Engineering Drawing–I
Courses outline
• Introduction; Basic concepts of engineering
drawing; Instruments and their uses; First and
third angle p...
Text & Ref books
• Fundamentals of
Engineering Drawing
-by French & Vierck.
• Metric Drafting
– by Paul Wallah.
• Drafting...
Class Schedule
1. Introduction: Basic Drawing Practice
2. Orthogonal views of simple block
3. Orthogonal views with circul...
Note:
• If a student fails to attend in any drawing class,
he/she will get ZERO GRAD in that drawing.
• No student will be...
Graphics Language

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

6
Effectiveness of Graphics Language
1. Try to write a description of
this object.
2. Test your written description
by havin...
Composition of Graphic Language
Graphic language in “engineering application” use
lines to represent the surfaces, edges a...
Freehand drawing
The lines are sketched without using instruments other
than pencils and erasers.

Example

Lec. Bhuiyan S...
Instrument drawing
Instruments are used to draw straight lines, circles, and
curves concisely and accurately. Thus, the dr...
Computer drawing
The drawings are usually made by commercial software
such as AutoCAD, solid works etc.

Example

Lec. Bhu...
Engineering
Drawing
Introduction
An engineering drawing is a type of technical
drawing, used to fully and clearly define
requirements for eng...
Purpose of an Engineering Drawing
1. An engineering drawing is not an illustration.
2. It is a specification of the size a...
Elements of Engineering Drawing
Engineering drawing are made up of graphics language
and word language.
language
Graphics
...
Basic Knowledge for Drafting

Word
language

Graphics
language
Line
types

Projection
method

Geometric
construction

Lec....
PROJECTION
METHOD
PROJECTION METHOD

Perspective

Parallel
Oblique

Axonometric
Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

Orthographic

Multiview
18
PROJECTION THEORY
The projection theory is used to graphically represent
3-D objects on 2-D media (paper, computer screen)...
Line of sight

is an imaginary ray of light between an

observer’s eye and an object.
There are 2 types of LOS : parallel ...
Plane of projection is an imaginary flat plane which
the image is created.
The image is produced by connecting the points ...
Disadvantage of
Perspective Projection
Perspective projection is not
used by engineer for manufacturing of parts, because
...
Orthographic
Projection
Orthographic projection
• Orthographic" comes from the Greek word for
"straight writing (or drawing)." This projection sho...
Pictorial
3-dimensional representations
One-point
one vanishing point
lines that are not vertical
or horizontal conver...
One-point

Two-Point

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

26
Symbols for Third Angle (right)or First Angle (left).

First angle projection is the ISO standard and is primarily used i...
MEANING
Orthographic projection is a parallel projection technique
in which the parallel lines of sight are perpendicular ...
Image of a part represented in First Angle Projection

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

29
Orthographic / Multiview
• Draw object from two / three perpendicular views

/ Orthographic

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood
...
Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

31
Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

32
ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW
Orthographic view depends on relative position of the object
to the line of sight.

Rotate

Two dimensio...
Multiview Drawing
Advantage

It represents accurate shape and size.

Disadvantage Require practice in writing and reading....
Axonometric (Isometric) Drawing
Advantage

Easy to understand

Disadvantage

Shape and angle distortion

Example

Distorti...
Isometric projection

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

36
Isometric projection

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

37
Sectional views

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

38
Auxiliary Views
• Used to show true dimensions of an inclined
plane.

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

39
Auxiliary projection

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

40
Auxiliary projection

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

41
Traditional
Drawing Tools
Instruments
Drawing board/table.
Drawing sheet/paper.
Drafting tape.
Pencils.
Eraser.
Sharpener.
T-square.
Set-squ...
Drawing board

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

44
Drawing table

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

45
Drawing sheet/paper
•
•
•
•

216 X 280 mm
280 X 382 mm
382 X 560 mm
585 X 726 mm

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

46
Drafting tape

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

47
Pencils
• Wood pencils: H, 2H,
3H, 4H, 5H, 6H, 7H, 8H,
9H, B, HB, 2B, 3B, 4B,
5B, 6B.
• Semiautomatic Pencils
(lead holder...
Eraser

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

49
Erasing Shield

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

50
Sharpener

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

51
T-square

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

52
Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

53
Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

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Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

55
Set-squares/triangles

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

56
Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

57
Circle Template

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

58
Scales

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

59
Compass and divider

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

60
Sandpaper

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

61
Tissue paper

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

62
Clean paper

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

63
Drawing Standard
Introduction
Standards are set of rules that govern how technical
drawings are represented.
Drawing standards are used so ...
Standard Code
Full name

Country

Code

Thailand
USA

มอก. สำำ นัก งำนมำตรฐำนผลิต ภัณ ฑ์
อุต สำหกรรม
American National Sta...
Partial List of Drawing Standards
Contents

Code number
JIS Z 8311
JIS Z 8312

Sizes and Format of Drawings
Line Conventio...
Drawing Sheet
A4

Trimmed paper of
a size A0 ~ A4.

