3. o Cardiac Output
o Cardiac Output is the volume of blood pumped each minute, and is
expressed by the following equation
o • CO+SV*HR
o CO is cardiac output expressed in L/min(normal-5L/min)
o SV is stroke volume per beat
o HR is the number of beats per minute
6. o Heart size
o Fitness level
o Duration of contraction
7. o Heart rate
when heart rate increases, cardiac output also increases.
any factor which changes the heart rate will also change cardiac
o Force of contraction of heart
o When the force of contraction of the heart increases, stroke volume
will increases. Therefore cardiac output will increase.
o Blood volume.
o When blood volume increases cardiac output increases.
o Venous return
8. o Methods based on Fick's principle
o Indicator or dye dilution method
o Inhalation of inert gases
o Physical methods
o Doppler echocardiography
o Cineradiographic technique