• Natures of perception
• Factors influencing perception
• Process of perception
• Interpersonal perception
• Perception in organization
3. • When you change
the way you look at
things, the things
you look at change.
4. What is Perception?
A process by which individuals organize and interpret their
sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their
People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality
is, not on reality itself.
The world as it is perceived is the
world that is behaviorally important.
What is Perception?
How we view and interpret the events and
situations in the world about us.
Why is it Important?
Because people’s behavior is based on
their perception of what reality is, not on
6. Natures of perception
• Knowledge about human behavior
• Future prediction
• Better understanding of needs
• Employee interviews
• Reducing errors
• Assessment of performance
• Impression/ loyalty of a Employee
7. 1.Knowledge about human behavior:
A basic fact that a human behaviour
is an effect caused by the perception. When one
perceives would result into effect in the form of
8. • Future prediction:
The management may predict the
future probable behaviour based on their
perceptions about the people.
9. • Better understanding of needs:
It is established fact
that, perceptions are supported by the needs. They
are need based. If the need is very urgent the
perception is different on the other hand if the need
can be differed, the perception differs.
10. • Reducing errors:
A proper perception assist in reducing
the possibility of committing an errors.
11. • Impression/ loyalty of a Employee:
When evaluating an employee’s
loyalty, a manager is involved with person’s
perception. This is an important judgement that
managers make about employees.
13. INTERNAL (ENDOGENEOUS) EXTERNAL(EXOGENEOUS)
Needs and Desires Contrast
Psychological state Frequency
14. (A) ENDOGENEOUS FACTORS-
The factors which taking place
within the individual are called ENDOGENEOUS
(1) Needs and Desires-
An individual says “I NEED HOME”. It
means he is presently discomfort with existing
rented house or he is feeling inconveniency, with
15. (2) Personality-
Personality of an individual refers to the act
of influencing others through their external appearances
of actions. To be precise, it deals with the study of
characterstics and traits of an individual, relationship
between these traits and the way in which a personal
adjust to the other people and situation.
16. (3) Culture –
The cultural factors such as
values, morality, ethics beliefs, holy practices etc.
influencing the perceptions.
17. (4) Psychological state –
we often here people saying ‘he is a
moody person?’ The subordinates before meeting
the authorities consult with colleagues about ‘mood
of the boss’. The statement proves that, an individual
may not be always in the same Psychological status.
The change in Psychological leads to change in
18. (5) Experience - Experience and knowledge have a
constant bearing on perception. Successful
experiences enhance and boost the perceptive
abilities and lead to accuracy in perception of a
19. (6) Expectation-
The perception depends upon the
expectations. If a person always expecting high, he
accepts difficulty as challenges and faces them. He
perceives them as a positive factors or opportunities.
20. External factors:
Also known as exogenous factors, they
also influence the perception of a person. Perception
is affected by the characteristics of perceived object,
an event or a person.
21. (1) Size-
The bigger the size of the perceived stimulus, the
higher is the probability that it will be noticed. Dominance is
established by size and it overrides other things and thereby
enhances perceptual selection.
For example, a full page advertisement may induce more
attention than a small advertisement in some corner of the
22. (2) Intensity –
While reading a passage, a person comes across a few
lines printed in bold letters. He automatically pays more attention
to these lines. Underlined sentences and so the ones in italics are
generally more attentively read.
The principle that the higher the intensity of external
stimulus, the more likely it will be perceived is not always valid. If
intensity is so important, why a whisper by a student in a classroom
is effective in getting attention by a teacher? Here, the answer lies
in the fact that a whisper often contrasts with the rest of the noisy
environment, and so gets noticed. Therefore, the intensity factor
has to be considered in the light of the situation i.e. frame of
23. (3) Frequency-
Repeated external stimulus is more attention
gaining than a single one, so states the frequency
principle. Repetition is one of the most frequently used
techniques in advertising and is the most common way
of attracting the people’s attention. Frequency results in
making people aware of the stimulus.
24. (4) Status –
The status of the perceived person has also got
influence on the perception. High status people can exert
influence on perception of an employee than low status
people. When introduced to two people of different
ranks, we tend to remember the person holding the
higher rank than the other one.
25. (5) Contrast-
Stimuli that contrast with the surrounding
environment are more likely to be selected for
getting attention. A contrasting effect can be caused
by color, or any unusual factor.
26. Interpersonal perception
It is a perception that begins with the perception of
another persons. The reactions of other person’s on
our actions are analyzed.
27. PERCEPTION IN ORGANISATIONAL SETTING
The organisation term means gathering of various
people to attain a pre-set common goals. Each
individual is district in various matter’s How
individual thinks, speaks, acts to day may be
Today’s friend may be tomorrows
foe or the best friend.
28. • The following factors supports the applications of
perception in an organizational environment.
(1) Personal recruitment and selection.
(2) Employee performance Appraisal.
29. 1) Personal recruitment and selection:
An important function carried in every
organisation is the selection of right candidates to the right
job. The usually process is receiving the curriculam vitae
from the candidates taking the interview. If it is reference
based selection, then get the information about referred
from the reference. With this, the interviewer can make
certain perceptual judgments about the candidates. With
the same information but different judgments the
committee will interview the candidates.
30. (2) Employee performance Appraisal.
Here usually the Employees are
categorized on the bases of performance. In recent
days the performer is only continued and other sent
home. The performance of candidates not only
depends his personal efforts but unfortunately on
the perception of appraiser.