A3

Standard sheet size
(JIS)
A4
A3
A2
A1
A0

210 x 297
297 x 420
420 ...
Orientation of drawing sheet
1. Type X (A0~A4)
c

2. Type Y (A4 only)
d

Drawing space

c
Title block

c

Border
lines

d
...
Drawing Scales
Length, size

Scale is the ratio of the linear dimension of an element
of an object shown in the drawing to...
Drawing Scales
Designation of a scale consists of the word “SCALE”
followed by the indication of its ratio, as follow
SCAL...
Basic Line Types
Types of Lines

Appearance

Name according
to application

Continuous thick line

Visible line

Continuou...
Meaning of Lines
Visible lines represent features that can be seen in the
current view
Hidden lines represent features tha...
Types of Line

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

74
Line Conventions
•
•
•
•
•

•
•
•
•

Visible Lines – solid thick lines that represent visible edges or contours
Hidden Lin...
Viewing-plane line
1
Extension
2
line

Dimension
3
Line

4
Center Line
Hidden Line
5
6
Break Line

Cutting-plane Line
7
8
...
ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRS
TUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKL
MNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCD
EF

Lettering

ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRS
TUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKL
MNOPQRST...
Text on Drawings
Text on engineering drawing is used :
To communicate nongraphic information.
As a substitute for graphic ...
Example

Placement of the text on drawing
Dimension & Notes

Title Block

Notes
Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

79
Lettering Standard
ANSI Standard

This course

Use a Gothic text style,

Use only a vertical Gothic

either inclined or ve...
Basic Strokes
Straight

Slanted

Horizontal

Curved

Examples : Application of basic stroke
“I” letter

1

“A” letter 1

2...
Suggested Strokes Sequence

Upper-case letters & Numerals
Straight line
letters

Curved line
letters
Curved line
letters &...
Suggested Strokes Sequence

Lower-case letters

The text’ s body height is about 2/3 the height of a capital
letter.
Lec. ...
I

E

Stroke Sequence
T
F
L

H

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

84
Stroke Sequence
V

X

W

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

85
N

Y

Stroke Sequence
Z
M
K

A

4

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

86
Stroke Sequence
O

Q

C

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

G

87
D

R

Stroke Sequence
U
P
B

J

1

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

2

88
Stroke Sequence
5

7

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

89
S

8

Stroke Sequence
6
0
3

9

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

90
Stroke Sequence
l

i

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

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v

Stroke Sequence
w
x
k

z

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

92
j

Stroke Sequence
y
f
t

r

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

93
c

d

Stroke Sequence
o
a
b

p

q

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

e

94
g

Stroke Sequence
n
m
h

u

s

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

95
Word Composition
Look at the same word having different spacing between letters.
A) Non-uniform spacing

JIRAPONG
B) Unifo...
Word Composition

Spacing
Contour

JIRAPONG
||
||

/



| )(

)|

|(

General conclusions are:
Space between the letters d...
Example : Good and Poor Lettering
GOOD
Not uniform in style.
Not uniform in height.
Not uniformly vertical or inclined.
No...
Sentence Composition
Leave the space between words equal to the space
requires for writing a letter “O”.

Example

ALL O D...
Dimensioning
Dimensioning Guidelines
The term “feature” refers to surfaces, faces, holes, slots, corners,
bends, arcs and fillets that ...
102
Important elements of dimensioning
Two types of dimensioning: (1) Size and location
dimensions and (2) Detail dimensioning...
Geometrics
• The science of specifying and tolerancing
shapes and locations of features of on objects

Lec. Bhuiyan Shamee...
Geometrics
• It is important that all persons reading a
drawing interpret it exactly the same way.
• Parts are dimensioned...
Scaling vs. Dimensioning
• Drawings can be a different scales, but
dimensions are ALWAYS at full scale.

