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The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model  Gerald Grow, Ph.D. Theories of Teaching & Learning, Assessment One 19.03.2008, Ba...
Introduction <ul><li>Self-Directed Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Gerald Grow’s Model of Staged Self-Directed Learning (SSDL) ...
Self-Directed Learning <ul><li>Much discussion in literature about the concept of self-directed learning (Candy, Brookfiel...
Self Directed-Learning <ul><li>Informed acceptance of responsibility for one’s own learning   </li></ul><ul><li>Love of le...
Importance of Self-Directed Learning <ul><li>Self-directed learning has gained importance in recent times as a critical at...
Introducing the SSDL model <ul><li>Grow (1991) suggests a staged model of transition from a dependent to self-directed lea...
Key aspects of SSDL model <ul><li>Based on the Situational Leadership Model of Hersey and Blanchard (1988) </li></ul><ul><...
The SSDL model The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model, G. Grow Internship, dissertation, individual work or self-directed...
Implications for Teaching
Stage 1 Teacher: Authority / Coach
Stage 2 Teacher: Motivator / Guide
Stage 3 Teacher: Facilitator
Stage 4 Teacher: Consultant / Delegator Ultimate task is to become unnecessary!
Benefits of applying SSDL model <ul><li>The SSDL model provides a framework to aid good teaching practice by matching the ...
Limitations of applying SSDL model <ul><li>No clear method for reliably judging learner’s stage of self-direction </li></u...
Experience of model in Practice <ul><li>Transfer of Situational Leadership model from management experience to the classro...
Time for reflection <ul><li>At what stage/stages are your students?  </li></ul><ul><li>What teaching style/styles do you p...
Conclusion <ul><li>According to Grow (1991) “self-directed learning remains the North Star of adult education” (p. 128) </...
Good teaching <ul><li>The best teachers think about what they are doing all the time. Their styles may differ wildly, but ...
Gerald O. Grow Final words from G. Grow (1991) “I present this model, not as a definitive thing, but as another statement ...
References <ul><li>Corder, N. (2002).  Learning to Teach Adults . London:  </li></ul><ul><li>RoutledgeFalmer. </li></ul><u...
References <ul><li>Richards, L. J. (2005). Developing a decision model to describe </li></ul><ul><li>levels of self-direct...
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Theories of Teaching and Learning: The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model, G.Grow.

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The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model by Gerald Grow, Ph.D.

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Theories of Teaching and Learning: The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model, G.Grow.

