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Infrastructure Security by Sivamurthy Hiremath

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With the development of technology, the interdependence of various infrastructures has increased, which also enhanced their vulnerabilities. The National Information Infrastructure security concerns the nation’s stability and economic security. So far, the research in Internet security primarily focused on securing the information rather than securing the infrastructure itself.

The pervasive and ubiquitous nature of the Internet coupled with growing concerns about cyber attacks we need immediate solutions for securing the Internet infrastructure. Given the prevailing threat situation, there is a compelling need to develop Hardware redesign architectures, Algorithms, and Protocols to realize a dependable Internet infrastructure. In order to achieve this goal, the first and foremost step is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the security threats and existing solutions. These attempts to fulfil this important step by providing classification of Security attacks are classified into four main categories: DNS hacking, Routing table poisoning, Packet mistreatment, and Denial-of-Service attacks. We are generally discussing on the existing Infrastructure solutions for each of these categories, and also outline a methodology for developing secured Nation.

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Infrastructure Security by Sivamurthy Hiremath

  1. 1. CYBER SECURITY 2012 1Need for New Approachesto Infrastructure Security By S K HIREMATH ME MAeSI MIETE Assistant Professor skhnda@rediffmail.com
  2. 2. International Cyber Crime Top 10 Perpetrators) 2
  3. 3. Top Ten Countries (Cyber Crime Perpetrators) 3 1. UNITED STATES 66.1% 2. UNITED KINGDOM 10.5% 3. NIGERIA 7.5% 4. CANADA 3.1% 5. CHINA 1.6% 6. SOUTH AFRICA 0.7% 7. GHANA 0.6% 8. SPAIN 0.6% 9. ITALY 0.5% 10. ROMANIA 0.5%
  4. 4. STAKEHOLDER AGENCIES 1 National Information Board (NIB) 4 2 National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) 3 National Security Council Secretariat (NSCS) 4 Ministry of Home affairs 5 Ministry of Defence 6 Department of Information Technology (DIT) 7 Department of Telecommunications (DoT) 8 National Cyber Response Centre - Indian Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT-In) 9 National Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NIIPC) 10 National Disaster Management of Authority (NDMA) 11 Standardisation, Testing and Quality Certification (STQC) Directorate 12 Sectoral CERTs
  5. 5. NEED FOR NEW APPROACHES TO INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY 5Global infrastructures Security have become more complex andinterconnected, their operation and control has become more complicated. Area works with several government agencies in the area of cybersecurity to ensure the integrity and availability of the nation’s cyberinfrastructure.The performance of the nation’s infrastructure is an essential componentof the nation’s economic prosperity.The Infrastructure Security Area seeks to endow the infrastructure withfive characteristics: security, reliability, safety, sustainability, and costeffectiveness.
  6. 6. ARCHITECTRUAL DESIGN OF INFRASTRUCTURAL SECURITY 6 Critical Infrastructure Security SystemsVideo Content Analysis SystemThermal Monitoring SystemsAccess Security SystemsFace Recognition SystemUrban Security SystemsMilitary And Border Security SystemsTraffic Control SystemsCentral Integration Management SystemsBuilding Management Systems
  8. 8. INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITYIDENTIFYING AND SECURING VULNERABILITIES 8  Enterprise Application Security  Identity and Access Management  Infrastructure Security  Security Strategy and Risk Management  Business Continuity and Disaster Recovery Planning  Data Protection & Privacy Planning
  9. 9. 9Security ArchitectureSecurity PlanningSecure Compliance RoadmapsNetwork Vulnerability Assessment
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. The Four Phases of Infrastructure SecurityEngagement 11 Assessment•Business requirements •On-site health assessment of Infrastructure & Processes•Estimate •Conduct Business Interviews •Reporting Requirements •Establish service dependenciesTransition Steady State•Establish connectivity •Ongoing Infrastructure Guardian Services•Roles & responsibilities, processes & •Monthly Reporting (Alerts, distributions,procedures assets, health)•Phased onboarding approach •SME Advisory Service•Monitoring/Reporting commences
  12. 12. CORPORATES BOARD 12• Compliance to international security best practices anddemonstration• Pro-active actions to deal with and contain maliciousactivities, and protecting average end users by say of nettraffic monitoring, routing and gateway controls• Keeping pace with changes in security technology andprocesses to remain current (configuration, patch andvulnerability management)
  13. 13. 13Adequate security of information, resources, and systems that processwithin a company or organization is a fundamental managementresponsibility.Management of an organization/agency must understand the currentlevel of security within their infrastructure, and the risks that theorganization may be exposed to in todays fully internet-workedenvironment.The best way to mitigate this risk is to perform a security assessment &associated risk assessment at least once every year. This will allow company management to address new trends in securityvulnerability and penetration, and make informed judgments andinvestments that will appropriately mitigate these risks to an acceptablelevel.
