iValues Education - Oriental Philo

13 de Dec de 2014

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iValues Education - Oriental Philo

  1. PHILOSOPY OF MAN Oriental Philosophy C.C. RELLEVE, EdD, RGC
  2. Hinduism is the predominant religion of the Indian subcontinent. It is often referred to as SanatanaDharma, a Sanskrit phrase meaning “eternal law” by its adherents. HINDUISM
  3. Though Hinduism is often understood as being polytheistic, supposedly recognizing as many as 330 million gods, it also has one “god” that is supreme—Brahma. Brahma is an entity believed to inhabit every portion of reality and existence throughout the entire universe. HINDUISM
  4. Brahma is both impersonal and unknowable and is often believed to exist in three separate forms: 1.Brahma—Creator; 2.Vishnu—Preserver; and 3.Shiva—Destroyer. These “facets” of Brahma are also known through the many other incarnations of each. HINDUISM
  5. Hinduism views mankind as divine. Because Brahma is everything, Hinduism asserts that everyone is divine. Atman, or self, is one with Brahman. All of reality outside of Brahman is considered mere illusion. The spiritual goal of a Hindu is to become one with Brahma, thus ceasing to exist in its illusory form of “individual self.” This freedom is referred to as “moksha.” HINDUISM
  6. Until mokshais achieved, a Hindu believes that he/she will be repeatedly reincarnated in order that he/she may work towards self-realization of the truth (the truth being that only Brahman exists, nothing else). How a person is reincarnated is determined by karma, which is a principle of cause and effect governed by nature's balance. What one did in the past affects and corresponds with what happens in the future, past and future lives included. HINDUISM
  7. Man consists of five coverings: a)Annamayatman–the material or physical covering of man. It is dependent on food. b)Pranamayatman–the biological layer, the self as a vital part breathes. c)Manomayatman–the psychological aspect and which consists of the will. d)Vijnamamayatman–the intellectual layer; within it is the seal of consciousness. e)Anandamayatnan–the part that encounters and experiences heaven. HINDUISM
  8. Man must dispose the five coverings to attain the level of a perfect man. The physical, biological, psychological, intellectual and bliss compose Atman that is not the true self but a mere accidental revelation of Brahman HINDUISM
  9. Salient Features of Hinduism Reincarnation–(samsara) believed that the soul migrates from one body upon death and re-enters another human or animal body. All spiritual efforts are being directed toward the release or moksafrom the cycle of rebirth. Karma–the sum and the consequences of a person’s actions during the successive phases of his existence. It determine man’s destiny and the nature of individual’s rebirth HINDUISM
  10. 1.Buddhism 2.Confucianism 3.Taoism Three great systems of thought dominate Chinese civilization:
  11. arose in India in the person of a prince, Siddhartha Gautama, later known as Buddha, was originally a response to the problem of suffering. Buddha means “The Enlightened One” Suffering is in part the result of the transience and uncertainty of the world, in part the result of karma,and in part the result of ignorance and enslavement by desires and passions. Buddhism
  12. Buddha’s answer to this problem is contained in the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. Through meditation and self-abnegation, promotion to better lives and finally to nirvana is obtained. Buddhism
  13. Four Noble Truths: (1) There is suffering; (2) suffering has specific and identifiable causes; (3) suffering can be ended; (4) the way to end suffering is through enlightened living as expressed in the Eightfold Path. The most immediate causes of human suffering are ignorance and selfish craving. Buddhism
  14. Eightfold Path: (1) Right view (2) right aim (3) right speech (4) right action Buddhism
  15. (5) right living (6) right effort (7) right mindfulness (8) right contemplation Buddhism
  16. Karmameans action or deed; the intent of an action determines whether it is morally good or bad. The effect of an action leaves a trace which extends over several lifetimes. Buddhism
  17. Cessation of suffering is found in nirvana, a permanent state of supreme enlightenment and serenity that ends the cycle of reincarnation. It is total disattachmentfrom Self. Additional concepts attributed to Buddha: clinging to existence must be overcome; and silence of body, mind, and speech must be achieved. Buddhism
  18. Developed from the teachings of Confucius which focuses on human morality and wrong action. CONFUCIANISM
  19. Confucius. Made humanity (jen) a cornerstone of Chinese philosophy. Confucius’s principle of reciprocity: “Do not do to others what you would not want them to do to you.” CONFUCIANISM
  20. The 5 Relationships: 1.Ruler –Subject 2.Father –Son 3.Husband –Wife 4.Older Brother –Younger Brother 5.Older Friend –Younger Friend CONFUCIANISM
  21. Attitudes Governing Relationships: 1. Rulers : Kind-heartedness 2. Subject :Loyalty 3. Father : Love 4. Son : Filial Piety 5. Husband : Righteous Behavior CONFUCIANISM
  22. Attitudes Governing Relationships: 6. Wife : Obedience 7. Older Brother : Politeness 8. Younger Brother : Humility and Respect 9. Older Friend : Humane Consideration 10. Younger Friend : Obedience CONFUCIANISM
  23. Taoism is pronounced as though it were spelled "dow-ism.“ Taoism derives from Lao Tzu and Chuang Tzu. Taoism is a philosophical and religious tradition that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao. The term Tao means "way", "path" or "principle”. Taoism
  24. Taoism views man and nature together. Man lives in the matrix of nature. Taoism is an example in ancient times of environmentalism. If the environment is good, man will be good, and the opposite is true. Taoism
  25. Roughly stated, Tao deals with the flow of the universe, or the force behind natural order that keeps all things balanced and in order. It is considered to be a source of existence and "non- existence." Some Eastern religions refer to this as the "yin and yang" of the universe, which can also express itself as the equal forces of "good" and "evil." Taoism
  26. Lao Tzu thought (as later did Socrates) that the wisest are still very ignorant. What is needed is not interference with the world but humble understanding of the way it functions, the Tao. Forcing change is self-injurious. Follow the Tao instead, the natural order of things. The Tao gives rise to yang (expansive forces) and yin (contractive forces) and is the means by which things come to be, take shape, and reach fulfillment. The Tao cannot be improved. Taoism
  27.   links/philosophy-book/chp15.html   16489779?qid=44384715-c832-49a8-a267- cb2c397086d2&v=qf1&b=&from_search=3  REFERENCES: