The hallmark of individualized instruction is that many of the
instruction events typically carried out by the instructor with a
group of students are now presented to the individual student
through instructional materials. The authors recommend that
you produce self-instructional materials in your first attempt
at instructional design, that is, the materials should permit the
student to learn the new information and skills without any
intervention from an instructor or fellow students.
Describe factors that may cause revisions in media selections and
delivery systems for given instruction.
Name and describe the components of an instructional package.
List four categories of criteria for judging the appropriateness of
existing instructional materials.
Describe the designer’s role in materials development and
Name appropriate rough draft materials for various final media.
Given an instructional strategy, describe the procedures for
developing instructional materials.
Develop instructional material based on a given instructional
The Delivery System and Media
Availability of existing instructional materials.
o Existing materials could be substituted for planned materials on a
scale ranging from a single motivational sequence in one lesson,
to an entire course or curriculum.
Production and implementation constraints
o Media formats and delivery systems that look expensive are
Amount of instructor facilitation
o The first steps in adoption of a new technology are usually attempts to
replicate the features of the old technology classroom.
o When discussion and feedback are provided by the instructor, initial
materials development costs are lower however, per-student costs are
high and the course cannot be scaled up in size without hiring
Components of an
o contain the content -either written, mediated, or facilitated
by an instructor.
o Pretest and Posttest that have been planned to be
Course management information
o Instructors manual- how to use the instructional material,
test, and so on.
All instructional material should be accompanied by
objective tests or by product or performance assessments.
These may include a pretest and/or a posttest.
There is often a general description of the total package, typically called the
manual, which provides the instructor with an overview of the materials. It
might include the
tests and other information considered important for implementing the
student guidance templates
automated class listing
a variety of communication and messaging mechanisms
Special attention should be paid to the ease with which course management
information can be
used by the instructor or course manager.
They contain the content – either written, mediated or facilitated
by an instructor (the content includes materials for the major
objectives, the terminal objective, and any materials for
enhancing memory and transfer).
Instructional materials refer to any preexisting materials that are
being incorporated, as well as to those that will be specifically
developed for the objectives.
The materials may also include information that the learners
will use to guide their progress through the instruction.
o congruence between the content in the materials and your
terminal and performance objectives.
o adequacy of content coverage and completeness
Selecting Existing Instructional
Learner-centered appropriateness of if the existing materials for the
o Vocabulary and language
o developmental, motivation, and interest levels
o backgrounds and experiences
o special language or needs
Learning-centered appropriateness of the materials in terms of
Context centered Appropriateness of the materials for the
instructional and performance context
The Designer’s Role in
Material Development and
The designer the materials developer the instructor
Individualized instruction Their role in instructional delivery is passive,
but their role
As a facilitator is very active
Instructors select and adapt materials to suit their instructional strategy
more increased role in delivering instruction
Heavily dependent on instructor
Designer the instructor
The best way is to meet with and learn from the developer
Designer should conduct the on-site learner and context analyses
Materials for Formative
Rough draft materials
o Go light on the early analysis steps of an instructional design
o Develop prototype instructional materials rapidly
o Use quick interactive cycles of formative evaluation
o Revise to shape the final form of the materials.
o Simultaneous design and development
Material development tools and resources
Beginning the Development Process
Media production tends to be highly specialized for each different media
delivery system. Seldom will you, as an instructional designer, be
responsible for actual media production, with the possible exception of
small, in-house projects. At the same time, you will be working with
media production specialists, and it's a good idea to have a working
knowledge of what it is they do, to facilitate communication and
understand their problems and capabilities.
There is no substitute for hands-on experience in this area, and we
encourage you to take advantage of course projects, internships, and other
opportunities to obtain some of that firsthand knowledge. In the
meantime, here are some brief descriptions of the major production
processes and the people that carry them out.
Steps in the
Instruction Creating instructional materials is time consuming and, likely, costly. It's much
more effective to find existing materials that may be able to be adopted or
amended to meet your needs.
If creating new materials is deemed necessary, a variety of tools can be used to
help plan and carry out the development process.
Preproduction activities are implemented before materials are created, and often
include identification and scheduling the tasks, specifying the treatment,
establishing story boards, and writing scripts.
Although instructional designers may not be directly involved in development,
familiarity with the steps facilitates communication with the people who have
the specific skills required during production.
Prototyping and rapid prototyping have become embedded in the development
process over the years. These processes allow the production crew to try out and
verify the validity of ideas before committing time and funds to ideas that may
require costly changes later.
STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPING
When developing content, provide contextualizing elements (collaboration, role play,
that permit for multiple and varied perspectives. Contextualizing also helps link ideas
knowledge. Learners bring experience that is unique to their cultural and ethnic
addition, motivation and decision making should be built in to the materials being
Develop the materials so that the instructor is not built into the process. This permits
flexibility and encourages the development of materials that are focused on learner
developing or modifying instructional materials for the interpersonal domain, the
instructor should ask these questions:
1. What is my instructional strategy? This would include learner analysis, identification of
goals & objectives, sequencing of events, delivery modes (i.e., self-paced, instructor-led,
etc.) and assessment tools.
2. What budget do I have available? This would include not only the cost of developing or
adapting existing materials, but the cost of maintaining the instructional materials over
Once you have a general plan in mind, you can begin developing and gathering the materials
instruction. Since you are developing instructional materials for the interpersonal domain,
look for materials that engage the learner in interpersonal activities. Instructional and
activities should draw upon the following elements, depending upon the goals and objectives
• group activities
• interpersonal interactions
• team games
• questionnaires, surveys, and activities which require gathering input from others
• cooperative learning
• leadership activities
• peer activities such as counseling and tutoring
Identifying Skills to
When developing the content you should assess the skills that are likely to
developed by using the instructional materials that you have created or
The material should be designed to develop these skills, depending upon the
goals and objectives:
• listening skills
• person-to-person communication
• giving and receiving feedback
• teamwork and cooperation
• conflict resolution
Now that you have learned some strategies for developing the content, we are
going to look at some strategies for media selection.
Strategies for Selecting
When developing your instructional materials you will need to consider your media
options. This section will provide you with some strategies to help you make the right
choice for your needs.
TYPES BENEFITS CONSIDERATIO
Permits independence in
contextualizes context, develop
Can be expensive,
feedback important to
encourages teamwork, uses
problem solving skills,
develops communication skills
May require extensive
Visit (Thiagi’s Training
Introduces real world
understanding of other
positions, emphasizes working
opportunities to receive and
Difficult with large
groups, can require
extensive guidance to be
File: Role-play.png Visit
(Effective & Ineffective
Interactive Highly motivational, engages Best with individuals or File: Mediation-flash-
Strategies for Selecting Media
TYPES BENEFITS CONSIDERATION
Great for large groups
provides for safe
observation can include
real life situations can
develop critical thinking
difficult to adapt
Need discussion & practice
Visit (Power on
Many available resources
represented, can provide
for silent reflection
quality varies greatly,
need to provide interaction
File: Seven –
Visit (The Seven
Provides for rapid
can use with any group,
provides opportunities for
Good as a support tool,
need practice opportunities
to ensure transfer
Translating your analysis and design opens opportunities to be creative with
Simply translating your analysis and strategies into prose can yield rather
dry and boring
instruction. As a teacher and instructional designer, you need to consider
ways to add interesting
and motivating approaches to the instruction. For example, consider the
various introductions to
the units used in this course. We have used a variety of styles and
approaches to make the units
interesting and appealing to the students. Making good instruction is part
science and part art,
the trick is finding the right mix to challenge and engage your students.