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Cognitive Development by Piaget

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Cognitive Development by Piaget

  1. 1. JEAN PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY OF DEVELOPMENT
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Jean Piaget, a Swiss researcher and writer, developed a theory of cognitive development. For sixty years, he conducted the research on how human beings develop intellectually. His research method involved observing a small number of individuals as they responded to cognitive tasks that he designed. These tasks were later known as “Piagetian Tasks.”
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Piaget called his general theoretical framework “genetic epistemology” because he was interested on how knowledge develops in human organisms. He was initially into biology and he also had a background in philosophy. Knowledge from both these disciplines influenced his theories and research of child development. Out of his researches, Piaget came up with the four stages of cognitive development.
  4. 4. INTRODUCTION Piaget examined the implication of his theory not only to aspects of cognition but also to intelligence and moral development. His theory has been applied widely to teaching and curriculum design especially in the preschool and elementary curricula.
  5. 5. BASIC COGNITIVE CONCEPTS
  6. 6. BASIC COGNITIVE CONCEPTS 1. Schema. Piaget used the term “schema” to refer to the cognitive structures by which individuals intellectually adapt to and organize their environment. It is an individual’s way to understand or create meaning about a thing or experience.
  7. 7. SCHEMA If a child sees a dog for the first time, he creates his own schema of what a dog is. It has four legs and a tail; it barks; it’s furry. The child then puts this description of a dog in his mind.
  8. 8. BASIC COGNITIVE CONCEPTS 2. Assimilation. This refers to the process of fitting a new experience into an existing or previously created cognitive structure or schema.
  9. 9. ASSIMILATION If the child sees another dog, this time a smaller one, he would make sense of what he is seeing by adding this new information into his schema of a dog.
  10. 10. BASIC COGNITIVE CONCEPTS 3. Accommodation. This refers to the process of creating a new schema.
  11. 11. ACCOMMODATION If the same child sees another animal that looks a little bit like a dog but somehow different, he might try to fit it into his schema of dog. With the guardian’s further descriptions, the child will now create a new schema, that of another kind of animal with four legs. He now adds a new schema of another animal into his mind.
  12. 12. BASIC COGNITIVE CONCEPTS 4. Equilibration. This refers to achieving proper balance between assimilation and accommodation. When our experiences do not match our schemata (plural of schema) or cognitive structures, we experience cognitive disequilibrium. This means there is a discrepancy between what is perceived and what is understood. We then exert effort through assimilation and accommodation to establish equilibrium once more.
  13. 13. PIAGET’S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  14. 14. THE STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT There are four (4) stages of cognitive development: the sensorimotor stage (from birth to infancy), the pre-operational/intuitive stage (from two to seven years of age), the concrete operational stage (from eight to eleven years of age), and the formal operational stage (from twelve to fifteen years of age).
  15. 15. Four Stages of Cognitive Developme nt 1 2 4 3
  16. 16. SENSORIMOTOR STAGE The first stage corresponds from birth to infancy. This is the stage when a child who is initially reflexive in grasping, sucking, and reaching becomes more organized in his movement and activity. Children think as a result of coordination of sensory input (thinking) and motor responses (muscle movements).
  17. 17. SENSORIMOTOR STAGE Intelligence is non-verbal or non-symbolic because the child has not developed language yet. Under this stage is the development of object permanence. This is the ability of a child to know that an object exist even when out of sight. Infants lack object permanence; they cannot mentally represent or think about objects that they are not directly interacting with.BAC K
  18. 18. PRE-OPERATIONAL/INTUITIVE STAGE The pre-operational stage covers from about two to seven years old, roughly corresponding to the preschool years. Intelligence during this stage is intuitive in nature. This is where thinkers can symbolize or mentally represent (pretend) their world. This is the period dominated by a rapid development of language.
  19. 19. PRE-OPERATIONAL/INTUITIVE STAGE This stage is highlighted by the following: •Symbolic Function. This is the ability to represent objects and events through “symbols.” •Egocentrism. This is the inability of a child to consider another’s viewpoint.
  20. 20. PRE-OPERATIONAL/INTUITIVE STAGE •Centration. This refers to the tendency of the child to only focus on one aspect of a thing or event and exclude other aspects. •Irreversibility. Children at this stage have the inability to reverse their thinking.
  21. 21. PRE-OPERATIONAL/INTUITIVE STAGE •Animism. This is the tendency of children to attribute human like traits or characteristics to inanimate objects. •Transductive Reasoning. This refers to the type of reasoning that is neither inductive nor deductive. Reasoning appears to be from particular to particular. BAC K
  22. 22. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE The concrete operational stage covers approximately the ages between eight to eleven years or the elementary school years. This stage is characterized by the ability of the child to think logically wherein mathematical operations develop. Children may have difficulty dealing with hypothetical problems because thinking can only be applied to concrete objects or events.
  23. 23. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE The concrete operational stage is marked by the following: •Decentering. This refers to the ability of the child to perceive the different features of objects and situations. The child is no longer focused or limited to one aspect.
  24. 24. CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE •Reversibility. The child can now follow that certain operations can be done in reverse. •Conservation. This is the ability to know that certain properties of objects do not change even if there is a change in appearance. •Seriation. This refers to the ability to order or arrange things in series based on one dimension or aspect. BAC K
  25. 25. FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE In the final stage of formal operations covering ages between twelve to fifteen years, thinking becomes more logical. Children can handle hypothetical and abstract problems. Scientific reasoning is possible. Formal operations may involve the development of logical and systematic thinking.
  26. 26. FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE This stage is characterized by the following: •Hypothetical Reasoning. This is the ability to come up with different hypothesis about a problem and to gather and weigh data in order to make a final decision or judgment. This can be done in the absence of concrete objects.
  27. 27. FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE •Analogical Reasoning. This is the ability to perceive relationship in one instance and then use that relationship to narrow down possible answers in another similar situation or problem. Through reflective thought and even in the absence of concrete objects, an individual can now understand relationships and do analogical reasoning.
  28. 28. FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE •Deductive Reasoning. This is the ability to think logically by applying a general rule to a particular instance or situation.
  29. 29. PRINCIPLES OF PIAGET’S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
  30. 30. PRINCIPLES •Children will provide different explanations of reality at different stage of cognitive development. •Cognitive development is facilitated by providing activities or situations that engage learners and require adaptation.
  31. 31. PRINCIPLES •Learning materials and activities should involve the appropriate level of motor or mental operations for a child of give age; avoid asking students to performs tasks that are beyond their cognitive capabilities. •Use teaching methods which actively involve students and present challenges.

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