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Literate Environment Analysis Cynthia K. Newman Walden University Dr. Abigayle Barton The Beginning Reader, PreK-3, EDUC 6706 October 21, 2012
Literacy―Learning to read and write is critical to a child’ssuccess in school and later in life. One of the bestpredictors of whether a child will functioncompetently in school and go on to contributeactively in our increasingly literate society is thelevel to which the child progresses in reading andwriting.‖ (National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1998, p.30)
Getting to Know Literacy Learners, P-3• Teachers need to know their students as individuals.• Teachers must identify where individual students are along the reading continuum in regards to both the affective and cognitive aspects of literacy learning.• Assessment is mandatory. Allows the teacher to understand and appreciate the reading challenges that students face Shows the diverse growth that students experience Must assess both the cognitive and non-cognitive aspects of reading (Afflerbach, 2012)
Cognitive Aspects• Assessment of the cognitive • Cognitive Assessment Tools Include: Running records aspects of literacy affords Observation teachers the opportunity to Anecdotal Records make instructional decisions. Informal Reading Inventories Checklist• Teachers: When asked to assess the cognitive aspects determine students’ reading of reading with my small group of students, I levels chose to utilize Running Records. Running monitor student progress Records are effective because they are authentic. Students were asked to read diagnose students’ aloud from a book they were already reading strengths and weaknesses individually. Taking and then analyzing running records on my students allowed me to identify the strategies and skills these students use to decode words and construct meaning.
Non-cognitive Aspects• There are 5 basic non-cognitive • Non-cognitive assessments include: characteristics that contribute to Elementary Reading Attitude Survey reading success: (McKenna & Kear, 1990) A student’s motivation towards Conversational Interview reading (Gambrell et al., 1996) A reader’s self-concept Motivation to Read Profile A reader’s attitude A reader’s interest Reading Self-Concept Scale A reader’s attributions Reading Interest Inventory (Afflerbach, 2007) (Afflerbach, 2007) • When asked to assess the non- Successful readers possess cognitive aspects of reading with my positive attitudes towards reading; they see reading as something small group of students, I chose to worth doing. Students who learn to utilize the Elementary Reading read but choose not to after they Attitude Survey and the leave school have failed to realize Conversational Interview. Through the full value of reading. these two assessments, I was able to (Afflerbach, 2007) gain an authentic understanding of my students’ attitudes toward reading. I gained an appreciation for their likes, dislikes, self-concept, and attitudes toward reading in addition to their preferences for texts.
Motivation is ImportantMotivation contributes to increased reading whichin turn contributes to increased readingachievement!―Motivated readers are willing to persevere whenreading is challenging, they choose to read in theface of attractive alternatives, and the positivemotivation sets student readers up to do morereading.‖ (Afflerbach, 2007, p.177)
Selecting Texts• Text structures, types, genres, and difficulty levels should match each individual student along with the literacy goals and objectives.• Teachers must expose students to a variety of texts and structures. The Literacy Matrix provides a visual aid to help teachers determine if they are offering a fair representation of text. (Laureate Education, Inc., 2011a)
Selecting Text continued• Based on the cognitive and non-cognitive assessments given to my students, I chose to use the following texts: True or False Pets by Melvin and Gilda Berger Catastrophe by Kenn Nesbitt Dolphins on the Sand by Jim Arnosky• The identified texts will be used to supplement the literacy program as they: are engaging meet the literacy goals established for my students provide intrinsic motivation for my students Offer a fair representation of text within the Literacy Matrix
Literacy Lesson: Interactive Perspective• Interactive Perspective: Teaching students to read and write accurately, fluently, and with comprehension Teaching students to be strategic and metacognitive readers and writers• Ultimate goal: Teach children how to be literate learners who can navigate the textual world independently (Laureate Education, Inc., 2011b)• Strategic processing involves students being metacognitive about strategy use students are aware of how they plan to attack a text choose the best and most efficient strategy setting purposes, making predictions, visualizing, and making sense of text being reflective and self-regulating (Laureate Education, Inc., 2011b)
Literacy Lesson: Interactive Perspective continued• Help students develop language and literacy by: Reading aloud to students Providing fiction and non-fiction books Extending students’ vocabulary Engage in “extended discourse” with students Providing a print-rich environment Infusing literacy throughout the curriculum (Laureate Education, Inc., 2011c)• My goal through my Interactive Perspective literacy lesson was to promote students’ independent use of reading strategies and skills. Based on the assessments given, I chose to plan and implement a lesson on the use of visualization and phonics instruction. By teaching my students how to use visualization while reading, I have allowed my students to add that strategy to their list of choices of strategies when deciding on how to attack a text for comprehension. Through the Making Words activity, students were focused on phonics instruction and the importance of paying attention to every letter in a word when decoding. After teaching my students such strategies, they are then able to use deliberate, goal-directed attempts to control and modify their efforts to decode text, understand words, and construct meaning of text. (Afflerbach, Pearson & Paris, 2008)
Literacy Lesson: Critical and Response Perspectives• Critical Perspective: Teaching students to judge, evaluate, and think critically about text Teaching students to examine texts from multiple perspectives, critically evaluate text, and judge validity of text (Laureate Education, Inc., 2011d)• Critical Literacy: Promotes reflection, transformation, and action Encourages readers to question and dispute Asks the reader to see underneath, behind, and beyond the text (Molden, 2007)• Response Perspective: Providing opportunities for students to read, react, and respond to text in meaningful ways Allowing students to personally and emotionally connect with texts Encouraging students to transact with the text allows students to learn to appreciate the power of literature (Durand, Howell, Schumacher & Sutton, 2008)
