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Publishing and Disseminating your Research and Practice

  1. Goals of this workshop By the end of the course participants will • Have drafted an article or other piece of writing • Understand the mechanics of writing (including structure and style) • Know more about the publishing process • Know more about increasing the visibility of their publications • Have developed increased confidence and motivation to write
  2. Why Publish? • To share your practice with others • To increase the impact/visibility of your work • To disseminate your research findings • To explore topics of interest • To add to the existing body of knowledge and create new knowledge • To gain recognition and establish a track record in a particular field - credibility/expertise • To enhance your curriculum vitae • To market the Library/demonstrate value • To express yourself in a creative way/personal satisfaction
  3. Mapping
  4. Sources for writing • Research/thesis • A particular project • Your practice/everyday work • Topic that interests you • Other • Consider whether you want to collaborate (principal author)
  5. Different Types of Publications • Newsletter • Professional magazine • Popular Magazine • Academic (peer- reviewed) Journal • Hybrid Journal • Poster • Book Review • Book Chapter • Book (single author) • Book (edited collection) • Other opportunities – conference presentation, radio broadcast, television, social media
  6. Professional Magazines • Weekly/monthly/ Quarterly • Frequently A4 • Increasingly electronic • Editor’s role • Specialist not scholarly • Tone – first or third person • Professional (practice) – • Lead in time • Further reading • Large audience
  7. Identifying Professional Journals • LIS Professional and Trade Publications • Publications_Wiki Primarily professional but some peer-reviewed titles North American focus Other titles – SCONUL Focus CILIP Update An Leabharlann
  8. Academic Journals • Monthly/Quarterly/ Biannually/Annually • Learned Society, Academic Publisher, University • Peer-reviewed (refereed) • Hybrid – some content peer reviewed • Literature review • Present results of research • References and footnotes • Tone - formal • Lead-in time • Specialised readership • Assigned impact factor
  9. Identifying Scholarly Journals • LIS Scholarly Journals php/LIS_scholarly_journals • Do a database search on your topic to see where else articles on this topic have been published • Check Journal Citation Reports for journals in information science • Don’t confine yourself to librarianship – AISHE-J, The Adult Learner etc. • Ask colleagues in the Library and beyond
  10. Practice-based article • Based primarily on experience • Give some background • Describe what happened • What was the impact • Reflection – what worked, what didn’t work so well, what could be done to improve it • Conclusion • (who, what, when, where, why, how)
  11. Structure of practice-based article • Introduction • Background/Context • Case Study • Results/Reflection • Conclusion • Possibly some references
  12. Journal analysis  Who is the publisher?  Who is the editor/on the editorial board?  Is the journal national or international?  What do the guidelines for contributions stipulate?  Is some or all of the content peer-reviewed?  How many issues are there per year and how many of these are themed?  What types of material are published?  Are articles illustrated?  How many references do typical papers include?  How long is the average article?
  13. Drafting a query e-mail • Before writing/submitting • Editor • Single sentences – I am writing an article on… – My experience is this area… – I think that readers of your journal would be interested in… because…
  14. Research-based article • Abstract (informative or structured) • Introduction • Background/Context • Literature Review • Methodolgy • Results/Analysis • Discussion • Conclusion • References
  15. Outlining • Order ideas • Sift & eliminate ideas • Contextualise/Give framework • View structure at a glance • Can work on different sections – writing is not a linear process • Makes the process manageable The reason many aspiring authors fail is that they throw themselves immediately into the activity of writing without realizing it is the forethought, analysis and preparation that determine the quality of the finished product Day, A. (2007) How to Get Research Published in Journals. Burlington, VT.: Ashgate. P. 9
  16. Outlining/Structuring • There are different ways to structure articles • Study the structure of articles in your target journal • Read first for story then for structure • Model articles on other articles that work well (template) • Different structures can achieve the same results ways • Be aware of your audience
  17. Outlining Murray, R. (2005) Writing for Academic Journals. Maidenhead: McGraw-Hill/Open University Press, p. 9 Context/Background Literature review Method/approach Results/Analysis Discussion Conclusion Topic 1 – 250 words Topic 2 – 250 words Topic 3- 250 words Introduction
  18. Title • Stimulate reader’s interest • Working title/final title • Attract and inform the reader • Stand out • Be accurate • Facilitate indexing and retrieval For more on titles consult Hartley, J. (2008) Academic Writing and Publishing: A practical handbook. London: Routledge, p. 23-27
  19. Abstract • Generally only required with a peer-reviewed article • Two types – informative and structured • Synopsis • Details essence (not the same as introduction) • Length determined by journal • Generally around 100 words
  20. Informative Abstract 7/15/2013 21 By surveying reference practitioners on their perceptions of chat reference training, this study presents effective training techniques that could enhance the professional preparation for chat reference personnel. Results indicate that the most effective training techniques involve hands-on practice among trainees and easy access...