  14. 14. 14 Conform to legal obligations and cooperate with lawenforcement activities including prompt actions onalert/advisories issued by CERT-In• Use of secure product and services and skilled manpower• Crisis management and emergency response.• Periodic training and up gradation of skills for personnelengaged in security related activities• Promote acceptable users’ behaviour in the interest of safecomputing both within and outside
  15. 15. National Cyber Security Policy 15“For secure computing environment andadequate trust & confidence in electronictransactions ”
  16. 16. INFRASRUCTURE CYBER SECURITY 16Cyber Security consists of sets of techniques,policies, and activities intended to enhance trustand mitigate vulnerabilities inherent in thecomplex networked devices and services thatpermeate our lives today
  17. 17. 17“A general rule for cyber security isthat it should be implemented ‘top-down’ through direction as well as‘bottom up’ through technology “
  19. 19. SECURITY AND SAFETY ARCHITECTURE 19Sensors and Detectors ( Microwave Systems , Infrared Sensors, Car X-rays,Under Car Inspection Systems, Fence Mounted Sensors )Physical Equipments (Mushroom Barriers, Road Blockers, Arm Barriers,Turnstile)Access Controls (Face Recognition Systems, Card Readers , Finger PrintReaders, other Biometric Access Controls)Video Detection Systems (CCTV, VCA applications, Thermal Camera, PlateRecognition)Data Communication SystemsManagement Systems (Fire Detection, Call Management, AlarmManagement)
  20. 20.   INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY 20Network Infrastructure includes networks, network devices,servers, workstations, and other devices.The software running on these devices are also the part ofNetwork Infrastructure.To make sure your network is secure, you should make sureevery time a configuration is changed or new device is added,you are not creating a hole in your security.A normal network comprise of routers, firewalls, switches,servers and workstations. A typical layout of networkinfrastructure devices is shown
  21. 21. Master the tools & techniques for effective information & network security. 21Discover how to create a complete & sustainable IT security architecture.Gain knowledge on how to develop sound security policy together with your securityarchitecture. IT governance assessment using CoBIT 4.0( Control Objectives for Informationand Related Technology )Smart security risk assessment within your organization.Gain valuable insights on implementing a proactive & robust security managementsystem.Detect & prevent information security breaches due to inadequate IT securityawareness within the organization.
  22. 22. INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITYNetwork LevelHost LevelApplication Level 22
  23. 23. 23Application Security: Managing business and information risk throughsolutions for packaged SAP and Oracle ERP, and custom applicationsecurity.Infrastructure Security: Providing visibility of information risks anddefending enterprise assets through platform security technologies.Information Risk, Privacy & Strategy: Managing information risk throughsecurity strategy, governance, risk and compliance management.Security Outsourcing & Operations: Enabling application, infrastructureand business risk management through flexible managed services options.
  25. 25. Evolution of Architectures 25 Virtualizatio Virtualization Individual Data n (1 app / Cloud Servers Centers (N apps / server) server) 10 toUtilization 10 to 20 % 15 to 25% 40 to 45 % 60 + % 20 % Security Highest High Lowest
  26. 26. Infrastructure Security covering Data, Identity, Cloud,Threat, Network, Mobile, End User Computing,Virtualization and Cyber Security 26
  28. 28. CAMPUS DESIGN 28
  29. 29. 29
  30. 30. 30
  31. 31. 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. 33
  34. 34. CASE STUDY: AMAZONS EC2 INFRASTRUCTURE Exploring Information Leakage in Third-Party Compute Clouds”  Multiple VMs of different organizations with virtual boundaries separating each VM can run within one physical server  "virtual machines" still have internet protocol, or IP, addresses, visible to anyone within the cloud.  VMs located on the same physical server tend to have IP addresses that are close to each other and are assigned at the same time  An attacker can set up lots of his own virtual machines, look at their IP addresses, and figure out which one shares the same physical resources as an intended target  Once the malicious virtual machine is placed on the same server as its target, it is possible to carefully monitor how access to resources fluctuates and thereby potentially glean sensitive information about the victim 34
  35. 35. Towards cyber operations - The new role of academic cyber security research and education 35 The cohesive cyber defense requires universities to optimize their campus wide resources to fuse knowledge, intellectual capacity, and practical skills in an unprecedented way in cyber security. The future will require cyber defense research teams to address not only computer science, electrical engineering, software and hardware security, but also political theory, institutional theory, behavioral science, deterrence theory, ethics, international law, international relations, and additional social sciences. Academic research centers, evaluating the collective group of research centers ability to adapt to the shift towards cyber operations, and the challenges therein.
