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Relationships by mihaela alexandrina cenusa

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Relationships by mihaela alexandrina cenusa

  1. 1. • The study of interpersonal relationships involves several branches of the social sciences, including such disciplines as sociology, psychology, anthropology and social work. • Interpersonal skills are extremely vital when trying to develop a relationship with another person.
  2. 2. Development • Interpersonal relationships are dynamic systems that change continuously during their existence. Like living organisms, relationships have a beginning, a lifespan, and an end. They tend to grow and improve gradually, as people get to know each other and become closer emotionally, or they gradually deteriorate as people drift apart, move on with their lives and form new relationships with others.
  3. 3. • Membership in a social group • Family membership • Peer group membership • Organization membership • Community membership • Intimate relationships • Professional relationships
  4. 4. A social group consists of a number of individuals interacting with each other with respect to: • Common motives and goals • An accepted division of labour, i.e. roles • Established status (social rank, dominance) relationships • Accepted norms and values with reference to matters relevant to the group • Development of accepted sanctions (praise and punishment) if and when norms were respected or violated
  5. 5. Types of groups 1. Peer group A peer group is a group with members of approximately the same age, social status, and interests. Generally, people are relatively equal in terms of power when they interact with peers. 2. Clique A group of people that have many of the same interests & commonly found in a High School/College setting; most of the time they have a name & rules for themselves. 3. Club A club is a group, which usually requires one to apply to become a member. Such clubs may be dedicated to particular activities: sporting clubs, for example.
  6. 6. 4. Community A community is a group of people with a commonality or sometimes a complex net of overlapping commonalities, often–but not always–in proximity with one another with some degree of continuity over time. 5. Franchise An organization which runs several instances of a business in many locations. 6. Gang A gang is usually an urban group that gathers in a particular area. It is a group of people that often hang around each other. They are usually known in many countries to cause social unrest and also have negative influence on the members and may be a target for the law enforcers in case of any social
  7. 7. Why Are Positive Teacher-student Relationships Important They influence success in school They are related to: • Good peer interactions (e.g., positive, respectful) • Positive relationships with future teachers(e.g., warm, caring, positive, respectful) • Lower levels of challenging behaviors(e.g., student more likely to be cooperative, follow directions, be respectful) • Higher levels of competence in school(e.g., student more likely to get along with others, interact well with adults)
  8. 8. How can teachers develop positive teacher-student relationships? Techniques One-to-one interactions with students Get on student’s level, face-to-face Use pleasant, calm voice Use simple language Provide warm, responsive physical contact Follow student’s lead
  9. 9. Developing Relationships with Students Keep in mind: Cultural, linguistic, and individual needs Adapt strategies to unique student and family characteristics Communication Trust Respect
  10. 10. Challenges to developing positive teacher-student relationships • Not enough time • Too many curriculum requirements • Expectation that students will wait quietly in line • Noise level in classroom • Maintenance duties • Adherence to lesson plans
  11. 11. Developing Effective Interpersonal Skills Communication and Conversation Skills  Be a good listener  Nonverbal messages  Be open to topics  Communicate ideas precisely and concisely  Think before speaking Human Relation Skills (“People Skills”)  Remember names  Refer to people by name when interacting  Remember information about people  Be positive  Be complimentary
  12. 12. How to Manage Student Behaviour when Teaching Your behavior, as the teacher, is the single most influential impact on the behaviour of the students in your classroom. You have a huge impact on how your day will go. There are a couple of MUST DO strategies that will help your day run smoothly.
  13. 13. Step 1: Anticipate compliance. Generally most students want to behave and very few really want the tension of getting into trouble. So if you give instructions, anticipate that the student will comply and act as if this is the case. For example, in your travels around the room you notice Gina is reading a book and not doing her task. You take the least intrusive path, “Thanks for putting that book away, Gina.” And continue to move around the room as if you know Gina is going to comply. Gina feels your expectation and 99.9% of the time she will comply, because she is not going to get any mileage if she doesn’t. You have already moved on! Consider the alternative action. You say the same thing, but stand at Gina’s desk with arms on your hips and a snarl ready on your lips. You’re ready for a fight and Gina is likely to accommodate you.
  14. 14. Step 2: Close your requests with the appropriate language. Close your request. You can close off a request by prefacing your statement with an expectation of compliance. Such statements like “Thank you for closing the windows for me, Paul”. Few students are likely to refuse a request phrased in such a way.