Lec. Bhuiyan Sham...
Units of Measure
Angle
Dimensions

• Length
– English - Inches, unless
otherwise stated
• Up to 72 inches – feet and
inche...
Elements of a dimensioned drawing (Be familiar
with these terms

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

108
Arrangement of Dimensions
• Keep dimension off of the part where possible.
• Arrange extension lines so the larger dimensi...
Dimensioning Holes

• Dimension the diameter of a hole.
• Locate the center-line.
• Use a notes and designators for repeat...
Dimensioning the Radius of an Arc

Dimension an arcs by its radius.
Locate the center of the radius or two
tangents to the...
Drilled Holes, Counter bores and Countersinks

• Use the depth symbol to define the
depth of a drilled hole.
• Use the dep...
Angles, Chamfers and Tapers

• Dimension the one vertex for an angled face, the other vertex is determined by an

intersec...
Rounded Bars and Slots
• The rounded end of a bar or slot has a radius that is 1/2 its width.
• Use R to denote this radiu...
Limits of Size
• All dimensions have minimum and maximum values
specified by the tolerance block.
• Tolerances accumulate ...
Fit Between Parts
1. Clearance fit: The shaft maximum diameter is smaller than the hole minimum
diameter.
2. Interference ...
Dimensioning standards

P. 117
Dimension text placement

P. 118
Unidirectional or aligned dimensioning?

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

119
Dual dimensioning

120
Dimensioning Basic Shapes -Assumptions
•

•

Perpendicularity
– Assume lines that appear
perpendicular to be 90° unless
ot...
Dimensioning Basic Shapes
• Rectangular Prism

122
Dimensioning Basic Shapes
• Cylinders
– Positive
– Negative

123
Dimensioning Basic Shapes
• Cone

Frustum

124
Dimensioning Basic Shapes
• Circle Pattern Center Lines

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

125
Grouping Dimensions
• Dimensions should always be placed outside
the part

Yes

No
Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

126
Dimension guidelines
Dimensions should be placed in the view that
most clearly describes the feature being
dimensioned (co...
Dimension guidelines
Maintain a minimum
spacing between the
object and the
dimension between
multiple dimensions.

A visib...
Dimension guidelines
Avoid dimensioning hidden
lines.

Leader lines for diameters
and radii should be radial
lines.

Lec. ...
Where and how should we place dimensions
when we have many dimensions?

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

130
Where and how should we place dimensions
when we have many dimensions? (cont.)

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

131
Staggering Dimensions
• Put the lesser
dimensions closer
to the part.
• Try to reference
dimensions from
one surface
– Thi...
Extension Line Practices

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

133
Repetitive Features

Use the Symbol ‘x’ to
Dimension Repetitive
Features

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

134
Symbols for Drilling Operations

Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood

135
References
•
•
•
•

T. Dragomatz
“Introduction to Engineering”, by Paul Wright
“Design Dimensioning and Tolerance”, by J. ...
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  • Instructor:
    It is not only critical that everybody using a drawing interpret it the same way, it is important to do the dimensioning in the simplest way. There are lots of ways to dimension an object following the standards and yet have a drawing that is difficult to read. In Engineering, the ANSI standards are available for lots of different areas and they are not just about engineering graphics.
  • Instructor:
    Here is an important concept. Scale deals with how you draw something – the dimensioning is always done at full scale. Remind your students that while the computer is comfortable with any scale, you want the final drawing printed at some recognizable scale. These recognizable scales would be the ones that were discussed earlier in the term. For example, if you are printing a set of house plans you probably want them in ¼” = 1 foot or 1/8” = 1 foot.
  • Instructor:
    While most construction of buildings and roads is done in feet and tenths of a foot, architects are working in feet and inches. A mechanical or industrial engineer may be building products that have both inches and mm.
  • Instructor:
    There are some features of dimensioning that are assumed. Right angle that appear as right angles are 90 degrees apart. The same thing is true for symmetry in an object.
  • Instructor:
    In this figure the dimensions for height, width and depth are shown. When possible all dimensions should be placed between views as long as they are not crowded. All three dimensions are needed for complete description of a 3D object.
  • Instructor:
    Cylinders are dimensioned where they are viewed as rectangles. Holes are dimensioned where you see the circle representing the hole. Note that the symbol, phi, is used for diameters and precedes the number. Note also that the phi is used whether you are looking at the circle representing the hole or whether you are dimensioning the rectangular view of the cylinder.
  • Instructor:
    Cones can be dimensioned in a variety of ways. Any of these are OK. Note that the diameter of the
  • Instructor:
    When you have a series of holes on a circular centerline, the centerline is referred to as the bolt circle. You may want to ask the class what other dimensions are needed to completely dimension this object. Answer: the diameter and number of holes and the overall diameter of the object.
  • Instructor:
    The figure on the left is dimensioned correctly but the horizontal dimensions on the steps could have been done with any two of the three steps. Here the left and center steps were dimensioned. Another important point to make here is the spacing between sets of dimensions. You do not want the dimensions to be crowded.
  • Instructor:
    Note that the diameter dimensions on the left side of the figure have the numbers staggered so that it takes up less room on the page.
  • Instructor:
    There are situations where features are so close together that arrowheads cannot be shown without have the arrow on the extension line. In cases like these it makes sense to leave a gap in the extension line.
  • Instructor:
    We looked at the location of holes on a circle in a prior slide. Here we use the number of holes X size of the hole to complete the dimensioning.
  • Instructor:
    In the past, the symbols shown here were labeled by the operation that produced the feature. For example, the counterbore and countersink were operations. Now the ANSI standard say to show the shape by a graphic symbol and then it is up to the manufacturing staff to determine how that shape will be made. Make sure that the students memorize the symbols and how they are used correctly. This will be on the quiz and on the mid-term. These symbols are also part of the library of symbols in CAD packages.
  • Engineeringdrawingi 090303074237-phpapp01

