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The Art Of The Picture Book

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The Art Of The Picture Book

  1. 1. The Art of the Picture Book ELE 620 Children’s Literature Cambridge College
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>What is a picture book? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A book in which the text and illustrations are equally important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neither element can stand alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ As an art form, the picture book hinges on the interdependence of picture and words, on the simultaneous display of two facing pages, and on the drama of the turning of the page.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~Barbara Bader </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Rise of the Picture Book <ul><li>Today’s picture books differ from those originally developed in the mid-nineteenth century by European artists and printers </li></ul><ul><li>Story and pictures were somewhat independent of each other </li></ul><ul><li>Text did not depend upon illustrations to tell story </li></ul>
  4. 4. Milestones in Picture Book Illustration <ul><li>Improvements in printing attracted artists </li></ul><ul><li>Previously, illustrators had to be patient, layering by hand, one color plate over another </li></ul><ul><li>Beatrix Potter Tale of Peter Rabbit </li></ul><ul><li>European artists Crane, Rackham, Greenaway, Caldecott supplied American market </li></ul>
  5. 5. Millions of Cats by Wanda Gag - 1928 <ul><li>Considered first American picture book </li></ul><ul><li>Wanda Gag changed conventions by integrating text and illustration </li></ul><ul><li>Negative space indicates the passage of time </li></ul><ul><li>Varied page layouts </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations break out of their frames to extend across two pages </li></ul>
  6. 6. 1930s and 1940s: European Influx <ul><li>United States benefited from influx of many fine artists seeking political refuge </li></ul><ul><li>Unprecedented international flavor influenced picture book industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>D’Aulaire ( Abraham Lincoln) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Duvoisin ( White Snow, Bright Snow ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rojankovsky ( Frog Went A-Courtin ’) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simont ( A Tree is Nice ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slobodkin ( The Hundred Dresses ) </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. 1930s through 1960s: A World of Stereotypes <ul><li>Picturebooks reflected a white Anglo-Saxon world almost exclusively </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypical cultural details </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandana wearing mammy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Slanted eyes Asians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sombrero wearing Mexicans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vicious, savage Native Americans </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 1960s - Present <ul><li>1960s saw fewer stereotypes, but still did not introduce race in an authentic way </li></ul><ul><li>In 1969, John Steptoe introduced Stevie, an authentic African American character </li></ul><ul><li>End of the 20 th century saw more cultures accurately and authentically represented in picturebooks </li></ul>
  9. 9. Diversity and Award Winners <ul><li>What does excellent look like? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caldecott Awards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coretta Scott King Award </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pura Belpre Award </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Randolph Caldecott Award <ul><li>Established in 1938 and presented yearly to “the artist of the most distinguished American picture book for children” </li></ul><ul><li>Excellence in artistic technique </li></ul><ul><li>Excellence in illustration of story, theme, or concept </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriateness of style of illustration </li></ul><ul><li>Delineation of plot, theme, characters, setting, mood or information through the pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Individually distinct </li></ul>
  11. 11. Coretta Scott King Award <ul><li>Commemorates the life and works of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. and honors Mrs. Coretta Scott King for her courage and determination to continue the work for peace </li></ul><ul><li>Recognizes outstanding books for young adults and children by African American authors and illustrators that reflect the African American experience </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages the artistic expression of the black experience by African American authors and illustrators </li></ul>
  12. 12. Award Criteria <ul><li>Heighten and extend the reader’s awareness of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Lead to an appreciation of beauty </li></ul><ul><li>Be neither coy nor condescending </li></ul><ul><li>Enlarge upon the elements of the text </li></ul><ul><li>Include details that strengthen the imagination of the reader </li></ul><ul><li>Permit the reader to interpret the words and pictures in a unique manner </li></ul>
  13. 13. Pura Belpre Award <ul><li>Established in 1996, it is presented to a Latino/Latina writer and illustrator whose work best portrays, affirms, and celebrates the Latino cultural experience in an outstanding work of literature for children and youth </li></ul><ul><li>Given every other year since 1996; beginning with the 2009 award, it will be given annually </li></ul><ul><li>Named after Pura Belpré, the first Latina librarian at the New York Public Library; storyteller and author who worked to preserve and disseminate Puerto Rican folklore </li></ul>
  14. 14. Award Criteria <ul><li>Marked by eminence and distinction </li></ul><ul><li>Noted for significant achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Marked by excellence in quality </li></ul><ul><li>Marked by conspicuous excellence or eminence </li></ul><ul><li>Individually distinct </li></ul>
