Non verbal comm.

Brijesh Tilala
Brijesh TilalaProffesional Sales Representative em Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Ltd.
Non verbal
communication

Presented by:-
NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION
 “nonverbal       communication” involves those
    nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting
    that are generated by both, the source [speaker
    and listener] with use of the environment and
    that have potential message value for the
    receiver [listener] (Samovar et al).

    Basically it is sending and receiving messages in
    a variety of ways without the use of verbal codes
    (words). It is both intentional and unintentional.
Albert Mehrabian’s
  communication model


VOICE TONES   WORDS    NON VERBAL




                       38%
      55%

                  7%
The Functions of Nonverbal
  Messages
According to Burgoon and Saine, nonverbal
messages have several functions:

   Nonverbal messages often repeat or reinforce a
    verbal message.
   Nonverbal messages may also work
    to complement a verbal message.
   Nonverbal messages can
    sometimes contradict verbal messages.
   Nonverbal messages may also serve
    to substitute for verbal messages.
   Nonverbal messages often are used
    to regulate verbal messages.
Types of nonverbal messages
Kinesics
Eye contacts
Chronemics
Proxemics
Haptics
Colour
Artifactual
Paralanguage
Non verbal comm.
Kinesics
 Kinesics, or body language, is one of the
 most powerful ways that humans can
 communicate nonverbally. It is used to
 portray moods and emotions and to
 emphasize or contradict what is being
 said.
Kinesics
   Posture
   Gesture
   Facial expression
   Eye contact / occulesics.
Posture

    OPEN / CLOSED                   FORWARD/ BACK

 People with arms folded        When people are leaning
  and legs crossed and            forward and pointing
  bodies turned away are          towards you they are
  signaling that they are         actively accepting or
  rejecting messages.             rejecting the message.
 People showing open            When they are leaning
  hands, fully facing you and     back, looking up at the
  both feet planted on the        ceiling, doodling on a
  ground are accepting            pad, cleaning their glasses
  them.                           they are either passively
                                  absorbing or ignoring it.
Open body   Closed body
Non verbal comm.
Gestures

 Deliberate movements and signals are an
  important way to communicate meaning
  without words.
 Common gestures include
  waving, pointing, and using fingers to
  indicate number amounts.
 types – enumerative, descriptive, locative
  symbolic, emphatic
 Other gestures are arbitrary and related to
  culture and the geography.
Gestures
 Some gestures, like the “thumbs up,” which
  is a positive gesture in the United
  States, may mean something very different
  in other cultures.
 In Nigeria, the thumbs up gesture is a rude
  insult!
 Another funny example is spinning your
  finger around your ear. This is known as the
  “you’re crazy” sign in America and in some
  other nations. But in Argentina, it means
  “you have a phone call!”
Gestures
Gestures
Facial expressions
   Definition:-
           Expression implies a revelation about the
    characteristics of a person, a message about
    something internal to the expresser.

   Universal facial expressions signify
    anger, fear, sadness, joy, and disgust.

   In the context of nonverbal communication
    expression usually implies a change of a visual
    pattern over time
Concept of facial expression
   The concept includes:
    - A characteristic of a person that is
    represented
    - A visual configuration that represents this
    characteristic
    - The physical basis of this appearance, or
    sign vehicle
    - Typically, some person that perceives and
    interprets the signs
    -old saying 'actions speak louder than words.
Facial expressions
Facial expression
Eye contacts
 eye contact is a form of nonverbal
  communication and is thought to have a
  large influence on social behaviour.
 It is believed to show personal
  involvement and create intimate bonds.
  Mutual gaze narrows the physical gap
  between humans.
 You can read one's mind by looking at
  eyes.
why it is important?
 Eye contact opens and closes
  communication
 Increased eye contact is associated with
  credibility and dominance
 Lack of contact and blinking are
  interpreted as submissive
 High status people are looked at, and
  look more while talking than listening
Chronemics
  Chronemics refers to how we use time to
   define idetities and interaction.
  Time perceptions include Punctuality,
   willingness to wait, and interactions.
  The use of time can affect lifestyles, daily
   agendas, speed of speech, movements
   and how long people are willing to listen.
•In Western societies, time is valuable, so speed is
highly valued. In the work place time is very
valuable. For example an employee that can work
at a fast pace and does quality work is praised.

•Whereas, an employee who slows production
might loose his/her job. The phrase ” time is
money” is specially true in the work place. A
company can loose allot of money if production
stops even for a few minutes.