    1. 1. Engineering Drawing–I
    2. 2. Courses outline • Introduction; Basic concepts of engineering drawing; Instruments and their uses; First and third angle projections; Orthographic drawings; Principal views, Isometric views; Missing lines and views; Sectional views and conventional practices; Auxiliary views. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 2
    3. 3. Text & Ref books • Fundamentals of Engineering Drawing -by French & Vierck. • Metric Drafting – by Paul Wallah. • Drafting Technology and Practice – by William P. Spence • Mechanical Engineering Drawing -by Dr. Md. Quamrul Islam Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 3
    4. 4. Class Schedule 1. Introduction: Basic Drawing Practice 2. Orthogonal views of simple block 3. Orthogonal views with circular holes 4. Orthogonal views with fillets and rounds 5. Sectional views 6. Sectional views (conventional practices) 7. Auxiliary views 8. Isometric views 9. Isometric views with circular holes 10.Missing Lines and Missing views. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 4
    5. 5. Note: • If a student fails to attend in any drawing class, he/she will get ZERO GRAD in that drawing. • No student will be allowed in the class without necessary INSTRUMENTS and INSTRUCTION SHEET. • There will be a QUIZ EXAM /an ORAL EXAM during the term time. Marks obtained in these exams and those in drawing performed in the classes will be added together to calculate the final grade. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 5
    6. 6. Graphics Language Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 6
    7. 7. Effectiveness of Graphics Language 1. Try to write a description of this object. 2. Test your written description by having someone attempt to make a sketch from your description. You can easily understand that … The word languages are inadequate for describing the size, shape and features completely as well as size concisely. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 7
    8. 8. Composition of Graphic Language Graphic language in “engineering application” use lines to represent the surfaces, edges and contours surfaces of objects. The language is known as “drawing” or “drafting” . drawing drafting A drawing can be done using freehand, instruments freehand or computer methods. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 8
    9. 9. Freehand drawing The lines are sketched without using instruments other than pencils and erasers. Example Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 9
    10. 10. Instrument drawing Instruments are used to draw straight lines, circles, and curves concisely and accurately. Thus, the drawings are usually made to scale. Example Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 10
    11. 11. Computer drawing The drawings are usually made by commercial software such as AutoCAD, solid works etc. Example Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 11
    12. 12. Engineering Drawing
    13. 13. Introduction An engineering drawing is a type of technical drawing, used to fully and clearly define requirements for engineered items, and is usually created in accordance with standardized conventions for layout, nomenclature, interpretation, appearance size, etc. Its purpose is to accurately and unambiguously capture all the geometric features of a product or a component. The end goal of an engineering drawing is to convey all the required information that will allow a manufacturer to produce that component. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 13
    14. 14. Purpose of an Engineering Drawing 1. An engineering drawing is not an illustration. 2. It is a specification of the size and shape of a part or assembly. 3. The important information on a drawing is the dimension and tolerance of all of its features. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 14
    15. 15. Elements of Engineering Drawing Engineering drawing are made up of graphics language and word language. language Graphics language Describe a shape (mainly). Word language Describe size, location and specification of the object. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 15
    16. 16. Basic Knowledge for Drafting Word language Graphics language Line types Projection method Geometric construction Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood Lettering 16
    17. 17. PROJECTION METHOD
    18. 18. PROJECTION METHOD Perspective Parallel Oblique Axonometric Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood Orthographic Multiview 18
    19. 19. PROJECTION THEORY The projection theory is used to graphically represent 3-D objects on 2-D media (paper, computer screen). The projection theory is based on two variables: 1) Line of sight 2) Plane of projection (image plane or picture plane) Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 19
    20. 20. Line of sight is an imaginary ray of light between an observer’s eye and an object. There are 2 types of LOS : parallel and converge Parallel projection Perspective projection Line of sight Line of sight Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 20
    21. 21. Plane of projection is an imaginary flat plane which the image is created. The image is produced by connecting the points where the LOS pierce the projection plane. Parallel projection Perspective projection Plane of projection Plane of projection Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 21
