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Cross reference

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A Bible Study on using Cross References: Charles e Whisnant

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Cross reference

  1. 1. http://cwhisna.blogspot.com/2007_04_01_archive.html Cross - References THE BIBLE STUDY METHODS Whisnant’s Style • Today I am going to start a series on articles of how I have studied the Scriptures since 1982. All my studies were by reading books. I can’t conceive what it would have been like with the current ability to use the material on the in Internet. I will list the references books used in my studies and some current tools for Bible Study as well. It is important to keep in mind the need to arrive at a basic understanding (author’s intent) of the passage being studied before moving on to other passages, in order to avoid making inaccurate comparisons Keep in mind the "word study" method is different than Cross References. You are looking at the word as used in the Old or New. Cross Reference you view the thought as well as the words. Protestant Biblical Interpretation, A Textbook of hermeneutics for Conservative Protestants: by Bernard Ramm 1956 • Used in Bible Baptist Seminary 1967 Summer School - Dr. George L. Norris THE PRINCIPLE OF INTERPRETATION BY PROPER USE OF CROSS REFERENCES. There is no other commentary on the Bible so helpful as the Bible itself. There is not a difficult passage in the Bible that not explained and made clear by other passages in the Bible. • The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge From Genesis to Revelation. Key words of verses and scripture references, parallel passages. List of verses. • The Reference Passage Bible (with O.T. references. Complied by I.N. Johns Since 1984 I used this book. All the books of the New Testament are printed out, and what are good reference passages are written out as well. • Word Pictures in the New Testament by Archibald T. Robertson - Six Volumes Used since 1984 at FBC, Altoona. Book by book Verse by verse. Theological. Greek. Grammar. Excellent. And great for cross-references. The topic may occur two or more places in Scripture, and the interpreter may gather information from one reference to guide his interpretation of another. Cross References may be Verbal, or Conceptual, or Parallel. 1 Verbal is a reference which contains the same word or expression occurring in the passage being interpreted, but not all verbal are valid for exegetical purposes. 1 Read Verbal CR is a reference in which the words used in one instance aid in the understanding of the same word in another instance. "Soul." "Spirit." "Flesh." "Son of man." etc. Hebrew/Greek concordances A Critical Lexicon and Concordance to the English/Greek New Testament
  2. 2. By Bullinger. • The design of this work is to give every English word in alphabetical order, and under each, the Greek word or words so translated, with a list of the passages in which the English word occurs. Showing by a reference figure which is the Greek word used in each particular passage. Thus, at one view, the Greek word with its literal and derivative meaning may be found for every word in the English New Testament, in the KJV One English word might have several Greek words. 2 Apparent References containing the same word or expression could be coincidence. Etc. sacrifice, wood, or save. An uncritical listing of word-occurrences can lead to some silly mistakes. 2 Conceptual CR: are those references which, although not containing the same words, contain the same substance. Etc. • Hebrews 2 / Philippians 3 discuss the incarnation. I Corinthians 15/ Revelation 20 discuss the resurrection from the dead. They enable one to see a given passage in greater depth and detail. What one passage omits the other contains. What we would be tempted to read into a passage is checked by what a conceptual CR contains. Example. Paul apparently considers "the filling of the Spirit and letting the word of Christ dwell in us richly? (Eph 5:L18, Col. 3:16) as equivalent expressions. 3 Parallel CR: are those passages in one book of the Bible which recount the same events or material in another part of the Bible. • To get a full account and the necessary facts before us, it is necessary to have all parallel passages examined.. A harmony of all four Gospels would be necessary data to interpret any given passage in the Gospel. I studied the Life of Christ in Seminary. My College notebook had three hundred and fifty eight pages. The Harmony of the Gospel, by A. T. Robertson (used in Seminary) The life of Paul, may be reconstructed from the book of Acts and from biographical remarks in the Epistles. THE BIBLE STUDY METHODS "HOW TO STUDY THE BIBLE" TO BETTER KNOW OUR GOD A Study on the Practice and Methodology of Effective Bible Study Whisnant’s Style The Problem of InterpretationHow do we know if we are interpreting the Bible correctly? Is there even such a thing as a "correct" interpretation?
