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  1. 1. ninth edition STEPHEN P. ROBBINS © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc.© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie CookPowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West AlabamaThe University of West Alabama MARY COULTER LeadershipLeadership ChapterChapter 1717
  2. 2. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–2 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N EL E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Who Are Leaders and What Is LeadershipWho Are Leaders and What Is Leadership • Define leaders and leadership.Define leaders and leadership. • Explain why managers should be leaders.Explain why managers should be leaders. Early Leadership TheoriesEarly Leadership Theories • Discuss what research has shown about leadership traits.Discuss what research has shown about leadership traits. • Contrast the findings of the four behavioral leadershipContrast the findings of the four behavioral leadership theories.theories. • Explain the dual nature of a leader’s behavior.Explain the dual nature of a leader’s behavior.
  3. 3. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–3 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Contingency Theories of LeadershipContingency Theories of Leadership • Explain how Fiedler’s theory of leadership is aExplain how Fiedler’s theory of leadership is a contingency model.contingency model. • Contrast situational leadership theory and the leaderContrast situational leadership theory and the leader participation model.participation model. • Discuss how path-goal theory explains leadership.Discuss how path-goal theory explains leadership. Contemporary Views on LeadershipContemporary Views on Leadership • Differentiate between transactional and transformationalDifferentiate between transactional and transformational leaders.leaders. • Describe charismatic and visionary leadership.Describe charismatic and visionary leadership. • Discuss what team leadership involves.Discuss what team leadership involves.
  4. 4. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–4 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Leadership Issues in the Twenty-First CenturyLeadership Issues in the Twenty-First Century • Tell the five sources of a leader’s power.Tell the five sources of a leader’s power. • Discuss the issues today’s leaders face.Discuss the issues today’s leaders face. • Explain why leadership is sometimes irrelevant.Explain why leadership is sometimes irrelevant.
  5. 5. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–5 Leaders and LeadershipLeaders and Leadership • Leader – Someone who can influence others and who hasLeader – Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authoritymanagerial authority • Leadership – What leaders do; the process of influencing aLeadership – What leaders do; the process of influencing a group to achieve goalsgroup to achieve goals • Ideally, all managersIdeally, all managers should beshould be leadersleaders • Although groups may have informal leaders who emerge,Although groups may have informal leaders who emerge, those are not the leaders we’re studyingthose are not the leaders we’re studying Leadership research has tried to answer:Leadership research has tried to answer: What is an effectiveWhat is an effective leader?leader?
  6. 6. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–6 Early Leadership TheoriesEarly Leadership Theories • Trait Theories (1920s-30s)Trait Theories (1920s-30s)  Research focused on identifying personalResearch focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders fromcharacteristics that differentiated leaders from nonleaders was unsuccessful.nonleaders was unsuccessful.  Later research on the leadership process identifiedLater research on the leadership process identified seven traits associated with successful leadership:seven traits associated with successful leadership:  Drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-Drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self- confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge,confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, and extraversion.and extraversion.
  7. 7. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–7 Exhibit 17–1Exhibit 17–1 Seven Traits Associated with LeadershipSeven Traits Associated with Leadership Source: S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke, “Leadership: Do Traits Really Matter?” Academy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 48–60; T. A. Judge, J. E. Bono, R. llies, and M. W. Gerhardt, “Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review,” Journal of Applied Psychology, August 2002, pp. 765–780.
  8. 8. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–8 Exhibit 17–2Exhibit 17–2 Behavioral Theories of LeadershipBehavioral Theories of Leadership
  9. 9. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–9 Exhibit 17–2 (cont’d)Exhibit 17–2 (cont’d) Behavioral Theories of LeadershipBehavioral Theories of Leadership
  10. 10. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–10 Early Leadership Theories (cont’d)Early Leadership Theories (cont’d) • Behavioral TheoriesBehavioral Theories  University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin)University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin)  Identified three leadership styles:Identified three leadership styles: – Autocratic style:Autocratic style: centralized authority, low participationcentralized authority, low participation – Democratic style:Democratic style: involvement, high participation,involvement, high participation, feedbackfeedback – Laissez faire style:Laissez faire style: hands-off managementhands-off management  Research findings: mixed resultsResearch findings: mixed results – No specific style was consistently better for producingNo specific style was consistently better for producing better performancebetter performance – Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leaderEmployees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader.than an autocratic leader.
  11. 11. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–11 Early Leadership Theories (cont’d)Early Leadership Theories (cont’d) • Behavioral Theories (cont’d)Behavioral Theories (cont’d)  Ohio State StudiesOhio State Studies  Identified two dimensions of leader behaviorIdentified two dimensions of leader behavior – Initiating structure:Initiating structure: the role of the leader in defining histhe role of the leader in defining his or her role and the roles of group membersor her role and the roles of group members – Consideration:Consideration: the leader’s mutual trust and respect forthe leader’s mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings.group members’ ideas and feelings.  Research findings: mixed resultsResearch findings: mixed results – High-high leaders generally, but not always, achieved highHigh-high leaders generally, but not always, achieved high group task performance and satisfaction.group task performance and satisfaction. – Evidence indicated that situational factors appeared toEvidence indicated that situational factors appeared to strongly influence leadership effectiveness.strongly influence leadership effectiveness.
  12. 12. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–12 Early Leadership Theories (cont’d)Early Leadership Theories (cont’d) • Behavioral Theories (cont’d)Behavioral Theories (cont’d)  University of Michigan StudiesUniversity of Michigan Studies  Identified two dimensions of leader behaviorIdentified two dimensions of leader behavior – Employee oriented:Employee oriented: emphasizing personal relationshipsemphasizing personal relationships – Production oriented:Production oriented: emphasizing task accomplishmentemphasizing task accomplishment  Research findings:Research findings: – Leaders who are employee oriented are stronglyLeaders who are employee oriented are strongly associated with high group productivity and high jobassociated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction.satisfaction.