•Chronemics plays a big role in the work place and
how employees approach and how they use time
Proxemics
 The term Proxemics was introduced by
  anthropologist Edward T.Hall in 1966.
  Proxemics is the study of set measurable
  distances between people as they
  interact.
 People often refer to their need for
  "personal space," which is also an
  important type of nonverbal
  communication.
Proxemics


            Public space     25 ft

            Social space     12 ft


            Personal space   4 ft
              Intimate       1.5 ft
                space
Non verbal comm.
Haptics
 Haptics refers to the sense of touch
 Greek mean:(”I fasten onto, I touch").
 Haptics is the study of touching as nonverbal
  communication.
 Touches that can be defined as
  communication include handshakes, holding
  hands, back slap, "high-five", shoulder
  pat, brushing arm, etc.
 Each of these give off nonverbal messages
  as to the touching person's
  intentions/feelings. They also cause feelings
  in the receiver, whether positive or negative
 Touch can be used to communicate
  affection, familiarity, sympathy and other
  emotions.
 yet a touch can often say as much as a lot
  of words. This is probably most obvious
  when someone you know is in trouble or in
  sorrow, taking hold of his or her hand or
  putting an arm around the shoulder often
  is much more effective than words. The
  nearness, the closeness, the touch says
  that you are ready to help if needed.
Haptics
Colour
 While perceptions of colour are somewhat
  subjective, there are some colour effects
  that have universal meaning.
 For example:
 Colours in the red area of spectrum are
  known as warm colours & evoke emotions
  ranging from feeling of warmth and comfort
  to feeling of anger & hostility
 Whereas, colours in the blue area are known
  as cool colours & are often described as
  calm, but can also call to mind, feelings of
  sadness or indifference.
◦ You would not, for instance, take a business client
  out to lunch at McDonalds, due at least in part to
  the bright reds and yellows used in their color
  scheme. These colors cause people anxiety and
  cause them to rather rush in, consume their
  food, and rush back out, than stay and chat.

◦ Furthermore, studies have shown that bright
  colors are disturbing not only to restaurant
  patrons, but also to their employees. Restaurants
  with brightly colored interiors such as Taco Bell
  and McDonalds have the highest employee
  turnover in the food service industry.
Artifacts
 Artifacts are personal objects we use to
  announce our identities and heritage and to
  personalize our environments.
 In face to face communication, we craft our
  image by how we dress and what objects we
  carry and use.
 In the work place white - collar professionals
  tend to wear tailored outfits and dress
  shoes, whereas blue – collar workers more
  often dress in jeans or uniforms and boots.
 Therefore using artifacts to announce their
  identities and projecting a particular image to
  others.
Paralanguage
   Paralanguage include the
   following:
   - Vocal characterizers such as laughter and sobs.
   - Vocal qualifiers, such as
    intensity(loud/soft),pitch(high/low), extent(clipping).
   - Vocal segregates, such as “Uh“, “Um“ and “ Uh-huh“.
   Examples:
   • Loudness indicates strength in Arabic cultures, indicates
    confidence and authority to the Germans and softness
    indicates weakness; But it is opposite to Asian culture.
    Loudness indicates impoliteness to the Thais; indicates loss
    of control to the Japanese. Generally, one learns not to
    “shout” in Asia for nearly any reason. Gender based as well:
    women tend to speak higher and more softly than men.
Artifacts
Silence
    Silence can communicate
   – Agreement.
   – Disagreement.
   – Confusion.
   – Respect.
   – Sadness.
   – Thoughtfulness, or any number of meanings.
    “Silence in Asia has commonly been entirely
    acceptable whereas in the West silence has
    generally been considered socially disagreeable.“ –
    Oliver(1971)
Non verbal comm.
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Non verbal comm.