  3. 3. Cross - References • Are you serious Charles, you want to address this subject of how to study the Bible?" Note I said, how I have studied the Bible. That is different. A number of trustworthy books provide Bible study methods.On the Web there are many. The Most Essential Tool - An open and willing heart. Without this most important tool we will never profit from our study, no matter how much we may learn. We must be willing to be taught whenever we approach the Bible, allowing it to be an instrument of change in our lives rather than bending it to support our treasured ideas. The word of God possesses great power but only if it is studied honestly and with a willingness to allow God to speak through it to us. As we read the Bible we must constantly be thinking of what the Bible is telling us, not what we want it to tell us. Howard Hendricks • "Dusty Bibles lead to dirty lives. In fact, you are either in the Word and the Word is conforming you to the image of Jesus Christ, or you are in the world and the world is squeezing you into its mold." Henry Ward Beecher wisely said that... • "The Bible is God’s chart for you to steer by, to keep you from the bottom of the sea, and to show you where the harbor is, and how to reach it without running on rocks or bars." As D. L. Moody said... • "The study of God’s Word brings peace to the heart...light for every darkness, life in death, the promise of our Lord’s return, and the assurance of everlasting glory." Phillips Brooks said that... "The Bible is like a telescope. If a man looks through his telescope, then he sees worlds beyond: but if he looks at his telescope, then he does not see anything but that. The Bible is a thing to be looked through, to see that which is beyond; but most people only look at it; and so they see only the dead letter." CROSS REFERENCE Cross Reference - A system of cross references, like those found in most modern reference Bibles or in dedicated works such as "The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge," (which contains over 600,000 cross references, several different indexes, and a comprehensive note system) can refer you to other passages that relate to the one being studied. Cross references are quite possibly the single most important and useful Bible study tool available as they operate on the foundational principle of allowing the Bible to be its own interpreter. When purchasing a study Bible it is a good idea to review the type of cross referencing system it employs as well as the quantity of references printed. Many of today’s study Bibles have an average of 50,000 cross references. A concordance, such as those mentioned above, is useful in cross referencing specific words and phrases so that methods of usage of
  4. 4. a specific word sequence may be discovered. A good cross reference system allows you to follow concepts and ideas throughout the Bible as well as specific words and phrases. Below is a portion of the entry for Genesis 1:1 taken from "The New Treasury of Scripture Knowledge," edited by Jerome H. Smith: I used the old Treasury of Scripture 1. beginning. Pr *8:22-24. 16:4. Mk 13:19. Jn 1:1-3. 15:27. Ac 1:1, 22. He1:10. 1 J 1:1. Re 3:14. God. Heb. Elohim. S#430h. Ge 2:2 +19:29. Ex +2:24. Ps +45:6. 89:11, 12.5p 3:9. Col *1:16, 17, 18. He *1:2. Created. Ge 1:21, 27. 2:3…… As you can see, there are entries keyed to each major word (in bold text), allowing you to follow specific themes, ideas, and usages through the entire Bible. In certain instances the Hebrew or Greek original meaning is given (in italic text) and numerous topical entries are also catalogued and extensive notes are included as well. A complex but understandable system of symbols allows you to determine which cross references you wish to follow. Cross references, either in a study Bible or in a stand alone resource, will indicate to which words the cross references apply by a letter, symbol or some other method. Give yourself a lot of time to properly explore the cross references, especially if using a resource such as The Treasury of Scripture Knowledge (which contains several hundred thousand cross references). Avoid distraction. As you explore the cross references you will come across verses which seem to require follow up (this is especially true if you are using a computer based study Bible). Stay close to your primary area of inquiry and follow the side trails as time permits. If possible use two Bibles, one to keep open to the passage you are studying and the second with which to look up the various cross references. EXAMPLE USED FOR CROSS REFERENCES IN THE STUDY OF A MESSAGE USED FROM I PETER 1:13-20. Used in a sermon preached at FBC in 1994. This article is SIX pages thus I will post over several days. Charles E. Whisnant THE PRECIOUS BLOOD OF CHRIST THE BIBLE STUDY METHODS "HOW TO STUDY THE BIBLE" TO BETTER KNOW OUR GOD A Study on the Practice and Methodology of Effective Bible Study Cross - References THE PRECIOUS BLOOD OF JESUS I PETER 1:19 Respected expositor John MacArthur emphasizes that... "In Bible study, get the right message from the right passage. Don’’t ""proof text"" your bias or opinions by making the Bible say what you already know you want it to say." (MacArthur, J., F. How to get the most from God's word.