  15. 15. Step 3: Differentiate between discipline and managing behaviour. Teachers seem to take things to heart far too often. Learn to differentiate between discipline and behaviour. Discipline is a belief system of values and principles, children learn that at home. Discipline involves the principles of honesty, fairness and the values of integrity and personal accountability amongst many, many more. Teachers don’t discipline students, we manage their behaviour. Parents are still accountable (not teachers) if their child breaks the law, damages property. Society dumps on teachers far too easily.
  16. 16. Step 4 Stop on my SIGNAL. Do the class know when you want their attention? Avoid screaming, “Listen Now!” because as a teacher the class is not attuned to your voice. Try other options like a small bell, clap of hands, a silly bike horn. Experiment with different techniques that will work for you. Whatever you use, it is important to have a STOP SIGNAL at your disposal
  17. 17. Step 5 Disregard the secondary behaviours. Secondary behaviours are those that occur when you have a discussion with the student and the student wants to take control. They are 'chase me' behaviours designed to push your buttons, gain a furious response and ultimately distract you from the purpose of the discussion. Some kids are masters at it, having practised it very well at home. OK. So you want Freddie (it’s a shame that, statistically, most of the offenders are boys) to leave the room. You have exhausted all of your positive reinforcement, redirection techniques, warnings and sanctions and need him to leave. The secondary behaviours are the chair being thrown back, stamping, general huffing and puffing posturing. Freddie is building up a real performance for the benefit of his classmates. Don't allow him to take control of your behaviour. Resist the temptation to address the secondary behaviours at the moment. Instead, remember them for later
  18. 18. Step 6 Keep your instruction DIRECT. Major long-term studies have proven the irrefutable success of direct instruction (now called explicit teaching) The term refers to a method for teaching that is fast-paced and provides constant interaction between students and the teacher. Direct Instruction is rich in structure and drilling and content. It is starting to become more popular given the current drive for proven results. Many studies have proven its success as a teaching strategy. What does it mean for the Teacher and how do you DO it? Direct instruction is a sequence of supports: setting a purpose for learning, telling students what to do, showing them how to do it, guiding their hands-on application of the new learning.
  19. 19. Step 7 Avoid going for the throat FIRST! As hard as it might prove to be, don’t go for the throat first. Start with the non-intrusive strategies. You might have to take a few deep breaths first. You do remember that World War One started with one shot. I have sometimes been caught out by not making a concerted effort to get all the facts first.
  20. 20. Step 8 Distract – Diffuse – Disperse. The truth of the matter is that sometimes you are going to be confronted with a disagreement between students. This can happen within metres of a teacher. Here is a simple strategy that (usually) works. Firstly, DISTRACT students from hurting or hitting - what ever is occurring. This might be a whistle or calling out. If you can use humour, now is a good time to apply it. If not - DON'T. Secondly, DIFFUSE the anger by NOT being angry yourself. (Riots develop when both sides are angry.) Avoid shouting or panicking. Be calm - at least sound calm. Keep your directions short and clear. Never give more than ONE direction at a time. "Bill, thanks for standing over there.
  21. 21. Step 8 John, thanks for putting your hands down." Repeat if necessary but do not change the directions. "OK. Let's sit down and face opposite directions." Having students sit on the ground really has a calming effect. (Watch what NYPD do). and then handcuff them to the nearest pole. Thirdly, DISPERSE. You only need the offenders. Chase the watchers away. (Move on citizens. Nothing to see here) The next step depends on your level of authority. If you are comfortable dealing with the offenders at this point, then do it.
  22. 22. Step 9 Use the assertive “I message”. These I- messages are expressions of our feelings. Thomas Gordon, creator of Teacher Effectiveness Training (TET), tells us to structure these messages in three parts. First, include a description of the child’s behavior. “When you talk while I talk...” Second, relate the effect this behavior has on the teacher. “...I have to stop my teaching...” And third, let the student know the feeling that it generates in the teacher. “...which frustrates me.”
  23. 23. Steps 10 and 11 Model behavior. Kids love double standards. A teacher yelling at a student for yelling in the playground just doesn’t make sense. Make no mistake, you are on show. The students want to see how you solve conflict. They will often use that as an exemplar. Know when to IGNORE. Sometimes you have to learn to pick the battles. There is no good coming back with, “We won the battle, General but we lost the war!” Some relief teachers (and some teachers) target the most trivial matters which are blown out of all proportion.
  24. 24. Step 12 Direct the learning to the MISCREANT. The student who continually misbehaves is often disengaging themselves from the lesson for a purpose. Perhaps they are finding the work too difficult and do not want to show themselves up as being a dunderhead. Being a rebellious youth is far more socially acceptable. If you suspect this is the case, engage the student in a learning activity that shows the rest of the class they are capable. You have to tread carefully here and manufacture a situation when the student looks good.

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