  13. 13. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–13 The Managerial GridThe Managerial Grid • Managerial GridManagerial Grid  Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions:Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions:  Concern for peopleConcern for people  Concern for productionConcern for production  Places managerial styles in five categories:Places managerial styles in five categories:  Impoverished managementImpoverished management  Task managementTask management  Middle-of-the-road managementMiddle-of-the-road management  Country club managementCountry club management  Team managementTeam management
  14. 14. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–14 Exhibit 17–3Exhibit 17–3 TheThe ManagerialManagerial GridGrid Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from “Breakthrough in Organization Development” by Robert R. Blake, Jane S. Mouton, Louis B. Barnes, and Larry E. Greiner, November–December 1964, p. 136. Copyright © 1964 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–15 Contingency Theories of LeadershipContingency Theories of Leadership • The Fiedler Model (cont’d)The Fiedler Model (cont’d)  Proposes that effective group performance dependsProposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style ofupon the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which theinteracting with followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence.situation allows the leader to control and influence.  Assumptions:Assumptions:  A certain leadership style should be most effectiveA certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations.in different types of situations.  Leaders do not readily change leadership styles.Leaders do not readily change leadership styles. – Matching the leader to the situation or changing theMatching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.
  16. 16. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–16 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • The Fiedler Model (cont’d)The Fiedler Model (cont’d)  Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaireLeast-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire  Determines leadership style by measuringDetermines leadership style by measuring responses to 18 pairs of contrasting adjectives.responses to 18 pairs of contrasting adjectives. – High score: a relationship-oriented leadershipHigh score: a relationship-oriented leadership stylestyle – Low score: a task-oriented leadership styleLow score: a task-oriented leadership style  Situational factors in matching leader to the situation:Situational factors in matching leader to the situation:  Leader-member relationsLeader-member relations  Task structureTask structure  Position powerPosition power
  17. 17. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–17 Exhibit 17–4Exhibit 17–4 Findings of the Fiedler ModelFindings of the Fiedler Model
  18. 18. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–18 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational LeadershipHersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)Theory (SLT)  Argues that successful leadership is achieved byArgues that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style which is contingentselecting the right leadership style which is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness.on the level of the followers’ readiness.  Acceptance:Acceptance: leadership effectiveness depends onleadership effectiveness depends on whether followers accept or reject a leader.whether followers accept or reject a leader.  Readiness:Readiness: the extent to which followers have thethe extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specificability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.task.  Leaders must relinquish control over and contact withLeaders must relinquish control over and contact with followers as they become more competent.followers as they become more competent.
  19. 19. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–19 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational LeadershipHersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)Theory (SLT)  Creates four specific leadership styles incorporatingCreates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions:Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions:  Telling:Telling: high task-low relationship leadershiphigh task-low relationship leadership  Selling:Selling: high task-high relationship leadershiphigh task-high relationship leadership  Participating:Participating: low task-high relationship leadershiplow task-high relationship leadership  Delegating:Delegating: low task-low relationship leadershiplow task-low relationship leadership
  20. 20. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–20 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational LeadershipHersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)Theory (SLT)  Posits four stages follower readiness:Posits four stages follower readiness:  R1:R1: followers are unable and unwillingfollowers are unable and unwilling  R2:R2: followers are unable but willingfollowers are unable but willing  R3:R3: followers are able but unwillingfollowers are able but unwilling  R4:R4: followers are able and willingfollowers are able and willing
  21. 21. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–21 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Leader Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton)Leader Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton)  Posits that leader behavior must be adjusted to reflectPosits that leader behavior must be adjusted to reflect the task structurethe task structure—whether it is routine, nonroutine,—whether it is routine, nonroutine, or in between—based on a sequential set of rulesor in between—based on a sequential set of rules (contingencies) for determining the form and amount(contingencies) for determining the form and amount of follower participation in decision making in a givenof follower participation in decision making in a given situation.situation.
  22. 22. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–22 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Leader Participation ModelLeader Participation Model Contingencies:Contingencies:  Decision significanceDecision significance  Importance of commitmentImportance of commitment  Leader expertiseLeader expertise  Likelihood of commitmentLikelihood of commitment  Group supportGroup support  Group expertiseGroup expertise  Team competenceTeam competence
  23. 23. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–23 Exhibit 17–5Exhibit 17–5 Leadership Styles in the Vroom Leader Participation ModelLeadership Styles in the Vroom Leader Participation Model • Decide:Decide: Leader makes the decision alone and either announces orLeader makes the decision alone and either announces or sells it to group.sells it to group. • Consult Individually:Consult Individually: Leader presents the problem to groupLeader presents the problem to group members individually, gets their suggestions, and then makes themembers individually, gets their suggestions, and then makes the decision.decision. • Consult Group:Consult Group: Leader presents the problem to group members inLeader presents the problem to group members in a meeting, gets their suggestions, and then makes the decision.a meeting, gets their suggestions, and then makes the decision. • Facilitate:Facilitate: Leader presents the problem to the group in a meetingLeader presents the problem to the group in a meeting and, acting as facilitator, defines the problem and the boundariesand, acting as facilitator, defines the problem and the boundaries within which a decision must be made.within which a decision must be made. • Delegate:Delegate: Leader permits the group to make the decision withinLeader permits the group to make the decision within prescribed limits.prescribed limits. Source: Based on V. Vroom, “Leadership and the Decision-Making Process,” Organizational Dynamics, vol. 28, no. 4 (2000), p. 84.
  24. 24. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–24 Exhibit 17–6Exhibit 17–6 Time-DrivenTime-Driven ModelModel Source: Adapted from V. Vroom, “Leadership and the Decision-Making Process,” Organizational Dynamics, vol. 28, no. 4 (2000), p. 87.
