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Cost Effectiveness Analysis


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Cost Effectiveness Analysis

  1. 1. An Introduction to Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
  3. 3. Diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death for children under 5, but what is the best way to decrease diarrhea? • Infrastructure improvements: piped water • Protecting water sources to reduce contamination • Chlorine treatment: • Free chlorine dispensers at the source • Free chlorine delivered to homes • Changing behavior: • Hand washing promotion • Hygiene education • Improve Sanitation Infrastructure
  4. 4. Interventions to Reduce Diarrhea  Impact estimates from RCTs Intervention Impact on Diarrhea Spring protection (Kenya) 25% reduction in diarrhea incidence for ages 0-3 Source chlorine dispensers (Kenya) 20-40% reduction in diarrhea Home chlorine distribution (Kenya) 20-40% reduction in diarrhea Hand-washing (Pakistan) 53% drop in diarrhea incidence for children under 15 years old Piped water in (Urban Morocco) 0.27 fewer days of diarrhea per child per week
  5. 5. Cost Effectiveness Analysis Compares programmes With Similar Goal but from Different Contexts and Times
  6. 6. A Comparison of Education Programmes to Improve Student Learning
  7. 7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) and Comparative CEA  Cost-effectiveness analysis measures the ratio of the costs of a program to the effects it has on one outcome • Measure the cost for a given level of effectiveness: e.g. cost to increase school attendance by 1 year • Or, measure the level of effectiveness for a given cost: years of additional attendance induced by spending $100
  8. 8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) and Comparative CEA  Comparative cost-effectiveness then compares this cost-effectiveness ratio for multiple programs Example: Years of schooling gained per $100 spent
  9. 9. When and why is CEA useful?  Good option when there is one key specific outcome of interest, which is often the case in policy • CBA requires quantifying outcomes that are difficult to quantify (controversial)  CEA can allows comparison of multiple programs by comparing impact in terms of one outcome across schemes • Helps with decisionmaking, particularly under a fixed budget (i.e., which will give the most impact for the least cost?)
  10. 10. How is CEA different from Cost-Benefit Analysis?  Outcomes • CBA: Ratio of costs of program to all identified outcomes (benefits) • CEA: Ratio of costs of program to one defined outcome (benefit)  EXAMPLE: • Ratio of cost of education program as a ratio to its impact on learning, physical and mental health, household bargaining power, future labour market outcomes, intergenerational well-being • Ratio of cost of education program as a ratio to its impact on learning
  11. 11. CEA Requirements and Considerations  Comparative CEA compares the cost-effectiveness of different programs and requires impact estimates (for the same outcome) and information on program costs  Impact estimates • Consistent approaches to measuring impact? • Standardizing estimates?  Program Costs • Costs to provider and beneficiary? • Sunk vs incremental costs?
  12. 12. What goes into doing a Comparative Cost-effectiveness Analysis? AN EDUCATION EXAMPLE
  13. 13. Comparative CEA
  14. 14. Cost & Impact Assumptions  Focus on incremental costs • Assumption that fixed costs would exist regardless of the new program  Inclusion of provider and beneficiary costs • Interest in costs to society as a whole  Creating “common units” adjusted for inflation, exchange rates, and year of implementation • USD standard exchange rates (2011) • Discount rate for costs incurred over multiple years (10%) • Inflation from year of study to year of analysis (average annual US inflation rate)  Standardizing estimates • Make impact estimates comparable across contexts, test formats, etc. by expressing them in terms of standard deviations
  15. 15. Standard Deviation Refresher  How to make test scores across contexts, subjects, formats, etc. comparable? • Put scores in terms of Standard Deviations (values reflect position in distribution in relation to the average rather than a test score in a particular context) • Impact estimate shows change in learning outcome in relation to the average of the comparison group (e.g., 0.2 SD increase)
  16. 16. 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 0 0.1 1 10 100 Sources: Duflo, Dupas, and Kremer (2012); Glewwe, Kremer, and Moulin (2009); Glewwe, Kremer, and Moulin (2004); Banerjee et al. (2007); Borkum, He, and Linden (2009); Pradhan et al. (2011); Blimp and Evans (2011); Glewwe et al. (2004)
  17. 17. 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 0 0.1 1 10 100 Sources: Pradhan et al. (2011); Blimpo and Evans (2011)
  18. 18. 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 -0.2 0 0.1 1 10 100 Sources: Barrera-Osorio and Linden (2009); Cristia et al. (2012); Muralidharan and Sundararaman (2010); Abeberese, Kumler, and Linden (2012); Duflo, Dupas, and Kremer(2011); Duflo, Dupas and Kremer (2012); Banerjee et al. (2007).
  19. 19. Remember…  A CEA/Comparative CEA is not enough information to make a policy decision, but it can be a good starting point  There are always multiple considerations that need to be made in terms of what costs to include, which outcome to choose, and how to standardize – no right way, but assumptions need to be transparent • If assumptions, etc. are stated clearly a prospective analysis can be taken in a specific context to verify the cost-effectiveness of a program in that context
  20. 20. Further Refernces  J-PAL website: • cost-effectiveness analyses in several sectors • detailed methodology paper (Dhaliwal, Duflo, Glennerster, Tulloch 2012) • free link to science paper (Kremer, Brannen, Glennerster 2013)  “Running Randomized Evaluations” includes discussion of conceptual issues for CEA
  21. 21. QUESTIONS?