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Digital Data Collection

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Going Digital: Use of Mobile Technology 
for Collecting Monitoring and Evaluation 
Data

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Overview 
 Introduction 
 Log Frames and M&E 
 Why digital/mobile data collection 
 Types of Mobile Data collection – ...

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INTRODUCTION

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Digital Data Collection

  1. 1. Going Digital: Use of Mobile Technology for Collecting Monitoring and Evaluation Data
  2. 2. Overview  Introduction  Log Frames and M&E  Why digital/mobile data collection  Types of Mobile Data collection – Examples  Demo
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. CLEAR South Asia Mandate  CLEAR South Asia strategy includes a focus on the use of cutting-edge technology for effective collection and utilization of M&E  In collaboration with Fieldata.Org, CLEAR South Asia aims to promote the use of M&E technology, such as mobile phones and PDAs, for more real-time aggregation and effective utilization of M&E.
  5. 5. Context – E-society Emphasis on the use of technology for more effective collection and utilization of M&E The fundamental objective of all e- Society initiatives is to make Information, Communication & Technology (ICT) more inclusive – i.e. ALL members of society, especially those that are socially and economically marginalized, should gain access to and benefit from the knowledge, power and opportunities brought about by new ICTs Sri Lankan Information and Communication Technology Agency has similar goals (http://www.icta.lk/en/programmes/e-society.html )
  6. 6. About Fieldata.org Fieldata.Org is a mobile-&-web portal for NGOs to raise funds, by offering real-time monitoring, and objective data for evaluation. Mission is to improve transparency & decision-making in development organizations and government agencies, by empowering them with technology-tools for better monitoring, sharing, and application of data. Want organizations and donors to objectively answer: • Which projects should resources be allocated? • How well do projects utilize these resources?
  7. 7. About Fieldata.org
  8. 8. LOG FRAMES & M&E
  9. 9. Programme Theory – Log Frame Inputs/Progra m Activities Outputs Intermediate outcomes Goal What we do as a part of the program - deliver, teach, offer loans, etc. What are the resources used –funds, staff, equipment, curriculum, all materials. Tangible products or services produced as a result of the activities - usually can be counted. Short-term behavioral changes that result from the outputs - preventive health habits, usage of tablets. Long-term changes that result from outcomes – the result of the program.
  10. 10. M&E Framework – Use of Data  Reporting • On Inputs and Outputs (Achievement of Targets)  Monitoring • Of Processes and Implementation (Doing things right)  Evaluation • Of Outcomes and Impact (Doing the right thing)  Management and Decision Making (MIS) • Using relevant and timely information for decision making (reporting and monitoring for mid term correction; evaluation for planning and scale up) ALL OF THE ABOVE DEPEND ON THE AVAILABILITY OF RELIABLE, ACCURATE AND TIMELY DATA
  11. 11. Problems in Data Collection and Management What do the following mean?  Data reliability (will we get the same data, when collected again?)  Data validity (Are we measuring what we say we are measuring?)  Data integrity (Is the data free of manipulation?)  Data accuracy/precision (Is the data measuring the “indicator” accurately?)  Data timeliness (Are you getting the data in time?)  Data security/confidentiality (Loss of data / loss of privacy)
  12. 12. WHY DIGITAL DATA COLLECTION?
  13. 13. What is Digital Data Collection?  Device: Use electronic devices (such as mobile phones, tablets, netbooks/laptops) to collect data/information  Data Collection Software: Programme enables digitized data collection (free platforms such as OpenDataKit for Android phones, Visual Basic/Java etc. for laptops)  Data Transmission: Data from the field is transmitted to a server/remote location (manually or electronically)  Data Aggregation and Analysis: Data can be made available in excel, csv files. Aggregate tables and customized reports can be generated for analysis and sharing
  14. 14. Why use Mobile Technology in Evaluations  Improving transparency & accountability in development organizations and government agencies, though technology-enabled M&E for better monitoring, sharing, and application of data.  Enabling organizations, donors and citizens to use M&E data for real-time decision-making, better implementation and delivery of projects and services
  15. 15. Mobile Technology Options
  16. 16. How is Mobile Technology Used
  17. 17. Why Mobile Data Collection?  Real-time data from the point of collection  Built-in logical flow and validation checks improves data quality  Ability to collect new types of data – Location (GIS), media (pictures, audio)  Cost effective over time- involves one-time hardware costs and ongoing maintenance. No paper, printing costs  Easy to manage and analyze large amounts of data  Reduces intermediate levels of data transmission
  18. 18. Why Mobile Technology for Reporting and Monitoring Paper Reports  Delay between activity and reporting  Multiple levels between implementing agency and final report  Information flow is one way (bottom to top) and not actionable because of time lag  Bulky hard copies of reports  Errors in entry, needs additional scrutiny Using Mobile Phones  Almost instantaneous reporting after activity  Implementing agency directly sends the information into final report  Information flow is both ways and interactive. Allows for quicker response and support  Web-enabled reports  First level of checks and data cleaning incorporated
  19. 19. Why Mobile Technology for Survey data Paper Surveys  Logistics of printing and tracking forms is tedious for large surveys, changes costly  Errors in reading handwriting, data entry, cannot control/limit logical flow on paper, manual scrutiny  Effective monitoring of data quality is complicated and laborious  Requires additional hardware devices for non-text data such as gps, pictures, audio etc., difficult to integrate Using Mobile Phones  Can be deployed remotely and tracked in real time, changes possible on the field  Limited errors on account of 1 level of entry, built in logic flows, validation and cleaning of data at collection  Real time tracking, features (time/date/GPS) makes data quality monitoring efficient  Single device for gps, audio, pictures. Easy to integrate and can be used in real-time for verification