  25. 25. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–25 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Path-Goal ModelPath-Goal Model  States that the leader’s job is to assist his or herStates that the leader’s job is to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals and to providefollowers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support to ensure their goals aredirection or support to ensure their goals are compatible with organizational goals.compatible with organizational goals.  Leaders assume different leadership styles atLeaders assume different leadership styles at different times depending on the situation:different times depending on the situation:  Directive leaderDirective leader  Supportive leaderSupportive leader  Participative leaderParticipative leader  Achievement oriented leaderAchievement oriented leader
  26. 26. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–26 Exhibit 17–7Exhibit 17–7 Path-Goal TheoryPath-Goal Theory
  27. 27. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–27 Contemporary Views on LeadershipContemporary Views on Leadership • Transactional LeadershipTransactional Leadership  Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in theLeaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role anddirection of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.task requirements. • Transformational LeadershipTransformational Leadership  Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their ownLeaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization byself-interests for the good of the organization by clarifying role and task requirements.clarifying role and task requirements.  Leaders who also are capable of having a profoundLeaders who also are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers.and extraordinary effect on their followers.
  28. 28. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–28 Contemporary Views…(cont’d)Contemporary Views…(cont’d) • Charismatic LeadershipCharismatic Leadership  An enthusiastic, self-confident leader whoseAn enthusiastic, self-confident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave inpersonality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways.certain ways.  Characteristics of charismatic leaders:Characteristics of charismatic leaders:  Have a vision.Have a vision.  Are able to articulate the vision.Are able to articulate the vision.  Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision.Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision.  Are sensitive to the environment and followerAre sensitive to the environment and follower needs.needs.  Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.
  29. 29. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–29 Contemporary Views…(cont’d)Contemporary Views…(cont’d) • Visionary LeadershipVisionary Leadership  A leader who creates and articulates a realistic,A leader who creates and articulates a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future thatcredible, and attractive vision of the future that improves upon the present situation.improves upon the present situation. • Visionary leaders have the ability to:Visionary leaders have the ability to:  Explain the vision to others.Explain the vision to others.  Express the vision not just verbally but throughExpress the vision not just verbally but through behavior.behavior.  Extend or apply the vision to different leadershipExtend or apply the vision to different leadership contexts.contexts.
  30. 30. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–30 Contemporary Views…(cont’d)Contemporary Views…(cont’d) • Team Leadership CharacteristicsTeam Leadership Characteristics  Having patience to share informationHaving patience to share information  Being able to trust others and to give up authorityBeing able to trust others and to give up authority  Understanding when to interveneUnderstanding when to intervene • Team Leader’s JobTeam Leader’s Job  Managing the team’s external boundaryManaging the team’s external boundary  Facilitating the team processFacilitating the team process  Coaching, facilitating, handling disciplinaryCoaching, facilitating, handling disciplinary problems, reviewing team and individualproblems, reviewing team and individual performance, training, and communicationperformance, training, and communication
  31. 31. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–31 Exhibit 17–8Exhibit 17–8 Specific Team Leadership RolesSpecific Team Leadership Roles
  32. 32. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–32 Leadership Issues in the 21Leadership Issues in the 21stst CenturyCentury • Managing PowerManaging Power  Legitimate powerLegitimate power  The power a leader hasThe power a leader has as a result of his or heras a result of his or her position.position.  Coercive powerCoercive power  The power a leader hasThe power a leader has to punish or control.to punish or control.  Reward powerReward power  The power to giveThe power to give positive benefits orpositive benefits or rewards.rewards.  Expert powerExpert power  The influence a leaderThe influence a leader can exert as a result ofcan exert as a result of his or her expertise,his or her expertise, skills, or knowledge.skills, or knowledge.  Referent powerReferent power  The power of a leaderThe power of a leader that arise because of athat arise because of a person’s desirableperson’s desirable resources or admiredresources or admired personal traits.personal traits.
  33. 33. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–33 Developing Credibility and TrustDeveloping Credibility and Trust • Credibility (of a Leader)Credibility (of a Leader)  The assessment of a leader’s honesty, competence,The assessment of a leader’s honesty, competence, and ability to inspire by his or her followersand ability to inspire by his or her followers • TrustTrust  Is the belief of followers and others in the integrity,Is the belief of followers and others in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader.character, and ability of a leader.  Dimensions of trust:Dimensions of trust: integrity, competence,integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, and openness.consistency, loyalty, and openness.  Is related to increases in job performance,Is related to increases in job performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, job satisfaction,organizational citizenship behaviors, job satisfaction, and organization commitment.and organization commitment.
  34. 34. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–34 Exhibit 17–9Exhibit 17–9 Suggestions for Building TrustSuggestions for Building Trust Practice openness.Practice openness. Be fair.Be fair. Speak your feelings.Speak your feelings. Tell the truth.Tell the truth. Show consistency.Show consistency. Fulfill your promises.Fulfill your promises. Maintain confidences.Maintain confidences. Demonstrate competence.Demonstrate competence.
  35. 35. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–35 Providing Ethical LeadershipProviding Ethical Leadership • Ethics are part of leadership when leadersEthics are part of leadership when leaders attempt to:attempt to:  Foster moral virtue through changes in attitudes andFoster moral virtue through changes in attitudes and behaviors.behaviors.  Use their charisma in socially constructive ways.Use their charisma in socially constructive ways.  Promote ethical behavior by exhibiting their personalPromote ethical behavior by exhibiting their personal traits of honesty and integrity.traits of honesty and integrity. • Moral LeadershipMoral Leadership  Involves addressing the means that a leader uses toInvolves addressing the means that a leader uses to achieve goals as well as the moral content of thoseachieve goals as well as the moral content of those goals.goals.
