 (EO): 2010-2011
122 (EL) & 174 (EO): 2011-2012
Both schools used reading assessment data
from CST and teacher-administered reading
assessments to determine grouping for ELLs
Instrument and Data Collection
Repeated-measures design with English
proficiency as the one between-groups factor,
and California Standardized Tests (CST) as
the one repeated-measures factor with three
collected CST scores for both ELL and EO
students over the course of two years
Scores were separated according to the
language designation of the student earning
Discussion & Conclusion
RTI significantly impacts schools on multiple
The relationship b/w reading progress for ELLs
and participation in RTI
ELLs would demonstrate a faster rate of reading
achievement than ELLs who did not participate in
Conducted in a district that serves a largely
Served by the district contains a relatively
Because the focus was on reading, other
subjects commonly addressed in RTI, such as
math, were not studied.
Limitations also include examining the
relationship between RTI and ELL reading
achievement over a period of two years.
School administrators can use the results of
this study to guide their RTI model
Need for longitudinal data
Study of a more diverse sample
RTI and older students.
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