  36. 36. Towards cyber operations - The new role of academic cyber security research and education 36 The shift towards cyber operations represents a shift not only for the defense establishments worldwide but also cyber security research and education. Traditionally cyber security research and education has been founded on information assurance, expressed in underlying subfields such as forensics, network security, and penetration testing. Cyber security research and education is connected to the security agencies and defense through funding, mutual interest in the outcome of the research, and the potential job market for graduates. The future of cyber security is both defensive information assurance measures and active defense driven information operations that jointly and coordinately are launched, in the pursuit of a cohesive and decisive execution of the national cyber defense strategy.
  37. 37. ONLINE ASSESSMENT FOR HANDS-ON CYBER SECURITY TRAINING IN A VIRTUAL LAB 37 Online (self) assessment is an important functionality e-learning courseware, especially if the system is intended for use in distant learning courses. Precisely for hands-on exercises, the implementation of effective and cheating-proof assessment tests poses a great challenge. That is because of the static characteristics of exercise scenarios in the laboratories: adopting the environment for the provision of a “unique” hands-on experience for every student in a manual manner is connected with enormous maintenance efforts and thus not scalable to a large number of students. This work presents a software solution for the assessment of practical exercises in an online lab based on virtual machine technology. The basic idea is to formally parameterize the exercise scenarios and implement a toolkit for the dynamic reconfiguration of virtual machines in order to adopt the defined parameters for the training environment. The actual values of these parameters come to use again in the dynamic generation of multiple-choice or free-text answer tests for a web-based e-assessment environment.
  38. 38. COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE IN CYBER SECURITY 38 Fuzzy Logic Evolutionary Computation, Intelligent Agent Systems Neural Networks Artificial Immune Systems and other similar computational models. A Survey of Security Challenges in Cognitive Radio Networks: Solutions and Future Research Directions
  39. 39. 39 Security evaluation of data exchange path in infrastructure networks ( This method is based on Floyd-Warshall shortest path algorithm in MATLAB) Improving Network Infrastructure Security using Geospatial Technology. A survey of information-centric networking Aviation communication infrastructure security
  40. 40. Aircraft systems cyber security 40Aircraft manufacturers, avionics / electronics vendors, and owners / operators are implementing technologies (e.g. packet switching devices, wireless interfaces) that are easier to implement, reduce cost /size /weight /power, and increase connectivity but could potentially introduce cyber security vulnerabilities that affect aircraft safety.
  42. 42. Conclusions/Recommendations 42 Efforts to promote cyber security in Academics as a Capacity Building Support International Cooperation cyber security community Cyber Security forums announced in December 2011 that that "there’s no such thing as ‘secure’ any more...” Cyber security community has settled on Continuous Monitoring (CM)
  44. 44. 44Promoting a comprehensive national program Fostering adequate training and education programs tosupport the Nation’s information security needs (Ex School,college and post graduate programs on IT security) Increase in the efficiency of existing information securitytraining programs and devise domain specific trainingprograms (ex: Law Enforcement, Judiciary, E-Governance etc) Promoting private-sector support for well-coordinated,widely recognized professional information securitycertifications
  45. 45. SURVEY ON DEMAND AND SUPPLY CHAIN 45• Chief information security officer (CISO)• System operations and maintenance personnel• Network security specialists• Digital forensics and incident response analysis• Implementation of information security and auditing• Vulnerability analyst• Information security systems and software development• Acquisition of technology• Techno-legal• Law enforcement
  46. 46. The Thrust areas of R&D include:• Cryptography and cryptanalysis research and related 46aspects• Network Security – including wireless & Radio (WiFi. WiMax,3G, GPRS)• System Security including Biometrics• Security architecture• Monitoring and Surveillance• Vulnerability Remediation & Assurance• Cyber Forensics• Malware Analysis Tools• Scalable trust worth systems and networks• Identity Management Situational understanding and Attack attribution• Survivability of critical systems and networks.
  47. 47. E-GOV 47
  48. 48. “Management Invests in the IT Infrastructure system; But IT Leadership work on development of Secure Technology of IT Infrastructure system .” 48 ANY QUESTIONS PLEASE ?
  49. 49. The Infrastructure Security develops and appliestechnologies and analytical approaches to secure thenation’s infrastructure against natural or maliciousdisruption and we seek our vision towardsindependent and secure future of our Country. 49 THANK YOU!!! CONTACT US skhnda@rediffmail.com Mobile No: 9765069841