  36. 36. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–36 Empowering EmployeesEmpowering Employees • EmpowermentEmpowerment  Involves increasing the decision-making discretion ofInvolves increasing the decision-making discretion of workers such that teams can make key operatingworkers such that teams can make key operating decisions in develop budgets, scheduling workloads,decisions in develop budgets, scheduling workloads, controlling inventories, and solving quality problems.controlling inventories, and solving quality problems.  Why empower employees?Why empower employees?  Quicker responses problems and faster decisions.Quicker responses problems and faster decisions.  Addresses the problem of increased spans ofAddresses the problem of increased spans of control in relieving managers to work on othercontrol in relieving managers to work on other problems.problems.
  37. 37. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–37 Cross-Cultural LeadershipCross-Cultural Leadership • Universal Elements ofUniversal Elements of Effective LeadershipEffective Leadership  VisionVision  ForesightForesight  Providing encouragementProviding encouragement  TrustworthinessTrustworthiness  DynamismDynamism  PositivenessPositiveness  ProactivenessProactiveness
  38. 38. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–38 Exhibit 17–10Exhibit 17–10 Selected Cross-Cultural Leadership FindingsSelected Cross-Cultural Leadership Findings • Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees. • Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak. • Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently. • Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass, not energize, those individuals. • Effective leaders in Malaysia are expected to show compassion while using more of an autocratic than a participative style. • Effective German leaders are characterized by high performance orientation, low compassion, low self-protection, low team orientation, high autonomy, and high participation. Source: Based on J. C. Kennedy, “Leadership in Malaysia: Traditional Values, International Outlook,” Academy of Management Executive, August 2002, pp. 15–17; F.C. Brodbeck, M. Frese, and M. Javidan, “Leadership Made in Germany: Low on Compassion, High on Performance,” Academy of Management Executive, February 2002, pp. 16–29; M. F. Peterson and J. G. Hunt, “International Perspectives on International Leadership,” Leadership Quarterly, Fall 1997, pp. 203–31; R. J. House and R. N. Aditya, “The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis?” Journal of Management, vol. 23, no. 3, (1997), p. 463; and R. J. House, “Leadership in the Twenty-First Century,” in A. Howard (ed.), The Changing Nature of Work (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995), p. 442.
  39. 39. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–39 Gender Differences and LeadershipGender Differences and Leadership • Research FindingsResearch Findings  Males and females use different styles:Males and females use different styles:  Women tend to adopt a more democratic orWomen tend to adopt a more democratic or participative style unless in a male-dominated job.participative style unless in a male-dominated job.  Women tend to use transformational leadership.Women tend to use transformational leadership.  Men tend to use transactional leadership.Men tend to use transactional leadership.
  40. 40. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–40 Exhibit 17–11Exhibit 17–11 Where Female Managers Do Better: A ScorecardWhere Female Managers Do Better: A Scorecard Source: R. Sharpe, “As Leaders, Women Rule,” BusinessWeek, November 20. 2000, p. 75.
  41. 41. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–41 Basics of LeadershipBasics of Leadership • Give people a reason to come to work.Give people a reason to come to work. • Be loyal to the organization’s peopleBe loyal to the organization’s people • Spend time with people who do the real work ofSpend time with people who do the real work of the organization.the organization. • Be more open and more candid about whatBe more open and more candid about what business practices are acceptable and properbusiness practices are acceptable and proper and how the unacceptable ones should be fixed.and how the unacceptable ones should be fixed.
  42. 42. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–42 Leadership Can Be Irrelevant!Leadership Can Be Irrelevant! • Substitutes for LeadershipSubstitutes for Leadership  Follower characteristicsFollower characteristics  Experience, training, professional orientation, orExperience, training, professional orientation, or the need for independencethe need for independence  Job characteristicsJob characteristics  Routine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobsRoutine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobs  Organization characteristicsOrganization characteristics  Explicit formalized goals, rigid rules andExplicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, or cohesive work groupsprocedures, or cohesive work groups
  43. 43. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–43 Terms to KnowTerms to Know • leaderleader • leadershipleadership • behavioral theoriesbehavioral theories • autocratic styleautocratic style • democratic styledemocratic style • laissez-faire stylelaissez-faire style • initiating structureinitiating structure • considerationconsideration • high-high leaderhigh-high leader • managerial gridmanagerial grid • Fiedler contingencyFiedler contingency modelmodel • least-preferred co-workerleast-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire(LPC) questionnaire • leader-member relationsleader-member relations • task structuretask structure • position powerposition power • situational leadership theorysituational leadership theory (SLT)(SLT) • readinessreadiness • leader participation modelleader participation model • path-goal theorypath-goal theory • transactional leaderstransactional leaders
  44. 44. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–44 Terms to Know (cont’d)Terms to Know (cont’d) • transformational leaderstransformational leaders • charismatic leadercharismatic leader • visionary leadershipvisionary leadership • legitimate powerlegitimate power • coercive powercoercive power • reward powerreward power • expert powerexpert power • referent powerreferent power • credibilitycredibility • trusttrust • empowermentempowerment

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  1. 1. ninth edition STEPHEN P. ROBBINS © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc.© 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.All rights reserved. PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie CookPowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook The University of West AlabamaThe University of West Alabama MARY COULTER LeadershipLeadership ChapterChapter 1717
  2. 2. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–2 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N EL E A R N I N G O U T L I N E Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Who Are Leaders and What Is LeadershipWho Are Leaders and What Is Leadership • Define leaders and leadership.Define leaders and leadership. • Explain why managers should be leaders.Explain why managers should be leaders. Early Leadership TheoriesEarly Leadership Theories • Discuss what research has shown about leadership traits.Discuss what research has shown about leadership traits. • Contrast the findings of the four behavioral leadershipContrast the findings of the four behavioral leadership theories.theories. • Explain the dual nature of a leader’s behavior.Explain the dual nature of a leader’s behavior.