  5. 5. Howard Hendricks adds that "Telescopic reading is based on this principle (of examining the text in the broader context). It never settles for close-ups alone; it always demands the wide- angle lens of perspective. It always asks, What is the big picture?" He goes on to comment that evaluation of "the passage in light of the book as a whole... is the ultimate extension of checking the context. It ?’’s like flying a plane over some land in order to evaluate distances and relationships." (Hendricks, H. G. Living by the book. Chicago: Moody Press) One example that I like to use most is from 1 Peter 1:19 but with precious blood, as of a lamb without spot, even the blood of Christ: "http://www.OnlineBible.Org" for latest material and information. Online Bible: CD: I have used this CD since 1983 at FBC. It’s KJV, and most valuable. PRECIOUS 5092,5093(Strong’s number of PRECIOUS) rom 5099; TDNT-8:169,1181; n f held worth, estimated, honored, hence, valued, prized, precious. AV-honor 35, price 8, sum 1, precious 1; 43 1) a valuing by which the price is fixed 1a) of the price itself 1b) of the price paid or received for a person or thing bought or sold 2) honor which belongs or is shown to one 2a) of the honor which one has by reason of rank and state of office which he holds 2b) deference, reverence • Ex 12:5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male a year old: ye shall take it from the sheep, or from the goats: Ex 12:6 and ye shall keep it until the fourteenth day of the same month; and the whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it at even. Ex 12:7 And they shall take of the blood, and put it on the two side-posts and on the lintel, upon the houses wherein they shall eat it. • Jas 5:7 Be patient therefore, brethren, until the coming of the Lord. Behold, the husbandman waiteth for the precious fruit of the earth, being patient over it, until it receive the early and latter rain. • 1Co 3:12 But if any man buildeth on the foundation gold, silver, costly stones, wood, hay, stubble; • I Peter 1:19 but with precious blood, as of a lamb without spot, [even the blood] of Christ: of very great value or price rather than much more precious • But with the precious <5093> blood <129> of Christ, as a lamb <286> without blemish <299> and without spot <784> • Heb 9:22 "And according to the law, I may almost say, all things are cleansed with blood, and apart from shedding of blood there is no remission." (A pouring out) By the shedding of blood; not by the shedding of it, as it flows out of the body of the sacrifice, but as it is poured out on the altar; for the pouring of the blood at the four corners, and at the bottom of the altar A CRITICAL Lexicon and Concordance to the English and Greek New Testament by Bullinger BLOOD
  6. 6. • 1 Peter 2:22 who did no sin, neither was guile found in his mouth:23 who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered threatened not; but committed himself to him that judgeth righteously:24 who his own self bare our sins in his body upon the tree, that we, having died unto sins, might live unto righteousness; by whose stripes ye were healed. • 1 Peter 3:18 Because Christ also suffered for sins once, the righteous for the unrighteous, that he might bring us to God; being put to death in the flesh, but made alive in the spirit; • Daniel 9:24 Seventy weeks are decreed upon thy people and upon thy holy city, to finish transgression, and to make an end of sins, and to make reconciliation for iniquity, and to bring in everlasting righteousness, and to seal up vision and prophecy, and to anoint the most holy. • Matthew 20:28 even as the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many. • Matthew 26:28 for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many unto remission of sins. • Acts 20:28 Take heed unto yourselves, and to all the flock, in which the Holy Spirit hath made you bishops, to feed the church of the Lord which he purchased with his own blood. • Ephesians 1:7 in whom we have our redemption through his blood, the forgiveness of our trespasses, according to the riches of his grace, • Colossians 1:14 in whom we have our redemption, the forgiveness of our sins: • Hebrews 9:12 nor yet through the blood of goats and calves, but through his own