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Unit 3 Contemporary Perspectives

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Unit 3 Contemporary Perspectives

  1. 2. <ul><li>The medical model was inspired by physicians from Hippocrates through Kraepelin. We prefer the term biological perspective, which we use to refer to understand the biological bases of abnormal behavior and the use of biologically based approaches such as drug therapy, to treat psychological disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics plays a role in many forms of abnormal behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Other biological factors, especially the functioning of the nervous system, are involved in the development of abnormal behavior (Cravchik&Goldman,2000). </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Is made of neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>Every neuron has a cell body that contains the nucleus of the cell and metabolizes oxygen to carry out the work of the cell. </li></ul>Nerve cells that transmit signals or messages through out the body. Dendrites are short fibers that project from the cell body to receive messages from adjoining neurons. Each neuron has a single Axon that projects,trunklike, from the cell body, the Terminals are were axons terminate, a small branching structure.
  3. 4. <ul><li>Neurotransmitters . Chemical substances that transmit messages from one neuron to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Synapse . The junction between the terminal knob of one neuron and the dendrite or soma of another through which nerve impulses pass. </li></ul><ul><li>Each kind of neurotransmitter has a distinctive chemical structure. It will fit only into one kind of harbor, or Receptor Site , on the receiving room. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Central nervous system . The brain and the spinal cord. </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral nervous system. The somatic and autonomic nervous systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Medulla. An area of the hindbrain involved in regulation of heart beat and respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Pons. A structure in the hindbrain involved in respiration. </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Neurotransmitter </li></ul><ul><li>Acetylcholine </li></ul><ul><li>Dopamine </li></ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin </li></ul>Functions Control of muscle contractions and formation of memories. Regulation of muscle contract. And mental processes (learning, memory & emotions). Mental processes involved in learning and memory. Regulation of mood states, satiety, and sleep. Assoc.w/ Abnormal behavior Reduces levels found in patients with alzheimer´s disease. Overutilization of dopamine in the brain may be involved in the development of schizophrenia. Imbalances linked with mood disorders such as depression. Irregularities may be involved in depression and eating disorders.
  6. 8. <ul><li>Somatic nervous system. The division of peripheral nervous system that relays information from the sense organs to the brain and transmits messages from the brain to the skeletal muscle. </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic nervous system . The division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the activities of the glands and involuntary functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sympathic . Pertaining to the division of autonomic nervous system whose activity leads to heightened states of arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathic . Pertaining to the division of the autonomic nervous system whose activity reduces states of arousal and regulates bodily processes that replenish energy reserves. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Occipital Lobe .- involved in vision. </li></ul><ul><li>Temporal Lobe .- involved in processing sounds or auditory stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Parietal Lobe .- determines sensations of touch, temperature and pain. </li></ul><ul><li>The sensory area of the parietal lobe receives messages from skin sensors all over the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Neurons in the motor area (or motor cortex) of the Frontal Lobe are involved in controlling muscular responses, which enables us to move our limbs. </li></ul><ul><li>The prefrontal cortex is involved inhigher mental functions such as thinking, problem solving, and use of language. </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Disturbances in neurotransmitter functioning and underlying brain abnormalities or defects are implicated in many psychological disorders. </li></ul><ul><li>For most disorders, we need to examine the interaction of biological and environmental factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence suggests that genes play a role in many psychological disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, alcoholism, autism, major depression, dementia due to alzheimer disease, anxiety disorders, dyslexia and antisocial personality disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet genetic factors alone do not account for any psychological disorders. In other words, environmental factors are also key contributors to the development of psychological disorders. We need to go beyond the old “nature-nurture”(gene vs environment) debate to study the complez interactions between genes and other factors, to better understand the development of psychological disorders. </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoanalitic theory. The theoretical model of personality developed by Sigmund Freud; also called psychoanalysis. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The structures of the mind </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscious . To Freud, the part of the mind that corresponds to our present awareness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preconscious . To Freud, the part of the mind whose contents lie outside present awareness but can be brought into awareness by focusing attention. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious . To Freud, the part of the mind that lies outside the range of ordinary awareness and that contains instinctual urges. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>The structure of personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Id . The unconscious psychic structure, present at birth,that contains primitive instincts and is regulated by the pleasure principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego. The psychic structure that corresponds to the concept of the self, governed by the reality principle and characterized by the ability to tolerate frustration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Super ego. The psychic structure that incorporates the values of the parents and important others and functions as a moral conscience. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pleasure principle. The governing principle of the id, involving demands for immediate gratification of needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Reality principle. The governing principle of the ego, which involves considerations of social acceptability and practicality. </li></ul><ul><li>Defense mechanism . The reality distorting strategies used by the eego to shield the self from awareness of anxiety provoking materials. </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Freud argued that sexual drives are the cominant factors in the develpment of personality, even in childhood. Freud belived tat the child´s basci relationship to the world in its first several years of life is organized around the pursuit or sevual pleasure. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Oral Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Anal stage </li></ul><ul><li>Phallic Stage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oedipus complex and Electra complex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latency stage </li></ul><ul><li>Genital stage </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carl Jung belived that an understanding of human behavior must incorporate the facts of self-awareness and self-direction as well as the impulses of the id and the mechanisms of defense. