•Culture is defined as the set of learned behaviors,
beliefs, attitudes, values, and ideals that are
characteristics of a particular society or population
•Culture should be regarded as “the set of
distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual, and
emotional features of society or a social group,
and that it encompasses, in addition to art and
literature, lifestyles, ways of living together, value
systems, traditions and beliefs.” (UNESCO, 2002)
• Culture is learned
• Culture is shared by a group of people
• Culture is cumulative
• Cultures change
• Culture is dynamic
• Culture is ideational
• Culture is diverse
• Culture gives us a range of permissible
COMMUNICATION COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL MATERIAL
1. Ideas/Knowledge/Beliefs- Ideas are
mental representations used to organize
stimulus. Knowledge is the storehouse
where we accumulate representations,
information, facts, assumptions, etc.
Beliefs accept a proposition, statement,
description of fact as true.
2. Values- they support beliefs, or specific
statements that people hold to be true.
3. Accounts- are how people use that
common language to explain, justify,
rationalize, excuse, or legitimize our
behavior to themselves and others.
1. Norms- are rules and expectations by which a
society guides the behavior of its members.
• Mores: customary behavior patterns or
folkways which have been taken on a
• Laws: the most formal and important norms.
• Folkways: behavior patterns of society which
are organize and repetitive.
• Rituals: highly scripted ceremonies or strips of
interaction that follow a specific sequence of
THE ORGANIZATION OF
Is either a material or non-material
culture, represents a single element or
a combination of elements related to a
Kissing the hands of the
elders after Sunday mass and
• It is the process of learning culture of
one’s own group
learning the language, folkways and
• It is the process of learning some new
traits from another culture
Migrating from a rural area to urban
area and learning the custom of the new
• It is the process in which an individual
entirely loses its awareness of his/her
previous group identity and takes on
the culture and attitudes of another
Ex. An American speaks only Waray-waray
and assumes the folkways, etc. of the local
Functions of Culture
1. Culture helps the individual fulfill his
potential as a human being.
2. Through the development of culture
man can overcome his physical
disadvantages and allows us to
provide ourselves with fire, clothing,
food and shelter.
3. Culture provides rules of
proper conduct for living in a
4. Culture also provides the
individual concepts of family,
nation, and class.