  20. 20. Potential challenges with mobile data collection  Formats for data collection are standardized and require development of software tools upfront (unlike paper surveys which are more flexible)  Local language programming and compatibility being developed  Typing through keypad/keyboard may be slower, learning may take time (scribbling on paper is faster)  Handwriting, voice recognition software in their infancy  Lack of connectivity on field limits real-time transmission of data 20
  21. 21. Mobile  Initial one-time cost of devices  Additional costs for maintenance such as batteries and replacement due to loss of devices  Ongoing data-plan costs, and service-provider costs  Real-time access to data to monitor quality and progress  Environmentally friendly as printing surveys is avoided Cost Effectiveness Paper  No one-time ‘hardware’ cost  Ongoing costs of printing, transporting and storing paper questionnaires  Data-entry operations take significant time and resources – training, data-entry operators, transliterating local languages, ensuring quality through double data entry, and reconciliation through hard copy checks.  Longer time-frame before data is available for analysis
  22. 22. Examples TYPES OF MOBILE DATA COLLECTION
  23. 23. Data Quality & Real-time Data for Monitoring Purposes Quick & Easy Set up:  Improving: • Data quality • Speed • Transparency • Accessibility • Flexibility
  24. 24. Mobile-based Monitoring and Evaluation in Action:  MFI agents entering weekly loan repayments for instant tabulation  Community health workers feeding back information on beneficiaries for automatic identification of high risk cases  Auditors collecting survey, observational, photographic and GIS data on infrastructure in slums.
  25. 25. Use of Mobile-based Technology in M&E REPORTING/MIS  Routine (Real-time) reporting • Weekly loan repayment information of MFI clients reporting by field staff MONITORING  Ongoing program monitoring • Beneficiary information collected and sent by health workers (for disease surveillance, delivery of benefits etc.)  Occasional (Surprise) checks • Spot checks by supervisors to monitor attendance and performance of staff EVALUATION  Survey data • Household survey data to assess impact of <<xx>> program
  26. 26. Use of Mobile Technology as key intervention in Programs  Information/Messages • SMS reminders to beneficiaries about important health activities (treatment compliance)  Implementation Tools • Videos and online teaching aids used in schools for regular or remedial education programs  Biometric, GIS information • Record beneficiary information for easier tracking and follow up. Complementarities with other programs by same organization
  27. 27. Case Study: Delhi Voters Project  Project description and objectives • An RCT evaluating whether providing information to government officials and slum dwellers can lead to higher accountability and thereby improved service delivery.  Interventions evaluated: • The effect of providing information on spending and quality of public services delivered by elected officials during election sensitive periods
  28. 28. Role of mobile-based data collection  The intervention • Field-based audits of public services in slums using mobile-based technology • Surveys and observations • Photographs • GIS indicators • Send report cards to elected representatives highlighting the quality and access to public services in their area
  29. 29. The implementation Started by auditing … GARBAGE FACILITIES 1) Dumpsters 2) Bins 3) Informal Points TOILETS Open Public Toilet Complex Public Urinals
  30. 30. Audit Report Cards
  31. 31. Going a step further with Mobile Based GIS software  Accessibility to public services • How far is the nearest toilet? • How far is the nearest formal point of disposing garbage?  Spread Analysis • Does cleanliness of a toilet affect household health? MOBILE GIS !
  32. 32. DEMO
  33. 33. Delhi Voters Project Technology Demo Setting up Wireless (already done on the demo phones): 1. Click on the blue icon in the bottom right hand corner of the phone 2. Scroll right and click on the settings icon 3. Select Wireless and networks Wi-Fi Settings Connect to wireless network 4. Return to the main menu via the arrow in the bottom corner and select the Fieldata app on the main dashboard Downloading Fieldata App (already downloaded on phones) 1. m.fieldata.org 2. Download first option (not the Oriya script) 3. Go back to the handset’s downloads and select Fieldata app
  34. 34. Designing the Survey Form
  35. 35. Filling out the Form Select Fill Blank Form Garbage Audit V3 TAKE 5-10 minutes to fill out the form. Take note of the “logic and control features” built into the survey form.
  36. 36. Filling out the Form Key Features: 1. Compulsory Questions 2. Grouping – (Repeats & Loops) 3. Location – Mapping 4. Skips & Branching 5. Photo 6. Multiple question types (GPS, photos, audio/video) to cover information not possible on paper
  37. 37. Editing or Sending Form Edit Saved Form 1. Edit and Check your data by selecting 2. See all your answer and change them and save these changes if you want Send Finalized Form 3. Finally 4. Mark the tick box green of your Saved Survey 5. Press “Send Selected” 6. Username: ClearSA (press Next). 7. Password: IFMR 8. Upload Results message saying: “Garbage Audit Survey v3 – Success” 9. Log on to immediately view your data on a map & as graphs! www.fieldata.org
  38. 38. How much Time, Money and Effort Does it Take? Less than what it is costing you now!

Notas do Editor

  • Raise awareness within society about the uses and benefits of ICT through a strategic communications campaign.
    Develop multi-stakeholder partnerships in ICT4D. These partnerships will network ICTA to other organizations and institutions that are engaged in promoting an e-Society.
    Establish a fund that will adopt a bottom up approach to develop innovative technology solutions using ICT to benefit rural poor, women, displaced persons.

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