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>His greates contribution is the study of the collective unconscious, which contains primitives images or archetypes, which reflects the hisotry of our species </li></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alfred Adler develped his own beliefs that people are basically driven by an inferiority complex , not by the sexual instinct, as Freud han maintained. For some people, feelings of inferiority are based on physical deficits and the resulting need to compensate for them. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>According to Adler, these feelings of inferiority lead to a powerful drive for superiority, which motivates us to achieve prominence and social dominance. </li></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><li>Heinz Hartmann. </li></ul><ul><li>Ego psychology: modern psychodymanic approach that focuses more on the conscious strivings of the ego that on the hypothesized unconscious functions of the id. </li></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Margaret Mahler </li></ul><ul><li>Object relations : the theory psychodynamic viewpoint that focuses on the influences of internalized representations of the personalities of parents and other strong attachment figures (called “ objects”) </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>The ego can weaken and, in extreme cases, lose the ability to keep a lid on the id. When the urges of the id spill forth, untempered by an ego that is either weakened or underdeveloped, the result is psychosis. </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>Psychosis is characterized, in general, by bizarre behavior and thoughts an by faulty perceptions of realtity, such as hallucinations. Speech may become incoherent; there may be bizarre posturing and gestures. Schizophrenia is the major from of psychosis. </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>The psychodynamic model led us to recognize thet we are not transparent to ourselves that our behavior may be driven by hidden drives and impulses of which we are unaware or only dimly aware. </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>John B. Watson the father of behaviorism. The behavioral perspective focuses on the role of learning in explaining both normal and abnormal behavior. From a learning perspective, abnormal behavior represents the acquisition or learning of inappropiate, maladaptive behaviors. </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>Pavlov undertook an experiment that showed that animals could learn to salivate in response to other stimuli, such as the sound of a bell, if these stimuli were associated with feeding. </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Pavlov called conditioned response (CR) or conditional reflex, because it had been paired with what called an Inconditional stimulus (US) in this case, food, which naturally elicted salivation. The salivation to food, an unlearned responses, Pavlov called the unconditioned response (UR), and the bell, a previously neutra stimulus, he called the conditioned stimulus (CS) </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>Operant conditioning: a form of learning in which behaviors is acquired and strengthened when it is reinforced. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement: a stimulus or event that increases the frequency of the response that it follows. </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>Reward: a pleasant stimulus or event that increases the frequency of the response that it follows. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforces: reinforces that, when introduced, increase the frequency of the preceding behavior. </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>Negative reinforcers: reinforcers that on removal increase the frequency of the preceding behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment: application of aversive or painful stimuli that reduces the frequency of the behavior it follows. </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>Social cognitive theory-. A learning-based theory that emphasize observational learning and incorporates roles for both situational and cognitive variables in determining behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Modeling: learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others. </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancies: beliefs about expected outcomes. </li></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>Self-actualization: in humanistic psyhology, the tendency to strive to become all that one is capable of being, the motive that dirves one to reach one´s full potential and express one´s unique capabilities. </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Unconditional positive regard: valuing other people as having basic worth regrdless of their behavior at a particular time. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditional positive regard: valuing other people on the basis of whether their behavior meets one´s approval. </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>The strength of humanistic models in understanding abnormal behavior lies largely in their focus on conscious experience and their therapy methods that guide people toward self-discovery and self-acceptance. </li></ul>
  30. 33. <ul><li>They focus on how realilty is colored by our expectations, attitudes, and so forth, and how inaccurate or biased processing of inmortation about the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive theorists believe that our interpretations of the events on our lives, and not the events themselves, determine our emotional states. </li></ul>
  31. 34. <ul><li>Albert Ellis: cognitive theorist believes that negative emotions arise from the judgments we make about the events we experience, not form the events themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>He developed a model of therapy, called rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>Aaron Beck: has developed a major model of therapy, called cognitive therapy, that focuses on helping individuals with psychological identify and correct faulty ways of thinking. </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Sociocultural theorists see causes of abnormal behavior in the failures of society rather than in the person. </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Social causation model: the belief that social stressors, such as poverty, account for the greater risk of severe psychological disorders among people of lower socioeconomic status. </li></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>Downwars drift hypothesis: the theory that explains the linkage between low socioeconomic status and behavior problems by suggesting that problem behaviors lead people to drift downward in social status. </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>The biopsycholosocial perspective invite us to consider how multiple factos, biological, psychological and social are linked in the development of abnormal behavior patters. For some disorders, the causes may be primarily or even exclusively biological in nature. </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>Diathesis-stress model: a model that posits that abnormal behavior problems involve the interaction of a vulnerability of predisposition and stressfull life events or experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Diathesis: a vulnerability or predisposition to a particular disorder. </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>The strength pf the biopychological model may also be its greates weakness. </li></ul><ul><li>The model holds the view that with few exceptions, psychological disorders or other patterns of abnormal behavior are complex phenomena that arise from multiple causes. </li></ul>