  15. 15. Elements of the Picture Book <ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design Elements / Format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Choices </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Text <ul><li>32 Pages in length </li></ul><ul><li>Patterned Language </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul><ul><li>Rhyme </li></ul><ul><li>Repetition </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Predictability </li></ul><ul><li>Pace </li></ul>
  17. 17. Design Elements / Format <ul><li>Line and shape </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul><ul><li>Point of View / Perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Composition </li></ul>
  18. 18. Line and Shape <ul><li>Lines and shapes convey meaning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal = peace, repose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical = stability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagonal = action, movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharp edges = tension, movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nongeometric = safety, life </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Color <ul><li>Limited use in early days of illustration because of technical difficulties and cost </li></ul><ul><li>Modern reproductive techniques and computer scanning is easier and less expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Color should be dictated by mood and theme of story </li></ul>
  20. 20. Point of View, Perspective <ul><li>Change of focus can convey action </li></ul><ul><li>Change in mood from reality to fantasy </li></ul><ul><li>Change in perspective show change in mood of characters </li></ul>
  21. 21. Composition <ul><li>No single element exists without the other </li></ul><ul><li>Each element should be unified on each page and from page to page </li></ul><ul><li>Balance between unity and variety </li></ul><ul><li>Eye movement from one part of each page to another and to the text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where the Wild Things Are </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Media Choices <ul><li>Woodcuts </li></ul><ul><li>Scratchboard </li></ul><ul><li>Paints </li></ul><ul><li>Pen and Ink </li></ul>
  23. 23. Woodcuts <ul><li>One of the earliest forms of printing to reproduce art </li></ul><ul><li>Nonprint areas are cut away, leaving raised surface that is inked and pressed on paper </li></ul><ul><li>Artist must prepare as many woodcuts as colors, or paint by hand </li></ul><ul><li>Bold simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Snowflake Bentley by Jacqueline Briggs Martin </li></ul>
  24. 24. Scratchboard <ul><li>Similar appearance to woodcuts, process different </li></ul><ul><li>Black ink painted on smooth white surface of drawing board </li></ul><ul><li>Ink dries, picture is scratched through the surface with a sharp instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Color can be added prior to applying black ink or painted after complete </li></ul><ul><li>Offer crisp, rich texture </li></ul><ul><li>Max Found Two Sticks by Brian Pinkney </li></ul>
  25. 25. Collage and Construction <ul><li>“ To Paste” </li></ul><ul><li>Cutting out a variety of different kinds of materials and assembling them into a unified illustration </li></ul><ul><li>Gives texture and visual interest </li></ul><ul><li>The Snowy Day , by Ezra Jack Keats </li></ul><ul><li>Lois Ehlert, Eric Carle, Leo Lionni </li></ul>
  26. 26. Computer-Generated Art <ul><li>Improved technology has increased ability to produce high-quality illustration </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated applications = variety of new styles </li></ul><ul><li>Use applications to enhance original work (Adobe Photoshop) </li></ul><ul><li>Tadpole Rex by Kurt Cyrus </li></ul><ul><li>Wiggle by Doreen Cronin </li></ul>
  27. 27. Paints <ul><li>Most illustration done in this medium </li></ul><ul><li>Watercolor – delicate, warm, cozy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zen Shorts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opaque paint- intense, brilliant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When Sophie Gets Angry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oil Paint- forms layers for texture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coming Home </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Crayon, Chalk, Charcoal, and Pencil <ul><li>Crayon, soft pencil – subtle, gentle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish is Fish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pastel and charcoal – rich layers to connect people and places </li></ul><ul><li>Pencil – mystical mood, surrealism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Van Allsburg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most artists use combinations of media </li></ul>
  29. 29. What’s Do You Think? <ul><li>What’s your favorite picture book? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it an award winner? </li></ul>
  30. 30. Readers’ Poll Top 10 List <ul><li>1. Where the Wild Things Are by Maurice Sendak (1963) 2. Goodnight Moon by Margaret Wise Brown (1947) 3. The Very Hungry Caterpillar by Eric Carle (1979) 4 The Snowy Day by Ezra Jack Keats (1962) 5. Don't Let the Pigeon Drive the Bus by Mo Willems (2003) 6. Make Way for Ducklings by Robert McCloskey (1941) 7. Harold and the Purple Crayon by Crockett Johnson (1955) 8. Madeline by Ludwig Bemelmans (1939) 9. Millions of Cats by Wanda Gag (1928) 10. Knuffle Bunny: A Cautionary Tale by Mo Willems (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Which of these were Award Winners? </li></ul>
  31. 31. The Winners… <ul><li>Caldecott Award Winners: </li></ul><ul><li>Where the Wild Things Are (gold) </li></ul><ul><li>The Snowy Day (gold) </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Let the Pigeon Drive the Bus (silver) </li></ul><ul><li>Make Way for Ducklings (gold) </li></ul><ul><li>Madeline (silver) </li></ul><ul><li>Knuffle Bunny (silver) </li></ul><ul><li>Not on the award list: </li></ul><ul><li>Goodnight Moon </li></ul><ul><li>Very Hungry Caterpillar </li></ul><ul><li>Harold and the Purple Crayon </li></ul><ul><li>Millions Of Cats </li></ul><ul><li>Readers’ Choice Poll 2009 </li></ul>