    22. 22. Disadvantage of Perspective Projection Perspective projection is not used by engineer for manufacturing of parts, because 1) It is difficult to create. 2) It does not reveal exact shape and size. Width is distorted Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 22
    23. 23. Orthographic Projection
    24. 24. Orthographic projection • Orthographic" comes from the Greek word for "straight writing (or drawing)." This projection shows the object as it looks from the front, right, left, top, bottom, or back, and are typically positioned relative to each other according to the rules of either “First Angle” or “Third Angle” projection. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 24
    25. 25. Pictorial 3-dimensional representations One-point one vanishing point lines that are not vertical or horizontal converge to single point in distance Two-point or Three-point two or three vanishing points With two points, vertical or horizontal lines parallel, but not both With three-point, no lines are parallel Isometric Drawing shows corner of object, but parallel lines on object are parallel in drawing Shows three dimensions, but no vanishing point(s) Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 25
    26. 26. One-point Two-Point Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 26
    27. 27. Symbols for Third Angle (right)or First Angle (left). First angle projection is the ISO standard and is primarily used in Europe. The 3D object is projected into 2D "paper" space as if you were looking at an X-ray of the object: the top view is under the front view, the right view is at the left of the front view. Third angle projection is primarily used in the United States and Canada, where it is the default projection system according to BS 8888:2006, the left view is placed on the left the top view on the top. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 27
    28. 28. MEANING Orthographic projection is a parallel projection technique in which the parallel lines of sight are perpendicular to the projection plane Object views from top 1 2 1 5 2 3 4 5 3 4 Projection plane Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 28
    29. 29. Image of a part represented in First Angle Projection Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 29
    30. 30. Orthographic / Multiview • Draw object from two / three perpendicular views / Orthographic Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood What it looks like pictorially 30
    31. 31. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 31
    32. 32. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 32
    33. 33. ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW Orthographic view depends on relative position of the object to the line of sight. Rotate Two dimensions of an object is shown. Tilt More than one view is needed to represent the object. Multiview drawing Three dimensions of an object is shown. Axonometric drawing Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 33
    34. 34. Multiview Drawing Advantage It represents accurate shape and size. Disadvantage Require practice in writing and reading. Example Multiviews drawing (2-view drawing) Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 34
    35. 35. Axonometric (Isometric) Drawing Advantage Easy to understand Disadvantage Shape and angle distortion Example Distortions of shape and size in isometric drawing Circular hole becomes ellipse. Right angle becomes obtuse angle. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 35
    36. 36. Isometric projection Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 36
    37. 37. Isometric projection Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 37
    38. 38. Sectional views Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 38
    39. 39. Auxiliary Views • Used to show true dimensions of an inclined plane. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 39
    40. 40. Auxiliary projection Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 40
    41. 41. Auxiliary projection Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 41
    42. 42. Traditional Drawing Tools
    43. 43. Instruments Drawing board/table. Drawing sheet/paper. Drafting tape. Pencils. Eraser. Sharpener. T-square. Set-squares/triangles. Scales. Compass and divider. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 43
    44. 44. Drawing board Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 44
    45. 45. Drawing table Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 45
    46. 46. Drawing sheet/paper • • • • 216 X 280 mm 280 X 382 mm 382 X 560 mm 585 X 726 mm Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 46
    47. 47. Drafting tape Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 47
    48. 48. Pencils • Wood pencils: H, 2H, 3H, 4H, 5H, 6H, 7H, 8H, 9H, B, HB, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B. • Semiautomatic Pencils (lead holder) are more convenient then ordinary wood pencils. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 48
    49. 49. Eraser Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 49
    50. 50. Erasing Shield Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 50
    51. 51. Sharpener Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 51
    52. 52. T-square Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 52
    53. 53. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 53
