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Chapter 15.2 Acid-Base Theories

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Chapter 15.2 Acid-Base Theories

  1. 1. Acid-base theories<br />Section 15 - 2<br />
  2. 2. Objectives<br />Define and recognize Bronsted-Lowry acids and bases.<br />Define a Lewis acid and a Lewis base.<br />Name compounds that are acids under the Lewis definition but are not acids under the Bronsted-Lowry definitions<br />
  3. 3. Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases<br />Expansion of Arrhenius acid definition<br />Bronsted-Lowry Acid<br />Molecule or ion that is a proton donor<br />HCl + NH3 NH4+ + Cl-<br />H+ is a proton<br />HCl donates H+ (proton) to NH3<br />H Cl + H N H H N H + Cl <br /> H H<br />Bronsted-Lowry Base<br />Molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor<br />NH3 accepts H+ (proton) from HCl<br />Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction<br />Protons are transferred from one reactant (the acid) to another (the base)<br />+<br />H<br />_<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />
  4. 4. Monoprotic and Polyprotic Acids<br />Monoprotic<br />Acid that only donates one proton<br />HCl + H2O H3O++ Cl-<br />Polyprotic<br />Acid that can donate more than one proton per molecule.<br />H2SO4+ H2O H3O+ + HSO4-<br />HSO4-+ H2O H3O+ + SO42-<br />Diprotic and triprotic<br />Obvious!<br />
  5. 5. Lewis Acids and Bases<br />Lewis Acid<br />Atom, ion, or molecule that accepts an electron pair to form a covalent bond.<br />Broadest of 3 definitions<br />Lewis Base<br />An atom , ion, or molecule that donates an electron pair to form a covalent bond.<br />Lewis acid-base reaction<br />Formation of one or more covalent bonds between an electron-pair donor and an electron-pair acceptor<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />:<br />H<br />H<br />F<br />F<br />F B + N H F B N H <br /> F H F H<br />:<br />

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