blood, entered in once for all into the holy place, having obtained eternal redemption.:13 For if the blood of goats and bulls, and the ashes of a heifer sprinkling them that have been defiled, sanctify unto the cleanness of the flesh::14 how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish unto God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God? • 1 John 1:7 but if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanseth us from all sin. • 1 John 2:2 and he is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the whole world. • Revelation 1:5 and from Jesus Christ, who is the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. Unto him that loveth us, and loosed us from our sins by his blood; • Revelation 5:9 And they sing a new song, saying, Worthy art thou to take the book, and to open the seals thereof: for thou was slain, and didst purchase unto God with thy blood men of every tribe, and tongue, and people, and nation, Next we will look that the word "lamb." cross references.... Cross - References THE PRECIOUS BLOOD OF JESUS I PETER 1:19 Part Four (April 11, 12,13 2007) Exodus 12:5 Your lamb shall be without blemish, a male a year old: ye shall take it from the sheep, or from the goats:
  7. 7. LAMB • Leviticus 4:32 And if he bring a lamb as his oblation for a sin-offering, he shall bring it a female without blemish. as of a lamb without spot and blemish; Christ is comparable to any lamb, for the innocence of his nature, the meekness of his disposition and deportment, and for his patience under sufferings and in death; and to the lambs of the daily sacrifice, which were typical of the continual and constant virtue and efficacy of his sacrifice to take away sin; and particularly to the paschal lamb, he being the true passover sacrificed for us; and which, as also the lambs of the daily sacrifice, and all others, were to be without spot and blemish: and in which they prefigured Christ, who is without the stain of original, and the spot and blemish of actual sin; and so was a very fit person to be a sacrifice for sin, and a Redeemer of his people. • Isaiah 53:7 He was oppressed, yet when he was afflicted he opened not his mouth; as a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and as a sheep that before its shearers is dumb, so he opened not his mouth. • John 1:29 On the morrow he seeth Jesus coming unto him, and saith, Behold, the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world! • John 1:36 and he looked upon Jesus as he walked, and saith, Behold, the Lamb of God! • Acts 8:32 Now the passage of the Scripture which he was reading was this, He was led as a sheep to the slaughter; And as a lamb before his shearer is dumb, So he openeth not is mouth:33 In his humiliation his judgment was taken away: His generation who shall declare? For his life is taken from the earth.:34 And the eunuch answered Philip, and said, I pray thee, of whom speaketh the prophet this? of himself, or of some other? 1 Corinthians 5:7 Purge out the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, even as ye are unleavened. For our passover also hath been sacrificed, even Christ: • 1 Corinthians 5:8 wherefore let us keep the feast, not with old leaven, neither with the leaven of malice and wickedness, but with the unleavened bread of sincerity and truth. • Revelation 5:6 And I saw in the midst of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, a Lamb standing, as though it had been slain, having seven horns, and seven eyes, which are the seven Spirits of God, sent forth into all the earth. • And I say unto him, My lord, thou knowest. And he said to me, These are they that come out of the great tribulation, and they washed their robes, and made them white in the blood of the Lamb. PRECIOUS • Ps 49:6 They that trust in their wealth, And boast themselves in the multitude of their riches; 7 None [of them] can by any means redeem his brother, Nor give to God a ransom for him; 8 (For the redemption of their life is costly, And it faileth for ever;) Ps 49:9 That he should still live away, That he should not see corruption. "costly." • Psalms 72:14 He will redeem their soul from oppression and violence; And precious