  21. Structured Abstract 7/15/2013 22 • Purpose • This article explores the benefits of a writing support programme in developing the skills and motivation of librarians to write for academic publication. • Design/methodology/approach • A brief review of the literature is presented. The model developed and implemented by this author is outlined. Findings from a survey of participants are discussed. • Research limitations/implications • The formal programme commenced in 2007. The publication process takes time, particularly in the case of peer-reviewed journals. This is exploratory work. It will take time to build up a body of information and a community of librarians writing for publication. Initial evidence indicates there is significant value to the programme. • Practical implications • The model is transferable and could help in building skills and confidence in academic writing. In addition academic writing could serve as a bridge between lecturing and library staff, addressing issues of common concern across the academy. • Originality/value • This is the first formal writing support programme for librarians in Irish universities. Models exist in the US. A similar model is used in the UK and Ireland to support lecturing staff writing for publication. • Paper Type • Case Study • Keywords • Librarians, publication, academic writing, writing intervention
  22. Keywords • Indexing terms • The way your article will be retrieved by databases/search engines etc. • Avoid unnecessary prepositions especially in and of - use library marketing rather than marketing of library • What terms do you use to do searches on this topic?
  23. Introduction • Introduces the substantive content of the paper/the research question • Sets the scene • States the purpose • States the scope • States how issue is addressed • Usually starts from the general and progresses to the specific • Generally quite brief - no more that a sixth of the total article length • May include context/background or this may follow introduction
  24. Literature review • Tells what others have found on the topic • Provides a context from which to illustrate how the work documented in the rest of the paper extends or advances understanding and knowledge • Demonstrates that the author is familiar with thinking on a topic and understands where their work fits • Highly selective and specific, referring to other pieces of work most relevant to the argument being made • Link your findings and conclusions back to the literature review
  25. Methodology & analysis/outcomes/results • Methodology tells how the research was carried out • The analysis states the findings and how they are being interpreted • Where required it should supplement the argument made with evidence e.g. statistics, tables, charts, maps, or quotes
  26. Discussion & Conclusion • Summarises rationale and findings • Reaffirming how the research advances understanding and knowledge • Brings key points together • Outlines how future studies could build on and extend the research and argument reported • Try to link with introduction
  27. References Follow journal guidelines Complete Accurate
  28. On Writing If you’re clear in your mind about what you are going to paint, there is no point in painting it (Picasso) I have to start to write to have ideas (Françoise Sagan) Writing is a process of discovery. Sometimes you don't know what you know. You may know it but have no idea how it fits together (Alice Walker) 7/15/2013 29
  29. Writing • To begin writing you have to begin writing • Writing generates ideas • Don’t look for perfection, just write • Give yourself permission to write badly • All writing is rewriting I just put down any sort of rubbish,” a celebrated critic once remarked about his first attempts. And putting down rubbish is good advice…the truth is that once a sentence is lying on the page, it is often shatteringly clear what is right and what is wrong with it. Put it down, and go on putting more of it down. Everything can be mended later Watson, George (1987) Writing a thesis: a guide to long essays and dissertations. London: Longman, p. 39
  30. Writing • Can start at any point, but generally not conclusion • Scientists often write the results section first • Write in sentences • Structure and Narrative • Storytelling • Tone (verbs, tense, first or third person) • Sentences • Logical movement from sentence to sentence • Paragraphs
  31. Writing • Signposts Headings & subheadings (official) Endings of sections that hark back to what went before, announce what comes next (unofficial) • House style (journal style) • Transitions • Movement, coherence, clarity
  32. Writing as Storytelling • Writing as storytelling • Beginning, middle and end (not necessarily in that order) • What makes a story interesting? • A story has a theme • A story has movement • A story has a flow • Something happens/changes • Perhaps try to write your piece from start to finish before beginning editing
  33. Drafting and Redrafting • All writing is rewriting • Draft and redraft • Number, date and save drafts • Refer back to your abstract • Ask a critical colleague to read • Revise title, abstract & article • Check references against journal guidelines
  34. Drafting and Redrafting • When finished put aside for a period then reread • Spell check • Date and File preprint • Let go • If you have already sent a query e-mail to the editor refer to that in your submission
  35. Submission • Professional Journal – editor • Academic Journal – peer-review • Usually double blind peer review – Accept as is – Accept with revisions – Revise and resubmit – Reject Note: some content in academic journals may not be peer reviewed e.g. book reviews, editorial content, some case studies
  36. Peer review • Reply to editor indicating what you are going to do • Make changes as quickly as possible • Reread • Resubmit outlining what you have done • If you don’t take particular suggestions on board explain why • Keep postprint
  37. Why editors reject manuscripts • Author guidelines not followed • Not thorough (little substance) • Bad writing (lack of clarity and style) and/or grammatical errors • Subject of little/no interest to readers • Poor statistics, tables, figures • Subject or data out of date • Unprofessional appearance • Title • Too simple – reporting • Written at the wrong level
  38. Writing for a themed issue of a journal or edited collection • Papers on a related topic • Audience • Guest Editor • Invited contributors or call for contributors • Brief • Deadline
  39. Publicising Your Work Deposit in Institutional Repository Policy available at Set up slideshare account for presentations Create a profile using google scholar tations.html
  40. Profile • Create a Mendeley Profile • • Create a profile on • Publish in open access journals • Linkedin, Facebook, Twitter
  41. Moving on with your writing • Write • Describe, reflect and evaluate • Talk/Network • Notebook • Data • Collaborate • Be strategic – Have a plan • Cite key people • Set realistic goals • Give and look for peer support • Consider everything you do as potential material for a presentation/paper
  42. Bibliography on Academic Writing Available at