  1. 1. The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model Gerald Grow, Ph.D. Theories of Teaching & Learning, Assessment One 19.03.2008, Barbara Stokes
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Self-Directed Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Gerald Grow’s Model of Staged Self-Directed Learning (SSDL) </li></ul><ul><li>Implications for teaching: benefits and limitations of applying the SSDL model </li></ul><ul><li>The SSDL model in practice </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Self-Directed Learning <ul><li>Much discussion in literature about the concept of self-directed learning (Candy, Brookfield, Guglielmino,Garrison) </li></ul><ul><li>Eight underlying factors that determine the level of readiness for SDL: </li></ul><ul><li>Openness to learning opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Self-concept as an effective learner </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative and independence in learning </li></ul>
  4. 4. Self Directed-Learning <ul><li>Informed acceptance of responsibility for one’s own learning </li></ul><ul><li>Love of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Positive orientation to the future </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to use basic study skills and problem solving skills </li></ul>
  5. 5. Importance of Self-Directed Learning <ul><li>Self-directed learning has gained importance in recent times as a critical attribute for lifelong learning in order to survive in an environment profoundly influenced by economic, technology and social changes. (Drucker, 1995, as cited in Warner, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowles predicts that by year 2020, all learning will be based on principles of self-directed learning. (Knowles, 1980, as cited in Warner, 2000) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introducing the SSDL model <ul><li>Grow (1991) suggests a staged model of transition from a dependent to self-directed learner. </li></ul><ul><li>With his model Grow (1991) “proposes a way teachers can be vigorously influential while empowering students towards greater autonomy” (p. 128). </li></ul>
  7. 7. Key aspects of SSDL model <ul><li>Based on the Situational Leadership Model of Hersey and Blanchard (1988) </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching methods are proposed to match to learner's stage of self-direction </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to be self-directed is situational and progression can loop between stages </li></ul><ul><li>Model built on strong belief in the value of self-direction </li></ul>
  8. 8. The SSDL model The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model, G. Grow Internship, dissertation, individual work or self-directed study-group. Consultant, Delegator Self-Directed Stage 4 Discussion facilitated by teacher who participates as equal. Seminar. Group projects Facilitator Involved Stage 3 Inspiring lecture plus guided discussion. Goal-setting and learning strategies. Motivator, Guide Interested Stage 2 Coaching with immediate feedback. Drill. Informational lecture. Overcoming deficiencies and resistance Authority Coach Dependent Stage 1 Examples Teacher Student Stage
  9. 9. Implications for Teaching
  10. 10. Stage 1 Teacher: Authority / Coach
  11. 11. Stage 2 Teacher: Motivator / Guide
  12. 12. Stage 3 Teacher: Facilitator
  13. 13. Stage 4 Teacher: Consultant / Delegator Ultimate task is to become unnecessary!
  14. 14. Benefits of applying SSDL model <ul><li>The SSDL model provides a framework to aid good teaching practice by matching the teaching style to the learner's stage of self-direction. </li></ul><ul><li>The appropriate teaching style can help the learner advance towards greater self-direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the use and strength of a wide-range of teaching styles/methods, as many different teaching styles will work well when appropriately applied. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Limitations of applying SSDL model <ul><li>No clear method for reliably judging learner’s stage of self-direction </li></ul><ul><li>Mismatches between teacher style and learner stage can lead to difficulties </li></ul><ul><li>Model is situational, flexibility is required </li></ul><ul><li>Presumes the ability of the teacher to adapt teaching style to suit the situation and learner </li></ul><ul><li>Model is teacher-orientated, does not include learner’s view. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Experience of model in Practice <ul><li>Transfer of Situational Leadership model from management experience to the classroom prior to awareness of Grow’s model </li></ul><ul><li>Raised awareness of differences between students – ability, motivation, willingness, need for direction, dependence </li></ul><ul><li>Adapt teaching / change roles according to student needs / development e.g. offer additional resources for students at higher stages to maintain interest and motivation </li></ul>
  17. 17. Time for reflection <ul><li>At what stage/stages are your students? </li></ul><ul><li>What teaching style/styles do you practice? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a match or mismatch? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>According to Grow (1991) “self-directed learning remains the North Star of adult education” (p. 128) </li></ul><ul><li>Grow (1991) believes that “the goal of the educational process is to produce self-directed, lifelong learners”. (p. 127).    </li></ul><ul><li>The SSDL model is a framework/planning tool for teachers to think about their learner’s stage of self-direction and match their teaching style to support development to greater self-direction. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Good teaching <ul><li>The best teachers think about what they are doing all the time. Their styles may differ wildly, but they have in common that they are thinking teachers who are always looking for new approaches and ideas and who listen to their students. </li></ul>(Corder, 2002, p. xiv)
  20. 20. Gerald O. Grow Final words from G. Grow (1991) “I present this model, not as a definitive thing, but as another statement in the ongoing conversation of those who encourage self-directed, lifelong learning”. (p. 147)
  21. 21. References <ul><li>Corder, N. (2002). Learning to Teach Adults . London: </li></ul><ul><li>RoutledgeFalmer. </li></ul><ul><li>Grow, G. O. (1991/1996). Teaching Learners to be Self-Directed. </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Education Quarterly, 41 (3), 125-149. Retrieved from http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow </li></ul><ul><li>Grow, G. O. (1994). In Defense of the Staged Self-Directed Learning Model. Adult Education Quarterly, 44 (2), 109-114. doi:10.1177/074171369404400206 </li></ul><ul><li>Knowles, M., Holton, E., & Swanson, R. (1998). The Adult </li></ul><ul><li>Learner (Fifth Edition). Woburn, USA: Butterworth- Heinemann. </li></ul><ul><li>Malouf, D. (1994/1997). How to Teach Adults in a Fun and </li></ul><ul><li>Exciting Way . Warriewood, Australia: Business & Professional Publishing. </li></ul>
  22. 22. References <ul><li>Richards, L. J. (2005). Developing a decision model to describe </li></ul><ul><li>levels of self-directedness based upon the key assumptions of andragogy. [ Master's thesis ] . Retrieved Texas A&M University website : http://handle.tamu.edu/1969.1/2685 . </li></ul><ul><li>Tennant, M. (1992). The Staged Self-Directed Learning Model. </li></ul><ul><li>Adult Education Quarterly, 42 (3), 164-166. </li></ul><ul><li>Warner, D., & Christie, G. (2000). How effective is schooling in </li></ul><ul><li>developing skills for self-directed learning, including the use of technology? [Conference paper] . Retrieved from Eltham College website: http://ec- web.elthamcollege.vic.edu.au/featured/discussions/content/ conference_new_millenium.htm </li></ul>

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