  8. 8. will their blood be in his sight: BLEMISH • Nu 6:14 and he shall offer his oblation unto Jehovah, one he-lamb a year old without blemish for a burnt-offering, and one ewe-lamb a year old without blemish for a sin- offering, and one ram without blemish for peace-offerings, Lev 22:17-25 21 And whosoever offereth a sacrifice of peace-offerings unto Jehovah to accomplish a vow, or for a freewill-offering, of the herd or of the flock, it shall be perfect to be accepted; there shall be no blemish therein. BLEMISH <299> meaning: rom 1 (as a negative particle) and 3470; TDNT-4:830,619; adj AV-without rebuke 2, without blame 1, unblameable 1, without spot 1, faultless 1, without fault 1; 7 1) without blemish 1a) as a sacrifice without spot or blemish 2) morally: without blemish, faultless, unblameable Hebrews 9:14 how much more shall the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish unto God, cleanse your conscience from dead works to serve the living God? SPOT <784> • Song of Solomon 4:7 Thou art all fair, my love; And there is no spot in thee. • Ephesians 5:27 that he might present the church to himself a glorious church, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. Cross - References THE BIBLE STUDY METHODS Whisnant’s Style Part Five THE PRINCIPLE OF INTERPRETATION BY PROPER USE OF CROSS REFERENCES THE PRECIOUS BLOOD OF JESUS I PETER 1:19 but with precious blood, as of a lamb without spot, even the blood of Christ: I Peter is a study of the doctrine of Redemption Christological. Practical exhortation and comfort for the daily needs of believers. 1 Peter 19 Peter designates the Lord as the Lamb without spot (inherent blame) and blemish (external defilement). The Complete Biblical Library The New Testament Study Bible 16 Volume 1986. I had the first volumes as they came out over a year and a half in 1986. Outstanding without comparison.
  9. 9. "The ransom price was the "precious" (timio, most valuable) blood of Christ. As a lamb brought to the slaughter (Isaiah 53:7), "without spot" (aspilou, unstained), fitting the requirements of the Paschal Lamb (see Exodus 12:5). The "Lamb of God" (John 1:29,36) must be perfect. Any lesser sacrifice would be unacceptable (see Leviticus 22:20)" First Peter 1:19 THEOLOGICAL Theological interpretation is characterized by: • an extension of the grammatical meaning to discover its fuller theological significance • a synoptic view of all the Biblical data on given subject. The justification for doctrinal hermeneutics is the claim of Scripture to contain a knowledge of God which may be expressed as teaching. • Jesus was in His own ministry a doctrinal teacher. • People were astonished at His teaching (John 7:16) • He invited men to discover its divine origin (John 7:17) Paul speaks • of obeying doctrine from the heart (Romans 6:17) • warns us of false doctrines (Eph 4:14) • warns Timothy to be careful of sound doctrine • refers to doctrine at least 12 times in the books of Timothy. • the first profit of the Scripture is doctrine. 2 Tim 3:16-17 Doctrine gives the Christian faith its substance and form. The Blood Of Christ refers to the means by which God can redeem the lost. Blood Lamb Cross - References THE BIBLE STUDY METHODS Whisnant’s Style Part Six J. I. Packer is surely correct when says that... "If I were the devil, one of my first aims would be to stop folk from digging into the Bible." THEOLOGICAL Theological interpretation is characterized by: an extension of the grammatical meaning to discover its fuller theological significance a synoptic view of all the Biblical data on given subject. Peter is talking about Redemption:
  10. 10. Who are we Redeemed by:? Jesus Christ. Christ is the spotless lamb, that was the sacrifice for sin. Vs. 19 says it was blood, but not just blood, but precious blood. The blood is the life. The value of Christ’s blood is precious because of the dignity of His nature, because of His perfect character. Without blemish, that is without sin. Without spot, that is, not defiled by contact with sinners. And thus it was adequate for the work of cleansing away the terrible aggregate of sin. PRECIOUS: Yes • When viewed in connection with the Father’s purpose and the Father’s love • When viewed in connection with the person of Christ and • When viewed in its bearing upon men. Don’t we think of one who has shed his blood as one who