6. Verbal communication is the process of
communication through sending and
receiving messages with the use of words.
Word is a unit of language that carries
meaning and consists of one or more
morphemes which are linked more or less
tightly together, and has a phonetical
7. Nonverbal communication is the process of
communication through sending and receiving
Visual communication is the conveyance of
ideas and information in forms that can be read
or looked upon.
Oral communication is the conveyance of ideas
and information in forms that can be listened to
12. “Words don’t mean; people mean.” The
meaning of a word is always determined by a
People are not free to use words however they
wish. The society, culture, and tradition limit
what meanings might be inferred from a term.
Meanings are not fixed, however, and do
migrate as groups, cultures, and traditions
change in how they use various words.
Syntactics is the study of relationships
among signs, which in language involves a
focus on how speech sounds, words, and
structures are organized into larger
segments of meaning.
In classical linguistics, syntax refers to
Pragmatics is the study of signs as used in
actual situations. Pragmatics looks at even
larger levels of meaning—not just the
meaning of words and sentences, but the
intentions and goals that lie behind a
message and the attributions given to
16. The first scientific study of nonverbal
communication was seen in Charles
Darwin’s book The Expression of the
Emotions in Man and Animals.
He argued that all mammals show
emotions reliably in their faces.
17. People make judgments about the nature and
behavior of persons based on their nonverbal
and visual cues rather than on their verbal
We usually look first at their face to see if their
expression reflects what they are saying. Then
we listen to the tone of their voice to check if
there are any indications of the emotions
involved, and finally, we listen to the spoken
words to get the actual meaning.
18. Ray Birdwhistell:
The most human communication occurs
through gestures, postures, position, and
He described a 65 to
35% split between
actions and words.
19. Albert Mehrabian―There are three main
elements of communication:
1. The verbal refers to the words that are
spoken, the message.
2. The vocal refers to the intonation,
projection, and resonance of the voice
through which the message is conveyed.
3. The visual depicts the nonverbal behaviors
20. Mehrabian noted the impact of
communication across the three forms as
verbal, 7% (words); vocal, 38% (tone of
voice, inflection); and visual, 55%
(nonverbal physical behaviors).
The visual is the most controllable and
perhaps the most unconscious element of
the message from sender to receiver.
21. Modes of Nonverbal Communication
• Physical Environment-Appearance
23. Edward T. Hall (1950 -1960) ―Proxemics:
The studies of how human demonstrate
territoriality (human behavior regarding
Owen Hargie and David Dickson identified
four such territories; Primary, Secondary,
Public and Interaction territory.
24. Primary Territory
Primary territory refers to an area that is
associated with someone who has
exclusive use of it—for example, a house
that others cannot enter without the
25. Secondary Territory
Secondary territory, if using the previous
example, means that there is no right to
occupancy, but people may still feel some
degree of ownership of a particular space.
For example, someone may sit in the same seat
on a train every day and feel aggrieved if
someone else sits there.
27. Interaction Territory
Interaction territory is the space created by
others when they are interacting.
For example, when a group is talking to
each other on a footpath, others will walk
around the group rather than disturb it.
28. Edward T. Hall defines three basic types of
1. Fixed-feature space consists of unmovable
things such as walls and rooms.
2. Semifixed-feature space includes moveable
objects such as furniture
3. Informal space is the personal territory
around the body that travels with a person
and determines the interpersonal distance
30. Haptics is the study of touching behavior in
Touches that can be defined as
communication include handshakes,
holding hands, kissing (cheek, lips, hand),
back slapping, a pat on the shoulder, and
brushing an arm.
31. The meaning conveyed from touch is highly
dependent upon the context of the
situation, the relationship between
communicators, and the manner of touch.
33. The study of the role of eyes in nonverbal
communication is referred to as oculesics.
Eye contact can indicate interest, attention, and
Gaze comprises the actions of looking while
talking, looking while listening, amount of gaze,
and frequency of glances, patterns of fixation,
pupil dilation, and blink rate.
35. Chronemics is the study of the concepts and
processes of human temporality, or connections
with time, as they are bound to human
Our notions of time, how we use it, the timing
of events, our emotional responses to time, and
even the length of our pauses contribute to the
communicative effect of time.
36. William Gudykunst and Stella Ting-Toomey
identified two dominant time patterns:
1. Monochronic time schedule (M-time)
refers to cultures and contexts in which
time is seen as being very important.
2. Polychronic time schedule (P-time)
where personal involvement is more
important than schedules.
38. Kinesics is the study of bodily activity in
Kinesics is also popularly known as body
language. Kinesic behaviors include mutual
gaze, smiling, facial warmth or
pleasantness, childlike behaviors, direct
body orientation, and the like.
40. Environmental factors such as furniture,
architectural style, interior decorating, lighting
conditions, colors, temperature, noise, and
music affect the behavior of communicators
The physical appearance of the human body
elements such as physique, height, weight, hair,
skin color, gender, odors, and clothing send
nonverbal messages during interaction.
42. Paralanguage (sometimes called vocalics) is
the study of nonverbal cues of the voice.
Vocalics is concerned with the use of the
voice in communication. Vocalics consists
of several features such as resonance,
articulation, lip control, and rhythm
control, intensity, tempo, pitch, fluency
and vocal patterns.