  3. 3. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–3 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Contingency Theories of LeadershipContingency Theories of Leadership • Explain how Fiedler’s theory of leadership is aExplain how Fiedler’s theory of leadership is a contingency model.contingency model. • Contrast situational leadership theory and the leaderContrast situational leadership theory and the leader participation model.participation model. • Discuss how path-goal theory explains leadership.Discuss how path-goal theory explains leadership. Contemporary Views on LeadershipContemporary Views on Leadership • Differentiate between transactional and transformationalDifferentiate between transactional and transformational leaders.leaders. • Describe charismatic and visionary leadership.Describe charismatic and visionary leadership. • Discuss what team leadership involves.Discuss what team leadership involves.
  4. 4. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–4 L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d)L E A R N I N G O U T L I N E (cont’d) Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter.Follow this Learning Outline as you read and study this chapter. Leadership Issues in the Twenty-First CenturyLeadership Issues in the Twenty-First Century • Tell the five sources of a leader’s power.Tell the five sources of a leader’s power. • Discuss the issues today’s leaders face.Discuss the issues today’s leaders face. • Explain why leadership is sometimes irrelevant.Explain why leadership is sometimes irrelevant.
  5. 5. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–5 Leaders and LeadershipLeaders and Leadership • Leader – Someone who can influence others and who hasLeader – Someone who can influence others and who has managerial authoritymanagerial authority • Leadership – What leaders do; the process of influencing aLeadership – What leaders do; the process of influencing a group to achieve goalsgroup to achieve goals • Ideally, all managersIdeally, all managers should beshould be leadersleaders • Although groups may have informal leaders who emerge,Although groups may have informal leaders who emerge, those are not the leaders we’re studyingthose are not the leaders we’re studying Leadership research has tried to answer:Leadership research has tried to answer: What is an effectiveWhat is an effective leader?leader?
  6. 6. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–6 Early Leadership TheoriesEarly Leadership Theories • Trait Theories (1920s-30s)Trait Theories (1920s-30s)  Research focused on identifying personalResearch focused on identifying personal characteristics that differentiated leaders fromcharacteristics that differentiated leaders from nonleaders was unsuccessful.nonleaders was unsuccessful.  Later research on the leadership process identifiedLater research on the leadership process identified seven traits associated with successful leadership:seven traits associated with successful leadership:  Drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-Drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self- confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge,confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, and extraversion.and extraversion.
  7. 7. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–7 Exhibit 17–1Exhibit 17–1 Seven Traits Associated with LeadershipSeven Traits Associated with Leadership Source: S. A. Kirkpatrick and E. A. Locke, “Leadership: Do Traits Really Matter?” Academy of Management Executive, May 1991, pp. 48–60; T. A. Judge, J. E. Bono, R. llies, and M. W. Gerhardt, “Personality and Leadership: A Qualitative and Quantitative Review,” Journal of Applied Psychology, August 2002, pp. 765–780.
  8. 8. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–8 Exhibit 17–2Exhibit 17–2 Behavioral Theories of LeadershipBehavioral Theories of Leadership
  9. 9. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–9 Exhibit 17–2 (cont’d)Exhibit 17–2 (cont’d) Behavioral Theories of LeadershipBehavioral Theories of Leadership
  10. 10. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–10 Early Leadership Theories (cont’d)Early Leadership Theories (cont’d) • Behavioral TheoriesBehavioral Theories  University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin)University of Iowa Studies (Kurt Lewin)  Identified three leadership styles:Identified three leadership styles: – Autocratic style:Autocratic style: centralized authority, low participationcentralized authority, low participation – Democratic style:Democratic style: involvement, high participation,involvement, high participation, feedbackfeedback – Laissez faire style:Laissez faire style: hands-off managementhands-off management  Research findings: mixed resultsResearch findings: mixed results – No specific style was consistently better for producingNo specific style was consistently better for producing better performancebetter performance – Employees were more satisfied under a democratic leaderEmployees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader.than an autocratic leader.
  11. 11. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–11 Early Leadership Theories (cont’d)Early Leadership Theories (cont’d) • Behavioral Theories (cont’d)Behavioral Theories (cont’d)  Ohio State StudiesOhio State Studies  Identified two dimensions of leader behaviorIdentified two dimensions of leader behavior – Initiating structure:Initiating structure: the role of the leader in defining histhe role of the leader in defining his or her role and the roles of group membersor her role and the roles of group members – Consideration:Consideration: the leader’s mutual trust and respect forthe leader’s mutual trust and respect for group members’ ideas and feelings.group members’ ideas and feelings.  Research findings: mixed resultsResearch findings: mixed results – High-high leaders generally, but not always, achieved highHigh-high leaders generally, but not always, achieved high group task performance and satisfaction.group task performance and satisfaction. – Evidence indicated that situational factors appeared toEvidence indicated that situational factors appeared to strongly influence leadership effectiveness.strongly influence leadership effectiveness.
  12. 12. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–12 Early Leadership Theories (cont’d)Early Leadership Theories (cont’d) • Behavioral Theories (cont’d)Behavioral Theories (cont’d)  University of Michigan StudiesUniversity of Michigan Studies  Identified two dimensions of leader behaviorIdentified two dimensions of leader behavior – Employee oriented:Employee oriented: emphasizing personal relationshipsemphasizing personal relationships – Production oriented:Production oriented: emphasizing task accomplishmentemphasizing task accomplishment  Research findings:Research findings: – Leaders who are employee oriented are stronglyLeaders who are employee oriented are strongly associated with high group productivity and high jobassociated with high group productivity and high job satisfaction.satisfaction.