Literacy Lesson: Critical and Response Perspectives continued• Critical Perspective Strategies: Bookmark Strategy Story Mapping/ Story Reporting Connection Stems Juxtapositioning (Molden, 2007)• Response Perspective Strategies: Interactive Read-Alouds Subtext Strategy Reader Response (Durand et al., 2008; Clyde, 2003)• My goal through my Critical and Response Perspective literacy lessons was to help students foster a critical stance by teaching my students how to think critically about a text in addition to providing opportunities for students to read, react, and formulate a personal response to text. I utilized the bookmark technique (Molden, 2007) through an Interactive Read-Aloud lesson. Purpose was established for reading as students were expected to answer the four identified critical response questions on their bookmarks. Students were able to effectively analyze the text and think critically during and after the read-aloud. Students were then asked to participate in the Subtext Strategy (Clyde, 2003). This strategy invited students to feel the feelings of characters with life experiences different than their own. This strategy was effective in allowing my students to formulate a personal response to the text. Use of the Subtext Strategy in conjunction with a variety of texts sets up the possibility that students might become kinder, more compassionate adults who are able to empathize with and appreciate the perspectives of others. (Clyde, 2003)
Implications for InstructionA teacher’s goal is to provide quality literacy instruction so that all students may thriveand grow as readers and writers. The Framework for Literacy Instruction graphicorganizer can be utilized while designing such literacy lessons for students. It can beused as a guidance tool to help ensure that teachers are in fact addressing the mostimportant literacy components within classroom instruction. As teachers face questionsthat need answers and instructional problems that need solving, they may refer to theFramework for guidance. Collaboration among colleagues enhances literacyinstruction for a greater number of students within a single school building.Collaboration provides the decision-making and problem-solving environmentnecessary to support long term change (Chou, 2011). Working together while utilizingthe Framework guarantees teachers the best chance they have to critique theirprograms and instruction in order to provide literacy instruction that lasts a lifetime. (Chou, 2011)
Framework for Literacy Instruction Learners Texts Instructional Practices Affective and cognitive aspects Text structures, types, genres, Developmentally appropriate of literacy learning and difficulty levels matched to research-based practices used literacy learners and literacy with appropriate texts to goals and objectives facilitate affective and cognitive aspects of literacy development in all learnersInteractive Perspective Use a variety of informal and Determine texts of the Use instructional methods thatReading and writing accurately, formal assessments to appropriate types and levels of address the cognitive andfluently, and with determine areas of strength and difficulty to meet literacy goals affective needs of students andcomprehension need in literacy development. and objectives for students. the demands of the particularBeing strategic and text.metacognitive readers and Promote students independentwriters use of reading strategies and skills.Critical Perspective Find out about ideas, issues, Select texts that provide Foster a critical stance byJudging, evaluating, and and problems that matter to opportunities for students to teaching students how to judge,thinking critically about text students. judge, evaluate, and think evaluate, and think critically Understand the learner as a critically. about texts. unique individual.Response Perspective Find out about students Select texts that connect to Provide opportunities forReading, reacting, and interests and identities. students identities and/or students to read, react, andresponding to text in a variety of Understand what matters to interests and that have the formulate a personal responsemeaningful ways students and who they are as potential to evoke an emotional to text. individuals. or personal response.
ReferencesAfflerbach, P. (2012). Understanding and using reading assessment, K–12 (2nd ed). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.Afflerbach, P., Pearson, P. D., & Paris, S. G. (2008). Clarifying differences between reading skills and reading strategies. Reading Teacher, 61(5), 364–373.Chou, C. (2011). Teachers professional development: Investigating teachers learning to do action research in a professional learning community. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 20(3), 421-437.Durand, C., Howell, R., Schumacher, L. A., & Sutton, J. (2008). Using interactive read-alouds and reader response to shape students concept of care. Illinois Reading Council Journal, 36(1), 22–29.Gambrell, L. B., Palmer, B. M., Codling, R. M., & Mazzoni, S. A. (1996). Assessing motivation to read. The Reading Teacher, 49(7), 518--533.Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2011a). Analyzing and selecting text [Video webcast]. In The Beginning Reader, Pre K-3. Retrieved from http://sylvan.live.ecollege.com/ec/crs/ default.learn?CourseID=6289720&Survey= 1&47=9870657&ClientNodeID= 984650&coursenav=1&bhcp=1Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2011b). Interactive perspective: Strategic processing [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader, PreK-3. Baltimore: Author.
References continuedLaureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2011c). Developing language and literacy [Webcast]. The Beginning Reader, PreK-3. Baltimore: Author.Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2011d). Critical perspective [Media recording]. Los Angeles: Author.McKenna, M. C., & Kear, D. J. (1990). Measuring attitude toward reading: A new tool for teachers. The Reading Teacher, 43(9), 626—639.Molden, K. (2007). Critical literacy, the right answer for the reading classroom: Strategies to move beyond comprehension for reading improvement. Reading Improvement, 44(1), 50– 56.National Association for the Education of Young Children. (1998). Learning to read and write: Developmentally appropriate practices for young children. Washington, DC: Author.