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The simple sentence

  1. 1. The simple sentence A real sentence is a unit of complete meaning which contains….
  2. 2. Structure SUBJECT PREDICATE Verb
  3. 3. 4 basic forms Declarative (statement) Imperative (command, request) Exclamatory (Exclamation) Interrogative (question)
  4. 4. Transitive, Intransitive, and Linking Verbs Here goes…..
  5. 5. Transitive Verbs • A transitive verb is an action verb which requires a direct object to complete its meaning. In other words, the action of the verb is transferred to the object directly. •
  6. 6. Explanation • How do I know when a verb is transitive? Ask whether the action is done to someone or something. Does someone or something receive the action of the verb? YES. Ok, then the verb is transitive and the person or thing that receives the action is: The direct object (DO).
  7. 7. Examples • In the following sentences, the transitive verb is bold and the direct object is underlined. • The policeman arrested the man. (The subject (the policeman) applies an action (arrested) to a direct object (the man).
  8. 8. Try this: • The lawyer has revealed the bad news. • Who is the subject? • What is the action being performed? • To whom or what? (the direct object)
  9. 9. Let’s try the next sentence: • The defendant could not provide a defense. • Who is the subject • What action is transmitted? • What is the direct object?
  10. 10. What is a Direct Object? John hit the ball. • The direct object is the receiver of the action mentioned in the sentence.
  11. 11. Locating the direct object… • In order to identify the object, you just need to put the word ‘what’ or ‘whom’ after the verb. • The cat chased the mouse. The cat chased what? – the mouse • The lion killed the deer. The lion killed what? – the deer • I love my daughter. I love whom? – my daughter
  12. 12. Locating the direct object… • The object can also be a gerund or an infinitive. She enjoys reading. She enjoys what? – reading • Here the object is the –ing form ‘reading’. He needs to work hard. He needs what? – to work hard • Here the object is the to-infinitive ‘to work hard’.
  13. 13. Locating the direct object… • The object can be a noun clause. I don’t know why she is angry with me. I don’t know what? – why she is angry with me. I thought you weren’t coming. I thought what? – you weren’t coming. Could you tell me why you painted the walls black? Could you tell me what? – why you painted the walls black.
  14. 14. Indirect Objects What are they? He gives Jenny flowers. • The indirect object can be a noun or a pronoun. It usually refers to the person who receives the direct object.
  15. 15. Locating the indirect object… • To identify the indirect object, put the question ‘to whom/what or for whom/what?’ after the verb. He gave his daughter all his money. He gave to/for whom? – his daughter. He gave what? – all his money. NOTE: The direct object usually refers to a thing. The indirect object usually refers to a person.
  16. 16. When the verb has two objects. • Common verbs that can take two objects are: give, take, lent, buy, bring, fetch, get etc. • In this case we use pattern 7… • NO! It is PATTERN THREE (3)
  17. 17. When the verb has two objects • 1. S + TV + IO + DO This form of pattern is preferred when the indirect object is a pronoun or when it is shorter than the direct object. • I lent him (indirect object) my camera (direct object). • She brought me a cup of tea. • The teacher gave us some advice. • I have given him his money. • You must tell him the truth. • My father bought me a nice laptop.
  18. 18. When the verb has two objects • S + TV + DO + Preposition + IO Note: We have to use the preposition ‘to’ or ‘for’ between the direct object and the indirect object. This form of the pattern is preferred when the indirect object is longer than the direct object. • I lent my camera (direct object) to a friend of mine. (indirect object) • She made tea for her guests. • The teacher gave some advice to her students. • I have given his money to him. • You must tell the truth to the police. • My father bought a nice laptop for me.
  19. 19. Intransitive Verbs
  20. 20. Intransitive Verbs • An intransitive verb is an action verb, which does not require a direct object. • The action ends rather than being transferred to some person or object. • It can modified by an adverb or adverb phrase. (Typically, an adverb or prepositional phrase modifies an intransitive verb or the verb ends the sentence).
  21. 21. How will I know if the verb is intransitive? • Ask when, where, how or why the action is done. (Notice, this sounds like the function of an adverb!) Alice complained bitterly. (Notice that this sentence ends with an adverb.) • Adverbs are words that provide information about the time, manner or place of the activity mentioned by the verb. Adverbs may also indicate the frequency with which an action is done. Examples are: carefully, eagerly, anxiously (manner), yesterday, soon, now, then, always (time and frequency), there, here, upstairs, somewhere(place).
  22. 22. How will I know if the verb is intransitive? • Does it look like Pattern 1? Granny is coming on Monday. A gentle breeze was blowing across the meadow. The children are playing upstairs.
  23. 23. Examples: • The adverb or prepositional phrase answers a question about the verb: • The subject did something WHERE? • Charlie had run into the street. • In 1973, the imprisonment number inched upwards.
  24. 24. Notice (continued)… • The subject did something WHEN? • Thousands of cranes will return in the spring. • The number climbed in 1974 and in 1975. • Try this one: Walter Payton died near the end of the century. The company’s leader collapsed during the meeting.
  25. 25. Continued…. • The subject did something HOW or TO WHAT DEGREE? • The statistics come in any form you like. • Politicians and the public are complaining loudly. • Try these: His blood pressure kept climbing steadily. She worked with care and precision.
  26. 26. Yet again… • The subject did something WHY? • Our elected officials listen because we vote. • Dana’s grades improved with the help of a tutor. • Try these: Germany’s expedition leader collapsed from the effort. Elise competed for her family.
  27. 27. Linking Verbs
  28. 28. Finally…. Linking Verbs. • A linking verb implies a state of being or condition for the subject, not action. It links the subject to a noun, pronoun, or adjective in a sentence. • Linking verbs restate the subject.
  29. 29. Examples: • Sara is a genius. • is = linking verb, a genius = noun phrase
  30. 30. Try these: • Roads were a mess on Thursday morning. • Yesterday was a sad day. • Before the show, she seemed nervous.
  32. 32. Hold on just a minute… • Many verbs can be linking, transitive, or intransitive depending on their function. • Examples: • Linking: The nation’s mood turned sour. • (The subject is not engaged in an action. Turned links mood with a state of being– sour.
  33. 33. Next… • More examples…. • Transitive: The judge turned the pages quickly. • (The subject was engaged in the action (turned) and that action was transferred to an object (pages)
  34. 34. And finally…. • Intransitive • The lawyer turned suddenly toward the back of the courtroom. • The subject was engaged in an action (turned) and that action was done in a particular way (suddenly) but not to someone or something.
  35. 35. Complements How many do you know?
  36. 36. Subject Complement • A subject complement is a word or phrase which follows a linking verb. It either modifies the subject or says something related to the subject. • Jane is an advocate. • Susie became a travel writer. • I am very excited. • Alice is in the office.
  37. 37. Object Complement • An object complement is a word or phrase which follows a direct object. An object complement either modifies the object or says something about it. • I consider hang-gliding dangerous. • They appointed him monitor.
  38. 38. Let’s practice Identify the verb, subject complement, direct object, indirect object and object complement in the following sentences. • 1. George is the captain. • 2. The judge pronounced the judgment. • 3. My sister looked worried. • 4. Parents should be kind to their children. • 5. Mother brought us tea. • 6. The officer asked him several questions.
  39. 39. Let’s practice • 7. Let us send him our greetings. • 8. We should keep our surroundings clean. • 9. My aunt has brought me a computer. • 10. The class elected Martin their monitor. • 11. Our visit made the host happy. • 12. This book is interesting.