    54. 54. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 54
    55. 55. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 55
    56. 56. Set-squares/triangles Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 56
    57. 57. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 57
    58. 58. Circle Template Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 58
    59. 59. Scales Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 59
    60. 60. Compass and divider Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 60
    61. 61. Sandpaper Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 61
    62. 62. Tissue paper Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 62
    63. 63. Clean paper Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 63
    64. 64. Drawing Standard
    65. 65. Introduction Standards are set of rules that govern how technical drawings are represented. Drawing standards are used so that drawings convey the same meaning to everyone who reads them. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 65
    66. 66. Standard Code Full name Country Code Thailand USA มอก. สำำ นัก งำนมำตรฐำนผลิต ภัณ ฑ์ อุต สำหกรรม American National Standard Institute ANSI Japan JIS Japanese Industrial Standard UK BS British Standard Australia AS Australian Standard Germany DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung ISO International Standards Organization Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 66
    67. 67. Partial List of Drawing Standards Contents Code number JIS Z 8311 JIS Z 8312 Sizes and Format of Drawings Line Conventions JIS Z 8313 Lettering JIS Z 8314 Scales JIS Z 8315 Projection methods JIS Z 8316 Presentation of Views and Sections JIS Z 8317 Dimensioning Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 67
    68. 68. Drawing Sheet A4 Trimmed paper of a size A0 ~ A4. A3 Standard sheet size (JIS) A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 210 x 297 297 x 420 420 x 594 594 x 841 841 x 1189 (Dimensions in millimeters) A2 A1 A0 Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 68
    69. 69. Orientation of drawing sheet 1. Type X (A0~A4) c 2. Type Y (A4 only) d Drawing space c Title block c Border lines d Sheet size A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 Drawing space Title block c (min) d (min) 10 25 10 25 10 25 20 25 20 25 Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 69
    70. 70. Drawing Scales Length, size Scale is the ratio of the linear dimension of an element of an object shown in the drawing to the real linear dimension of the same element of the object. Size in drawing Actual size : Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 70
    71. 71. Drawing Scales Designation of a scale consists of the word “SCALE” followed by the indication of its ratio, as follow SCALE 1:1 for full size SCALE X:1 for enlargement scales (X > 1) SCALE 1:X for reduction scales (X > 1) Dimension numbers shown in the drawing are correspond to “true size” of the object and they are independent of the scale used in creating that drawing. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 71
    72. 72. Basic Line Types Types of Lines Appearance Name according to application Continuous thick line Visible line Continuous thin line Dimension line Extension line Leader line Dash thick line Hidden line Chain thin line Center line NOTE : We will learn other types of line in later chapters. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 72
    73. 73. Meaning of Lines Visible lines represent features that can be seen in the current view Hidden lines represent features that can not be seen in the current view Center line represents symmetry, path of motion, centers of circles, axis of axisymmetrical parts Dimension and Extension lines indicate the sizes and location of features on a drawing Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 73
    74. 74. Types of Line Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 74
    75. 75. Line Conventions • • • • • • • • • Visible Lines – solid thick lines that represent visible edges or contours Hidden Lines – short evenly spaced dashes that depict hidden features Section Lines – solid thin lines that indicate cut surfaces Center Lines – alternating long and short dashes Dimensioning – Dimension Lines - solid thin lines showing dimension extent/direction – Extension Lines - solid thin lines showing point or line to which dimension applies – Leaders – direct notes, dimensions, symbols, part numbers, etc. to features on drawing Cutting-Plane and Viewing-Plane Lines – indicate location of cutting planes for sectional views and the viewing position for removed partial views Break Lines – indicate only portion of object is drawn. May be random “squiggled” line or thin dashes joined by zigzags. Phantom Lines – long thin dashes separated by pairs of short dashes indicate alternate positions of moving parts, adjacent position of related parts and repeated detail Chain Line – Lines or surfaces with special requirements Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 75
    76. 76. Viewing-plane line 1 Extension 2 line Dimension 3 Line 4 Center Line Hidden Line 5 6 Break Line Cutting-plane Line 7 8 Visible Line 9 10 Center Line (of motion) Leader Phantom 14 Line 13 Section Line 12 SECTION A-A Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 11 VIEW B-B 76
