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María Moliner, A Women Who Wrote a Dictionary (English version)
María Moliner (born Paniza, Zaragoza,Aragon, Spain, 30 March 1900; diedMadrid, 22 January 1981).She was an Aragonese librarian andlexicographer.Her father was Enrique Mioliner, acountry doctor as was his father and hismother Matilde Ruiz, belonged to awealthy family atmosphere.She studied Philosophy at Zaragoza andobtained, by competition, its entry intothe Corps of Archivists and Librarians inSpain.
María con uno de sus hermanos. In 1902 the family moved to a town of Soria and, almost immediately, to Madrid. When she entered adolescence, his father went to Argentina and never returned. Maria Moliner, her mother and her brothers Enrique and Matilde lived in conditions of extreme poverty.
María con uno de sus hermanos.María with her brother María with her sister
The family, three children of themarriage called: Enrique, María, Matildeand their mother returned to Aragon.While studying at the General andTechnical Institute of Zaragoza, Maríagave private lessons in history,mathematics and Latin to help thefamily’s precarious financial situation.
When María finished high school in 1918, she began studying philology and lexicography. She also assisted in the completion of the Aragones Dictionary between 1917 and 1921. The experience she gained during this period would have a defining influence on her lexicographical work later on. In 1921 she graduated with honors in History, the only specialized subject that existed at that time at the University of Zaragoza. In 1922 she passed the necessary examinations to become Archivist General of Simancas and the Archivist of the Treasury in Murcia. In the early 30s, María managed theInstituto General y Técnico Library at the University of Valencia. Cardenal Cisneros de Madrid.
María’s library work during the Republican period has been widely recognized. During this period, she stood out for her work and for the publication of library and archival science reference books such as “Bibliotecas rurales y redes de bibliotecas en España” (1935) (Rural libraries and Spanish library systems) and “Instrucciones para el servicio de pequeñas bibliotecas” (1937) (Instructions on providing the services of small libraries). María was responsible for school libraries, a subsection of a general council of archives, libraries and artistic works of value created byAntigua Universidad de Zaragoza the Republican Government in 1937.(Actualmente Facultad de Medicina)
In this city (Murcia) met FernandoMaría and her husband Fernando Ramón professor of physics and and Ramón Ferrando in the Ferrando, whom she married in wedding day -1925 Sagunto. on August 5, 1925.
María with her children (1944) They had four children: Enrique, Fernando, Carmen and Pedro.
At the end of the Spanish Civil War Maríawas ostracized for her involvement with theRepublican Government. She had to returnto the Financial Archives of Valencia with asignificantly lower level in the hierarchy.Her husband, a physicist, was also a victimof the purge that came with the post-warperiod. However, in 1946 he was appointedas Head of the Department of Physics at theUniversity of Salamanca.The couple moved to Madrid, where Maríabecame a librarian in the “Escuela TécnicaSuperior de Madrid”, where she wouldprovide her services until she retired.
In 1952 María’s son brought a bookhome from Paris that immediatelycaught her attention: the "LearnersDictionary of Current English" by ASHornby. María, who had already begunto make a list of the words from the"Diccionario de la Academia" thatweren’t – in her opinion – definedaccurately enough, decided to get towork on creating a Spanish dictionarysimilar to her son’s English one.The project took María fifteen years tocomplete, 13 years longer than she hadoriginally anticipated. With thesponsorship of academic DámasoAlonso, María was able to sign acontract with the publisher “Gredos” in1955 for the publication of her dictionarywhen it was finished.
The project took María fifteen years tocomplete, 13 years longer than she hadoriginally anticipated.With the sponsorship of academicDámaso Alonso, María was able to signa contract with the publisher “Gredos” in1955 for the publication of her dictionarywhen it was finished.
María’s dictionary is not just a dictionaryof definitions; it also enters into the fieldsof synonyms, idioms, expressions andword families.It seems that María predicted the futureformat of the Royal Academy’s Dictionaryby including words that began with “LL” inthe “L” section, and words that began with“Ch” in the “C” section (until 1994, theRoyal Academy had listed wordsbeginning with “LL” and “Ch” underseparate sections). María later addedsections on syntax and grammar to herdictionary.
It seems that María predicted the futureformat of the Royal Academy’s Dictionaryby including words that began with “LL” inthe “L” section, and words that began with“Ch” in the “C” section (until 1994, theRoyal Academy had listed words beginningwith “LL” and “Ch” under separatesections).María later added sections on syntax andgrammar to her dictionary. 1953- En la Pobla
Handwriting by Maria Moliner.Transcript: "The idea at the beginning of the work was to make a small dictionary ofthe type of" Learners Dictionary ", for example, that could be done in one or twoyears, but the subject grew and grew in my hands and the two years stretched tofifteen: I started young with little children, and ended up with grandchildren.I was born in Paniza, province of Zaragoza, where my father was a doctor, and vI anvery Aragonese on all sides. "
Her dictionary was published in twovolumes between 1966 and 1967.In 1981 Maria Moliner died after years ofremaining isolated within the company ofher family after the sad loss of herhusband in 1974.The second edition, which also includesa CD-ROM, was published in 1998. Thethird and final edition was released in2007.
Being a woman and not a philologist probablykept María out of the Royal Spanish Academy– arguably, she should have been the firstfemale representative.Perhaps as compensation, María wasawarded a prize in 1973 "for her work onbehalf of the language", which she rejected,causing a great official scandal and greatapproval in feminist circles. Years later,Carmen Conde, a writer and the first womanto join the Royal Academy of Language,referred to the injustice committed againstMaria Moliner in her entry speech to theAcademy.
The last years of Marys life were markedby the care of her husband, retired in1962, sick and blind by 1968, and by thedesire to refine and expand her SpanishDictionary (published in two majorvolumes in 1966-1967, vid. infra).
However, in the summer of 1973, suddenly. the first signs emerged from a cerebralarteriosclerosis, a disease that would be withdrawing from all intellectual activity.Her husband died on September 4, 1974, which ends with his desire to live.She spent the next six years, until her own death in 1981, at his home in Madrid, withdrawal fromthe world and through the love and care of hier family (her sister Matilde, two sons and numerousgrandchildren).
María moliner Thank youMusic: Louis M. Gottschalk (1829-1869) - La JotaAragonesa (Caprice Espagnol)