  • 2. NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION  “nonverbal communication” involves those nonverbal stimuli in a communication setting that are generated by both, the source [speaker and listener] with use of the environment and that have potential message value for the receiver [listener] (Samovar et al).  Basically it is sending and receiving messages in a variety of ways without the use of verbal codes (words). It is both intentional and unintentional.
  • 3. Albert Mehrabian’s communication model VOICE TONES WORDS NON VERBAL 38% 55% 7%
  • 4. The Functions of Nonverbal Messages According to Burgoon and Saine, nonverbal messages have several functions:  Nonverbal messages often repeat or reinforce a verbal message.  Nonverbal messages may also work to complement a verbal message.  Nonverbal messages can sometimes contradict verbal messages.  Nonverbal messages may also serve to substitute for verbal messages.  Nonverbal messages often are used to regulate verbal messages.
  • 5. Types of nonverbal messages Kinesics Eye contacts Chronemics Proxemics Haptics Colour Artifactual Paralanguage
  • 7. Kinesics Kinesics, or body language, is one of the most powerful ways that humans can communicate nonverbally. It is used to portray moods and emotions and to emphasize or contradict what is being said.
  • 8. Kinesics  Posture  Gesture  Facial expression  Eye contact / occulesics.
  • 9. Posture OPEN / CLOSED FORWARD/ BACK  People with arms folded  When people are leaning and legs crossed and forward and pointing bodies turned away are towards you they are signaling that they are actively accepting or rejecting messages. rejecting the message.  People showing open  When they are leaning hands, fully facing you and back, looking up at the both feet planted on the ceiling, doodling on a ground are accepting pad, cleaning their glasses them. they are either passively absorbing or ignoring it.
  • 10. Open body Closed body
  • 12. Gestures  Deliberate movements and signals are an important way to communicate meaning without words.  Common gestures include waving, pointing, and using fingers to indicate number amounts.  types – enumerative, descriptive, locative symbolic, emphatic  Other gestures are arbitrary and related to culture and the geography.
  • 13. Gestures  Some gestures, like the “thumbs up,” which is a positive gesture in the United States, may mean something very different in other cultures.  In Nigeria, the thumbs up gesture is a rude insult!  Another funny example is spinning your finger around your ear. This is known as the “you’re crazy” sign in America and in some other nations. But in Argentina, it means “you have a phone call!”
  • 16. Facial expressions  Definition:- Expression implies a revelation about the characteristics of a person, a message about something internal to the expresser.  Universal facial expressions signify anger, fear, sadness, joy, and disgust.  In the context of nonverbal communication expression usually implies a change of a visual pattern over time
  • 17. Concept of facial expression  The concept includes: - A characteristic of a person that is represented - A visual configuration that represents this characteristic - The physical basis of this appearance, or sign vehicle - Typically, some person that perceives and interprets the signs -old saying 'actions speak louder than words.
  • 20. Eye contacts  eye contact is a form of nonverbal communication and is thought to have a large influence on social behaviour.  It is believed to show personal involvement and create intimate bonds. Mutual gaze narrows the physical gap between humans.  You can read one's mind by looking at eyes.
  • 21. why it is important?  Eye contact opens and closes communication  Increased eye contact is associated with credibility and dominance  Lack of contact and blinking are interpreted as submissive  High status people are looked at, and look more while talking than listening
  • 22. Chronemics  Chronemics refers to how we use time to define idetities and interaction.  Time perceptions include Punctuality, willingness to wait, and interactions.  The use of time can affect lifestyles, daily agendas, speed of speech, movements and how long people are willing to listen.
  • 23. •In Western societies, time is valuable, so speed is highly valued. In the work place time is very valuable. For example an employee that can work at a fast pace and does quality work is praised. •Whereas, an employee who slows production might loose his/her job. The phrase ” time is money” is specially true in the work place. A company can loose allot of money if production stops even for a few minutes. •Chronemics plays a big role in the work place and how employees approach and how they use time
  • 24. Proxemics  The term Proxemics was introduced by anthropologist Edward T.Hall in 1966. Proxemics is the study of set measurable distances between people as they interact.  People often refer to their need for "personal space," which is also an important type of nonverbal communication.
  • 25. Proxemics Public space 25 ft Social space 12 ft Personal space 4 ft Intimate 1.5 ft space
  • 27. Haptics  Haptics refers to the sense of touch  Greek mean:(”I fasten onto, I touch").  Haptics is the study of touching as nonverbal communication.  Touches that can be defined as communication include handshakes, holding hands, back slap, "high-five", shoulder pat, brushing arm, etc.  Each of these give off nonverbal messages as to the touching person's intentions/feelings. They also cause feelings in the receiver, whether positive or negative
  • 28.  Touch can be used to communicate affection, familiarity, sympathy and other emotions.  yet a touch can often say as much as a lot of words. This is probably most obvious when someone you know is in trouble or in sorrow, taking hold of his or her hand or putting an arm around the shoulder often is much more effective than words. The nearness, the closeness, the touch says that you are ready to help if needed.
  • 30. Colour  While perceptions of colour are somewhat subjective, there are some colour effects that have universal meaning.  For example:  Colours in the red area of spectrum are known as warm colours & evoke emotions ranging from feeling of warmth and comfort to feeling of anger & hostility  Whereas, colours in the blue area are known as cool colours & are often described as calm, but can also call to mind, feelings of sadness or indifference.
  • 31. ◦ You would not, for instance, take a business client out to lunch at McDonalds, due at least in part to the bright reds and yellows used in their color scheme. These colors cause people anxiety and cause them to rather rush in, consume their food, and rush back out, than stay and chat. ◦ Furthermore, studies have shown that bright colors are disturbing not only to restaurant patrons, but also to their employees. Restaurants with brightly colored interiors such as Taco Bell and McDonalds have the highest employee turnover in the food service industry.
  • 32. Artifacts  Artifacts are personal objects we use to announce our identities and heritage and to personalize our environments.  In face to face communication, we craft our image by how we dress and what objects we carry and use.  In the work place white - collar professionals tend to wear tailored outfits and dress shoes, whereas blue – collar workers more often dress in jeans or uniforms and boots.  Therefore using artifacts to announce their identities and projecting a particular image to others.
  • 33. Paralanguage  Paralanguage include the  following:  - Vocal characterizers such as laughter and sobs.  - Vocal qualifiers, such as intensity(loud/soft),pitch(high/low), extent(clipping).  - Vocal segregates, such as “Uh“, “Um“ and “ Uh-huh“.  Examples:  • Loudness indicates strength in Arabic cultures, indicates confidence and authority to the Germans and softness indicates weakness; But it is opposite to Asian culture.  Loudness indicates impoliteness to the Thais; indicates loss of control to the Japanese. Generally, one learns not to “shout” in Asia for nearly any reason. Gender based as well: women tend to speak higher and more softly than men.
  • 35. Silence Silence can communicate  – Agreement.  – Disagreement.  – Confusion.  – Respect.  – Sadness.  – Thoughtfulness, or any number of meanings. “Silence in Asia has commonly been entirely acceptable whereas in the West silence has generally been considered socially disagreeable.“ – Oliver(1971)