    77. 77. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRS TUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKL MNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCD EF Lettering ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRS TUVWXYZABCDEFGHIJKL MNOPQRSTUVWXYZABCD
    78. 78. Text on Drawings Text on engineering drawing is used : To communicate nongraphic information. As a substitute for graphic information, in those instance where text can communicate the needed information more clearly and quickly. Thus, it must be written with Legibility - shape - space between letters and words Uniformity - size - line thickness Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 78
    79. 79. Example Placement of the text on drawing Dimension & Notes Title Block Notes Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 79
    80. 80. Lettering Standard ANSI Standard This course Use a Gothic text style, Use only a vertical Gothic either inclined or vertical. text style. Use all capital letters. Use both capital and lower-case letters. Use 3 mm for most Same. For letters in title text height. block it is recommend to use 5~8 mm text height Space between lines N/A. of text is at least 1/3 Follows ANSI rule. of text height. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 80
    81. 81. Basic Strokes Straight Slanted Horizontal Curved Examples : Application of basic stroke “I” letter 1 “A” letter 1 2 “B” letter 1 4 3 5 6 3 2 Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 81
    82. 82. Suggested Strokes Sequence Upper-case letters & Numerals Straight line letters Curved line letters Curved line letters & Numerals Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 82
    83. 83. Suggested Strokes Sequence Lower-case letters The text’ s body height is about 2/3 the height of a capital letter. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 83
    84. 84. I E Stroke Sequence T F L H Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 84
    85. 85. Stroke Sequence V X W Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 85
    86. 86. N Y Stroke Sequence Z M K A 4 Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 86
    87. 87. Stroke Sequence O Q C Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood G 87
    88. 88. D R Stroke Sequence U P B J 1 Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 2 88
    89. 89. Stroke Sequence 5 7 Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 89
    90. 90. S 8 Stroke Sequence 6 0 3 9 Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 90
    91. 91. Stroke Sequence l i Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 91
    92. 92. v Stroke Sequence w x k z Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 92
    93. 93. j Stroke Sequence y f t r Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 93
    94. 94. c d Stroke Sequence o a b p q Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood e 94
    95. 95. g Stroke Sequence n m h u s Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 95
    96. 96. Word Composition Look at the same word having different spacing between letters. A) Non-uniform spacing JIRAPONG B) Uniform spacing J IR A P O N G Which one is easier to read ? 96
    97. 97. Word Composition Spacing Contour JIRAPONG || || / | )( )| |( General conclusions are: Space between the letters depends on the contour of the letters at an adjacent side. Good spacing creates approximately equal background area between letters. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 97
    98. 98. Example : Good and Poor Lettering GOOD Not uniform in style. Not uniform in height. Not uniformly vertical or inclined. Not uniform in thickness of stroke. Area between letters not uniform. Area between words not uniform. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 98
    99. 99. Sentence Composition Leave the space between words equal to the space requires for writing a letter “O”. Example ALL O DIMENSIONS O ARE O IN MILLIMETERS O UNLESS OTHERWISE O SPECIFIED. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 99
    100. 100. Dimensioning
    101. 101. Dimensioning Guidelines The term “feature” refers to surfaces, faces, holes, slots, corners, bends, arcs and fillets that add up to form an engineering part. Dimensions define the size of a feature or its location relative to other features or a frame of reference, called a datum. The basic rules of dimensioning are: 1. Dimension where the feature contour is shown; 2. Place dimensions between the views; 3. Dimension off the views; 4. Dimension mating features for assembly; 5. Do not dimension to hidden lines; 6. Stagger dimensioning values; 7. Create a logical arrangement of dimensions; 8. Consider fabrication processes and capabilities; 9. Consider inspection processes and capabilities. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 101
    102. 102. 102
    103. 103. Important elements of dimensioning Two types of dimensioning: (1) Size and location dimensions and (2) Detail dimensioning Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 103
    104. 104. Geometrics • The science of specifying and tolerancing shapes and locations of features of on objects Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 104
    105. 105. Geometrics • It is important that all persons reading a drawing interpret it exactly the same way. • Parts are dimensioned based on two criteria: – Basic size and locations of the features – Details of construction for manufacturing • Standards from ANSI (American National Standards Institute) Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 105