willingly, resolutely gave the whole force of his moral nature, the whole wealth of his heart, his character, and his soul! In like manner we should think of the blood of Jesus Christ, which cleanseth us from all sin, not as deriving its worth or its efficacy from that which was outward or physical or material, to as being vested in the blood itself as blood. Should we not rather a thousand times say the preciousness of the blood of Christ was in inward, and personal, the spiritual and Divine life which dwelt and throbbed in that blood? Word Pictures in the New Testament by Archibald T. Robertson 1933 I Peter 1:19 comments: Word study, Cross References, Greek Grammar, etc. • "But with precious blood" (alla timioi haimati) Instrumental case of haima after elutrothete (repeated from verse 18). Peter here applies the old adjective timios (from time, of Christ in I Peter 2:7) to Christ as in 1:7 polutimoteron to testing of faith. • The blood of anyone is "precious" (costly), far above gold or silver, (18) but that of Jesus immeasurably more so. • "As of a lamb" (hos amnou). This word occurs in Lev. 12:8, Num. 15:112 Deut. 14:4 of the lamb prescribed for the passover sacrifice (Exodus 12:5). John the Baptist applied it to Jesus (John 1:29, 36). It occurs also in Acts 8:32 quoted from Isa 53:7. Both John and Peter have this passage in mind. • Elsewhere in the N.T. Arnion is used of Christ (Rev. 5:6, 12). Jesus is the Paschal Lamb. • Peter sees clearly that it was by the blood of Christ that we are redeemed from sin. • "Without spot" (aspilou). Without (alpha privative) stain (spiolos) as in James 1:27, II Peter 3:14, I Peter 6;14). • "Even the blood of Christ" (Christou) Genitive case with haimati, but in unusual position for emphasis and clearness with the participles following.] Biblical Theology of the New Testament: Charles C. Ryrie • Biblical Theology is concerned with the reason why something was written as well as with the content of what was written. It not only examines the product but investigates the procedures and presuppositionals that went into the writing of the Scripture • The theology of the Bible emerges out of the thought of the writers as seen in their writing; it is never superimposed on those writings From the Gospels to Revelation it’s a progressive history of the revelation of God.. • Nave’s TOPICAL BIBLE I used this book in 1966. It analyzes topically each verse in the Bible Topics from Aaron to
  11. 11. Worship, with scriptural verses under each name, place, topic. 1500 pages. • John MacArthur’s series on First Peter of course without John’s notes I would have been a duck out of water. • While I used mostly over 50 reference books for this series, there was a lot of study involved in these one hour sermons taught. I typed these series. The 34 messages printed on 384 pages plus 34 outlines. But the message that still stands out today in my mind after 12 years is 1 Peter 1:18-19. • Study for Discipleship Hour at Bigelow Church Easter Sunday April 8th 2007 Series on I Peter preached at First Baptist Church September 1994 to July 1995 I Peter 1:18-19 60.27 on April 30 1995 and 60.28 on May 7, 1995 60 being 60th book in the Bible, and .27 the number of sermons in the series. You put all this study together and a sermon is developed. Which I did for over 13 years at FBC. ANY SERIOUS STUDENT OF THE WORD OF GOD Christian students who are not Pastors/Preachers/Teachers should do at least the following: Reading the Scripture from Genesis to Revelation is the first priority of any student of the Scripture. Read the Scripture systematically, one book at a time. Start with Genesis and the 39 books in the Old and then the 27 books in the New. Any serious student will read the Bible not less than once a year. Any serious student will have a biblical library of books of reference helps. Any serious student will have CD’s library on biblical helps. Any serious student will study on his own the Word of God. Any serious student will listen to John MacArthur, Jr. Any serious student will listen to Bible Teachers who teach the Word of God one book at a time. Prior to 2004 I did not use the Internet for any Bible study, only books. Today there are many web sites that will help you in this area of study. CD’s will also help.