  13. 13. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–13 The Managerial GridThe Managerial Grid • Managerial GridManagerial Grid  Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions:Appraises leadership styles using two dimensions:  Concern for peopleConcern for people  Concern for productionConcern for production  Places managerial styles in five categories:Places managerial styles in five categories:  Impoverished managementImpoverished management  Task managementTask management  Middle-of-the-road managementMiddle-of-the-road management  Country club managementCountry club management  Team managementTeam management
  14. 14. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–14 Exhibit 17–3Exhibit 17–3 TheThe ManagerialManagerial GridGrid Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from “Breakthrough in Organization Development” by Robert R. Blake, Jane S. Mouton, Louis B. Barnes, and Larry E. Greiner, November–December 1964, p. 136. Copyright © 1964 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College. All rights reserved.
  15. 15. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–15 Contingency Theories of LeadershipContingency Theories of Leadership • The Fiedler Model (cont’d)The Fiedler Model (cont’d)  Proposes that effective group performance dependsProposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style ofupon the proper match between the leader’s style of interacting with followers and the degree to which theinteracting with followers and the degree to which the situation allows the leader to control and influence.situation allows the leader to control and influence.  Assumptions:Assumptions:  A certain leadership style should be most effectiveA certain leadership style should be most effective in different types of situations.in different types of situations.  Leaders do not readily change leadership styles.Leaders do not readily change leadership styles. – Matching the leader to the situation or changing theMatching the leader to the situation or changing the situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.situation to make it favorable to the leader is required.
  16. 16. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–16 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • The Fiedler Model (cont’d)The Fiedler Model (cont’d)  Least-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaireLeast-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire  Determines leadership style by measuringDetermines leadership style by measuring responses to 18 pairs of contrasting adjectives.responses to 18 pairs of contrasting adjectives. – High score: a relationship-oriented leadershipHigh score: a relationship-oriented leadership stylestyle – Low score: a task-oriented leadership styleLow score: a task-oriented leadership style  Situational factors in matching leader to the situation:Situational factors in matching leader to the situation:  Leader-member relationsLeader-member relations  Task structureTask structure  Position powerPosition power
  17. 17. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–17 Exhibit 17–4Exhibit 17–4 Findings of the Fiedler ModelFindings of the Fiedler Model
  18. 18. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–18 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational LeadershipHersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)Theory (SLT)  Argues that successful leadership is achieved byArgues that successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style which is contingentselecting the right leadership style which is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness.on the level of the followers’ readiness.  Acceptance:Acceptance: leadership effectiveness depends onleadership effectiveness depends on whether followers accept or reject a leader.whether followers accept or reject a leader.  Readiness:Readiness: the extent to which followers have thethe extent to which followers have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specificability and willingness to accomplish a specific task.task.  Leaders must relinquish control over and contact withLeaders must relinquish control over and contact with followers as they become more competent.followers as they become more competent.
  19. 19. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–19 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational LeadershipHersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)Theory (SLT)  Creates four specific leadership styles incorporatingCreates four specific leadership styles incorporating Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions:Fiedler’s two leadership dimensions:  Telling:Telling: high task-low relationship leadershiphigh task-low relationship leadership  Selling:Selling: high task-high relationship leadershiphigh task-high relationship leadership  Participating:Participating: low task-high relationship leadershiplow task-high relationship leadership  Delegating:Delegating: low task-low relationship leadershiplow task-low relationship leadership
  20. 20. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–20 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational LeadershipHersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory (SLT)Theory (SLT)  Posits four stages follower readiness:Posits four stages follower readiness:  R1:R1: followers are unable and unwillingfollowers are unable and unwilling  R2:R2: followers are unable but willingfollowers are unable but willing  R3:R3: followers are able but unwillingfollowers are able but unwilling  R4:R4: followers are able and willingfollowers are able and willing
  21. 21. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–21 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Leader Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton)Leader Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton)  Posits that leader behavior must be adjusted to reflectPosits that leader behavior must be adjusted to reflect the task structurethe task structure—whether it is routine, nonroutine,—whether it is routine, nonroutine, or in between—based on a sequential set of rulesor in between—based on a sequential set of rules (contingencies) for determining the form and amount(contingencies) for determining the form and amount of follower participation in decision making in a givenof follower participation in decision making in a given situation.situation.
  22. 22. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–22 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Leader Participation ModelLeader Participation Model Contingencies:Contingencies:  Decision significanceDecision significance  Importance of commitmentImportance of commitment  Leader expertiseLeader expertise  Likelihood of commitmentLikelihood of commitment  Group supportGroup support  Group expertiseGroup expertise  Team competenceTeam competence
  23. 23. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–23 Exhibit 17–5Exhibit 17–5 Leadership Styles in the Vroom Leader Participation ModelLeadership Styles in the Vroom Leader Participation Model • Decide:Decide: Leader makes the decision alone and either announces orLeader makes the decision alone and either announces or sells it to group.sells it to group. • Consult Individually:Consult Individually: Leader presents the problem to groupLeader presents the problem to group members individually, gets their suggestions, and then makes themembers individually, gets their suggestions, and then makes the decision.decision. • Consult Group:Consult Group: Leader presents the problem to group members inLeader presents the problem to group members in a meeting, gets their suggestions, and then makes the decision.a meeting, gets their suggestions, and then makes the decision. • Facilitate:Facilitate: Leader presents the problem to the group in a meetingLeader presents the problem to the group in a meeting and, acting as facilitator, defines the problem and the boundariesand, acting as facilitator, defines the problem and the boundaries within which a decision must be made.within which a decision must be made. • Delegate:Delegate: Leader permits the group to make the decision withinLeader permits the group to make the decision within prescribed limits.prescribed limits. Source: Based on V. Vroom, “Leadership and the Decision-Making Process,” Organizational Dynamics, vol. 28, no. 4 (2000), p. 84.
  24. 24. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–24 Exhibit 17–6Exhibit 17–6 Time-DrivenTime-Driven ModelModel Source: Adapted from V. Vroom, “Leadership and the Decision-Making Process,” Organizational Dynamics, vol. 28, no. 4 (2000), p. 87.