    106. 106. Scaling vs. Dimensioning • Drawings can be a different scales, but dimensions are ALWAYS at full scale. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 106
    107. 107. Units of Measure Angle Dimensions • Length – English - Inches, unless otherwise stated • Up to 72 inches – feet and inches over – SI – millimeter, mm • Angle – degrees, minutes, seconds Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 107
    108. 108. Elements of a dimensioned drawing (Be familiar with these terms Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 108
    109. 109. Arrangement of Dimensions • Keep dimension off of the part where possible. • Arrange extension lines so the larger dimensions are outside of the smaller dimensions. • Stagger the dimension value labels to ensure they are clearly defined. 109
    110. 110. Dimensioning Holes • Dimension the diameter of a hole. • Locate the center-line. • Use a notes and designators for repeated hole sizes 110
    111. 111. Dimensioning the Radius of an Arc Dimension an arcs by its radius. Locate the center of the radius or two tangents to the arc. 111
    112. 112. Drilled Holes, Counter bores and Countersinks • Use the depth symbol to define the depth of a drilled hole. • Use the depth symbol or a section view to dimension a counter bore. • Countersinks do not need a section view. 112
    113. 113. Angles, Chamfers and Tapers • Dimension the one vertex for an angled face, the other vertex is determined by an intersection. • Chamfers are generally 45° with the width of the face specified. 113
    114. 114. Rounded Bars and Slots • The rounded end of a bar or slot has a radius that is 1/2 its width. • Use R to denote this radius, do not dimension it twice. • Locate the center of the arc, or the center of the slot. 114
    115. 115. Limits of Size • All dimensions have minimum and maximum values specified by the tolerance block. • Tolerances accumulate in a chain of dimensions. • Accumulation can be avoided by using a single baseline. 115
    116. 116. Fit Between Parts 1. Clearance fit: The shaft maximum diameter is smaller than the hole minimum diameter. 2. Interference fit: The shaft minimum diameter is larger than the hole maximum diameter. 3. Transition fit: The shaft maximum diameter and hole minimum have an interference fit, while the shaft minimum diameter and hole maximum diameter have a clearance fit Clearance Fit Interference Fit Transition Fit 116
    117. 117. Dimensioning standards P. 117
    118. 118. Dimension text placement P. 118
    119. 119. Unidirectional or aligned dimensioning? Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 119
    120. 120. Dual dimensioning 120
    121. 121. Dimensioning Basic Shapes -Assumptions • • Perpendicularity – Assume lines that appear perpendicular to be 90° unless otherwise noted Symmetry – If a part appears symmetrical – it is (unless it is dimensioned otherwise) – Holes in the center of a cylindrical object are automatically located 121
    122. 122. Dimensioning Basic Shapes • Rectangular Prism 122
    123. 123. Dimensioning Basic Shapes • Cylinders – Positive – Negative 123
    124. 124. Dimensioning Basic Shapes • Cone Frustum 124
    125. 125. Dimensioning Basic Shapes • Circle Pattern Center Lines Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 125
    126. 126. Grouping Dimensions • Dimensions should always be placed outside the part Yes No Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 126
    127. 127. Dimension guidelines Dimensions should be placed in the view that most clearly describes the feature being dimensioned (contour (shape) dimensioning) Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 127
    128. 128. Dimension guidelines Maintain a minimum spacing between the object and the dimension between multiple dimensions. A visible gap shall be placed between the ends of extension lines and the feature to which they refer. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 128
    129. 129. Dimension guidelines Avoid dimensioning hidden lines. Leader lines for diameters and radii should be radial lines. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 129
    130. 130. Where and how should we place dimensions when we have many dimensions? Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 130
    131. 131. Where and how should we place dimensions when we have many dimensions? (cont.) Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 131
    132. 132. Staggering Dimensions • Put the lesser dimensions closer to the part. • Try to reference dimensions from one surface – This will depend on the part and how the tolerances are based. Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 132
    133. 133. Extension Line Practices Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 133
    134. 134. Repetitive Features Use the Symbol ‘x’ to Dimension Repetitive Features Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 134
    135. 135. Symbols for Drilling Operations Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 135
    136. 136. References • • • • T. Dragomatz “Introduction to Engineering”, by Paul Wright “Design Dimensioning and Tolerance”, by J. M. McCarthy Dr. Ashish K Darpe Lec. Bhuiyan Shameem Mahmood 136

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