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C.L.TUPLING
ACHIEVING ETHICAL RESEARCH
“The value of research depends as much on its
ethical veracity as on the novelty of its discoveries” 

(Walliman, 2006: p....
C.L.TUPLING
What are ethics?
Refers to the rules of
conduct of carrying out
research

Ethical issues are
present at all st...
C.L.TUPLING
Ethics Committees
Proposed methodology, methods of data
collection, and approach to ethical issues
scrutinised...
C.L.TUPLING
Codes of Ethics
Underpinned by:

Nuremberg Code
(1947-49)

Declaration of Helsinki
(1964)
C.L.TUPLING
4 Key Principles
Protection of the interests of participants

Voluntary participation based on informed consen...
C.L.TUPLING
Key Considerations
Respect

Equity

Do no harm

Protection of vulnerable participants
C.L.TUPLING
Rights of Participants
Informed Consent

Anonymity

Confidentiality

Privacy

Dignity
C.L.TUPLING
Sampling &
Representativeness
Sites where access is convenient

Who does this include/exclude?

Representative...
C.L.TUPLING
Participants or
Subjects?
Research on a group vs research with a group

Exploitation

Getting out
C.L.TUPLING
Children as participants
Research on children vs research with children

Adults instigate research/guard acces...
C.L.TUPLING
Consent
What is informed consent?

What age can children give
consent?

Can very young children give
consent?
...
C.L.TUPLING
Deception
Meaning of deception?

Is deception ever
acceptable?

Is deception desirable?

Purposes of deception
C.L.TUPLING
Access & Gatekeepers
Negotiating access

Contacts and power relationships

Pressure to take part?

Adults gate...
C.L.TUPLING
Incentives
Bribery?

Recompense?

How do you encourage participation?
C.L.TUPLING
Research Settings
Characteristics of research participants

Characteristics of researcher

Gender/ethnicity/ag...
C.L.TUPLING
Harm
No harm principle -
realistic?

Innocent intentions
misinterpreted 

Distress - response?

Disclosure - a...
C.L.TUPLING
Benefits
Research aims to benefit

Who does research benefit

Do benefits justify methodology/methods/sample?
C.L.TUPLING
Privacy and
Confidentiality
Participants should be
non-identifiable

Achievable?

Small scale
qualitative resear...
C.L.TUPLING
Ethical Dilemmas
Arise during course of
research

Can they be
envisaged?

How you respond to
the situation
C.L.TUPLING
Conclusion
Research ethics - balance - likelihood of harm -
benefits of research

Reflect on ethical issues of i...
C.L.TUPLING
Bibliography
Bryman, A. (2012) Social Research Methods, 4th
ed, Oxford: Oxford University Press

Denscombe, M....
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Research ethics

  1. 1. C.L.TUPLING ACHIEVING ETHICAL RESEARCH
  2. 2. “The value of research depends as much on its ethical veracity as on the novelty of its discoveries” (Walliman, 2006: p. 147)
  3. 3. C.L.TUPLING What are ethics? Refers to the rules of conduct of carrying out research Ethical issues are present at all stages of research Essential part of the research process
  4. 4. C.L.TUPLING Ethics Committees Proposed methodology, methods of data collection, and approach to ethical issues scrutinised by peers Judgements are are made in accordance with principles and relevant codes of ethics
  5. 5. C.L.TUPLING Codes of Ethics Underpinned by: Nuremberg Code (1947-49) Declaration of Helsinki (1964)
  6. 6. C.L.TUPLING 4 Key Principles Protection of the interests of participants Voluntary participation based on informed consent No deception Confirms to national laws See Denscombe (2010)
  7. 7. C.L.TUPLING Key Considerations Respect Equity Do no harm Protection of vulnerable participants
  8. 8. C.L.TUPLING Rights of Participants Informed Consent Anonymity Confidentiality Privacy Dignity
  9. 9. C.L.TUPLING Sampling & Representativeness Sites where access is convenient Who does this include/exclude? Representativeness Not an aim of qualitative research, but Issues of inclusiveness Privacy
  10. 10. C.L.TUPLING Participants or Subjects? Research on a group vs research with a group Exploitation Getting out
  11. 11. C.L.TUPLING Children as participants Research on children vs research with children Adults instigate research/guard access Children as co-researchers
  12. 12. C.L.TUPLING Consent What is informed consent? What age can children give consent? Can very young children give consent? Who has right to consent on behalf of children/vulnerable adults? Active consent vs failure to dissent
  13. 13. C.L.TUPLING Deception Meaning of deception? Is deception ever acceptable? Is deception desirable? Purposes of deception
  14. 14. C.L.TUPLING Access & Gatekeepers Negotiating access Contacts and power relationships Pressure to take part? Adults gatekeep access to children Motivation/Purpose of consent on behalf of children
  15. 15. C.L.TUPLING Incentives Bribery? Recompense? How do you encourage participation?
  16. 16. C.L.TUPLING Research Settings Characteristics of research participants Characteristics of researcher Gender/ethnicity/age/class/appearance Location of research
  17. 17. C.L.TUPLING Harm No harm principle - realistic? Innocent intentions misinterpreted Distress - response? Disclosure - action?
  18. 18. C.L.TUPLING Benefits Research aims to benefit Who does research benefit Do benefits justify methodology/methods/sample?
  19. 19. C.L.TUPLING Privacy and Confidentiality Participants should be non-identifiable Achievable? Small scale qualitative research Limits to confidentiality
  20. 20. C.L.TUPLING Ethical Dilemmas Arise during course of research Can they be envisaged? How you respond to the situation
  21. 21. C.L.TUPLING Conclusion Research ethics - balance - likelihood of harm - benefits of research Reflect on ethical issues of in/famous research studies
  22. 22. C.L.TUPLING Bibliography Bryman, A. (2012) Social Research Methods, 4th ed, Oxford: Oxford University Press Denscombe, M. (2010) The Good Research Guide: for small-scale social research projects 4th editon, Maidenhead: Open University Press Walliman, N. (2006) Social Research Methods, London: Sage
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The only way is ethics - slides from the session

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