  25. 25. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–25 Contingency Theories… (cont’d)Contingency Theories… (cont’d) • Path-Goal ModelPath-Goal Model  States that the leader’s job is to assist his or herStates that the leader’s job is to assist his or her followers in attaining their goals and to providefollowers in attaining their goals and to provide direction or support to ensure their goals aredirection or support to ensure their goals are compatible with organizational goals.compatible with organizational goals.  Leaders assume different leadership styles atLeaders assume different leadership styles at different times depending on the situation:different times depending on the situation:  Directive leaderDirective leader  Supportive leaderSupportive leader  Participative leaderParticipative leader  Achievement oriented leaderAchievement oriented leader
  26. 26. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–26 Exhibit 17–7Exhibit 17–7 Path-Goal TheoryPath-Goal Theory
  27. 27. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–27 Contemporary Views on LeadershipContemporary Views on Leadership • Transactional LeadershipTransactional Leadership  Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in theLeaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role anddirection of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements.task requirements. • Transformational LeadershipTransformational Leadership  Leaders who inspire followers to transcend their ownLeaders who inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the organization byself-interests for the good of the organization by clarifying role and task requirements.clarifying role and task requirements.  Leaders who also are capable of having a profoundLeaders who also are capable of having a profound and extraordinary effect on their followers.and extraordinary effect on their followers.
  28. 28. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–28 Contemporary Views…(cont’d)Contemporary Views…(cont’d) • Charismatic LeadershipCharismatic Leadership  An enthusiastic, self-confident leader whoseAn enthusiastic, self-confident leader whose personality and actions influence people to behave inpersonality and actions influence people to behave in certain ways.certain ways.  Characteristics of charismatic leaders:Characteristics of charismatic leaders:  Have a vision.Have a vision.  Are able to articulate the vision.Are able to articulate the vision.  Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision.Are willing to take risks to achieve the vision.  Are sensitive to the environment and followerAre sensitive to the environment and follower needs.needs.  Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.Exhibit behaviors that are out of the ordinary.
  29. 29. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–29 Contemporary Views…(cont’d)Contemporary Views…(cont’d) • Visionary LeadershipVisionary Leadership  A leader who creates and articulates a realistic,A leader who creates and articulates a realistic, credible, and attractive vision of the future thatcredible, and attractive vision of the future that improves upon the present situation.improves upon the present situation. • Visionary leaders have the ability to:Visionary leaders have the ability to:  Explain the vision to others.Explain the vision to others.  Express the vision not just verbally but throughExpress the vision not just verbally but through behavior.behavior.  Extend or apply the vision to different leadershipExtend or apply the vision to different leadership contexts.contexts.
  30. 30. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–30 Contemporary Views…(cont’d)Contemporary Views…(cont’d) • Team Leadership CharacteristicsTeam Leadership Characteristics  Having patience to share informationHaving patience to share information  Being able to trust others and to give up authorityBeing able to trust others and to give up authority  Understanding when to interveneUnderstanding when to intervene • Team Leader’s JobTeam Leader’s Job  Managing the team’s external boundaryManaging the team’s external boundary  Facilitating the team processFacilitating the team process  Coaching, facilitating, handling disciplinaryCoaching, facilitating, handling disciplinary problems, reviewing team and individualproblems, reviewing team and individual performance, training, and communicationperformance, training, and communication
  31. 31. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–31 Exhibit 17–8Exhibit 17–8 Specific Team Leadership RolesSpecific Team Leadership Roles
  32. 32. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–32 Leadership Issues in the 21Leadership Issues in the 21stst CenturyCentury • Managing PowerManaging Power  Legitimate powerLegitimate power  The power a leader hasThe power a leader has as a result of his or heras a result of his or her position.position.  Coercive powerCoercive power  The power a leader hasThe power a leader has to punish or control.to punish or control.  Reward powerReward power  The power to giveThe power to give positive benefits orpositive benefits or rewards.rewards.  Expert powerExpert power  The influence a leaderThe influence a leader can exert as a result ofcan exert as a result of his or her expertise,his or her expertise, skills, or knowledge.skills, or knowledge.  Referent powerReferent power  The power of a leaderThe power of a leader that arise because of athat arise because of a person’s desirableperson’s desirable resources or admiredresources or admired personal traits.personal traits.
  33. 33. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–33 Developing Credibility and TrustDeveloping Credibility and Trust • Credibility (of a Leader)Credibility (of a Leader)  The assessment of a leader’s honesty, competence,The assessment of a leader’s honesty, competence, and ability to inspire by his or her followersand ability to inspire by his or her followers • TrustTrust  Is the belief of followers and others in the integrity,Is the belief of followers and others in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader.character, and ability of a leader.  Dimensions of trust:Dimensions of trust: integrity, competence,integrity, competence, consistency, loyalty, and openness.consistency, loyalty, and openness.  Is related to increases in job performance,Is related to increases in job performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, job satisfaction,organizational citizenship behaviors, job satisfaction, and organization commitment.and organization commitment.
  34. 34. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–34 Exhibit 17–9Exhibit 17–9 Suggestions for Building TrustSuggestions for Building Trust Practice openness.Practice openness. Be fair.Be fair. Speak your feelings.Speak your feelings. Tell the truth.Tell the truth. Show consistency.Show consistency. Fulfill your promises.Fulfill your promises. Maintain confidences.Maintain confidences. Demonstrate competence.Demonstrate competence.
