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1.analysis of project requirements : 1. input data and desired output 2. processing required to transform input tooutput 3.cost benifit analysis 4.schedule of project 2.technical feasibility : focuses on:1. availability of software tools2.availability of hardware3.availability of skilled software professionals
at the end of this phase a feasibilityreport is generated.
1.an SRS ( software requirement specification)document is generated. 2. SRS is a formal document includesperformance, functional, software ,hardware andnetwork requirements of the project. 3.it acts as an agreement between developmentteam and customer .
SRS requirement translated into araw and logical structure .
uses linear approach , that means it provide no processto go back to previous phase tohandle changes in therequirement.
2. a prototype is generated acc torequirements of software that tellscustomer how the software is going tofunction and to get better knowledge ofrequirements.until the customer approves the prototype ,generating a new prototype is continued (before finalizing and frozing therequirements )
types of prototypes :1. throwaway prototypes: those prototypes that are eventually discarded rather than becoming a part of finally delivered software.2. evolutionary prototypes: are thosethat evolve into the final systemthrough iterative incoorperation ofuser(ustomer) feedback.
includes both iterative nature ofprototyping approach and linearnature of waterfall approach.example: evolution of windowsoperating system from windows 3.1 towindows 2000
here the concept is same as spiralapproach but also includes time of identifyingrequirements,communication andplanning
there are number of functional units ,each containing group of similar tasks. each functional unit is implementedwith an increment and final product isacheived after all units areimplemented in the developmentprocess.
limitation:applicable only to large applications.
1. classes and objects classes: an abstract data type thatcontains set of attributes and functions.object: instance of classall the objects share same copy ofmember functions ,but maintain aseperate copy of the member data.
2. inheritance : sharing of attributes and behavioursamong classes based upon hierarchialrelationship.
3. abstraction: focuses on essential inherent aspects ofan entity ignoring its implementationdetdails .
4. encapsulation:also called information hiding .it involves preventing access to non-essential details .
5. polymorphism concept of using same operatiors orfunctions in different ways dependingon what they are operating on.