  35. 35. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–35 Providing Ethical LeadershipProviding Ethical Leadership • Ethics are part of leadership when leadersEthics are part of leadership when leaders attempt to:attempt to:  Foster moral virtue through changes in attitudes andFoster moral virtue through changes in attitudes and behaviors.behaviors.  Use their charisma in socially constructive ways.Use their charisma in socially constructive ways.  Promote ethical behavior by exhibiting their personalPromote ethical behavior by exhibiting their personal traits of honesty and integrity.traits of honesty and integrity. • Moral LeadershipMoral Leadership  Involves addressing the means that a leader uses toInvolves addressing the means that a leader uses to achieve goals as well as the moral content of thoseachieve goals as well as the moral content of those goals.goals.
  36. 36. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–36 Empowering EmployeesEmpowering Employees • EmpowermentEmpowerment  Involves increasing the decision-making discretion ofInvolves increasing the decision-making discretion of workers such that teams can make key operatingworkers such that teams can make key operating decisions in develop budgets, scheduling workloads,decisions in develop budgets, scheduling workloads, controlling inventories, and solving quality problems.controlling inventories, and solving quality problems.  Why empower employees?Why empower employees?  Quicker responses problems and faster decisions.Quicker responses problems and faster decisions.  Addresses the problem of increased spans ofAddresses the problem of increased spans of control in relieving managers to work on othercontrol in relieving managers to work on other problems.problems.
  37. 37. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–37 Cross-Cultural LeadershipCross-Cultural Leadership • Universal Elements ofUniversal Elements of Effective LeadershipEffective Leadership  VisionVision  ForesightForesight  Providing encouragementProviding encouragement  TrustworthinessTrustworthiness  DynamismDynamism  PositivenessPositiveness  ProactivenessProactiveness
  38. 38. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–38 Exhibit 17–10Exhibit 17–10 Selected Cross-Cultural Leadership FindingsSelected Cross-Cultural Leadership Findings • Korean leaders are expected to be paternalistic toward employees. • Arab leaders who show kindness or generosity without being asked to do so are seen by other Arabs as weak. • Japanese leaders are expected to be humble and speak frequently. • Scandinavian and Dutch leaders who single out individuals with public praise are likely to embarrass, not energize, those individuals. • Effective leaders in Malaysia are expected to show compassion while using more of an autocratic than a participative style. • Effective German leaders are characterized by high performance orientation, low compassion, low self-protection, low team orientation, high autonomy, and high participation. Source: Based on J. C. Kennedy, “Leadership in Malaysia: Traditional Values, International Outlook,” Academy of Management Executive, August 2002, pp. 15–17; F.C. Brodbeck, M. Frese, and M. Javidan, “Leadership Made in Germany: Low on Compassion, High on Performance,” Academy of Management Executive, February 2002, pp. 16–29; M. F. Peterson and J. G. Hunt, “International Perspectives on International Leadership,” Leadership Quarterly, Fall 1997, pp. 203–31; R. J. House and R. N. Aditya, “The Social Scientific Study of Leadership: Quo Vadis?” Journal of Management, vol. 23, no. 3, (1997), p. 463; and R. J. House, “Leadership in the Twenty-First Century,” in A. Howard (ed.), The Changing Nature of Work (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1995), p. 442.
  39. 39. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–39 Gender Differences and LeadershipGender Differences and Leadership • Research FindingsResearch Findings  Males and females use different styles:Males and females use different styles:  Women tend to adopt a more democratic orWomen tend to adopt a more democratic or participative style unless in a male-dominated job.participative style unless in a male-dominated job.  Women tend to use transformational leadership.Women tend to use transformational leadership.  Men tend to use transactional leadership.Men tend to use transactional leadership.
  40. 40. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–40 Exhibit 17–11Exhibit 17–11 Where Female Managers Do Better: A ScorecardWhere Female Managers Do Better: A Scorecard Source: R. Sharpe, “As Leaders, Women Rule,” BusinessWeek, November 20. 2000, p. 75.
  41. 41. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–41 Basics of LeadershipBasics of Leadership • Give people a reason to come to work.Give people a reason to come to work. • Be loyal to the organization’s peopleBe loyal to the organization’s people • Spend time with people who do the real work ofSpend time with people who do the real work of the organization.the organization. • Be more open and more candid about whatBe more open and more candid about what business practices are acceptable and properbusiness practices are acceptable and proper and how the unacceptable ones should be fixed.and how the unacceptable ones should be fixed.
  42. 42. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–42 Leadership Can Be Irrelevant!Leadership Can Be Irrelevant! • Substitutes for LeadershipSubstitutes for Leadership  Follower characteristicsFollower characteristics  Experience, training, professional orientation, orExperience, training, professional orientation, or the need for independencethe need for independence  Job characteristicsJob characteristics  Routine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobsRoutine, unambiguous, and satisfying jobs  Organization characteristicsOrganization characteristics  Explicit formalized goals, rigid rules andExplicit formalized goals, rigid rules and procedures, or cohesive work groupsprocedures, or cohesive work groups
  43. 43. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–43 Terms to KnowTerms to Know • leaderleader • leadershipleadership • behavioral theoriesbehavioral theories • autocratic styleautocratic style • democratic styledemocratic style • laissez-faire stylelaissez-faire style • initiating structureinitiating structure • considerationconsideration • high-high leaderhigh-high leader • managerial gridmanagerial grid • Fiedler contingencyFiedler contingency modelmodel • least-preferred co-workerleast-preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire(LPC) questionnaire • leader-member relationsleader-member relations • task structuretask structure • position powerposition power • situational leadership theorysituational leadership theory (SLT)(SLT) • readinessreadiness • leader participation modelleader participation model • path-goal theorypath-goal theory • transactional leaderstransactional leaders
  44. 44. © 2007 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17–44 Terms to Know (cont’d)Terms to Know (cont’d) • transformational leaderstransformational leaders • charismatic leadercharismatic leader • visionary leadershipvisionary leadership • legitimate powerlegitimate power • coercive powercoercive power • reward powerreward power • expert powerexpert power • referent powerreferent power • credibilitycredibility • trusttrust • empowermentempowerment

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