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Organic Chemistry Hydrocarbons Alkanes

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Organic Chemistry Hydrocarbons Alkanes

  1. 1. Organic Chemistry The chemistry of compounds containing carbon.
  2. 2. HYDROCARBONS <ul><li>Here are some Characteristics of hydrocarbons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has non-polar molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sp 3 hybridization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains only hydrogen and carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non-electrolytes because of poor ionization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In **most** situations, it is not soluble in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reactivity is very slow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The low boiling point makes it pretty easy to decompose </li></ul></ul>an organic compound (as acetylene or butane) containing only carbon and hydrogen and often occurring in petroleum, natural gas, coal, and bitumens Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D. (ABD)
  3. 3. Vocabulary Review (Time to pull out the ‘ole Latin Textbook) <ul><ul><li>The number of carbon atoms = root name! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>meth 1 carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>eth 2 carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>prop 3 carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>but 4 carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pent 5 carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hex 6 carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hept 7 carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oct 8 carbon </li></ul></ul></ul>Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D. (ABD)
  4. 4. The Alkanes <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>AKA Paraffins, are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). Each are linked by a single bond. </li></ul><ul><li>Each carbon atom must have 4 bonds (either C-H or C-C bonds), and each hydrogen atom must be joined to a carbon atom (H-C bonds). </li></ul><ul><li>General formula C n H 2n+2 (Linear saturated hydrocarbon) </li></ul>Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D. (ABD)
  5. 5. The Alkanes Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D. (ABD) Methane H H C H CH 4 H Propane H H H H C C C H C 3 H 8 H H H Ethane H H H C C H C 2 H 6 H H
  6. 6. Isomers - Compounds with the same composition and molecular weight , but differing structure Butane [C 4 H 10 ] Isobutane [C 4 H 10 ] Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D. (ABD)
  7. 7. n-pentane - A component of natural gas, lighter and blowtorch fuels and aerosol propellants, consists of five carbon atoms and twelve hydrogen atoms C 5 H 12 2-methylbutane - Isopentane is an extremely volatile and extremely flammable liquid at room temperature and pressure. 2-Methylbutane commonly used in conjunction with liquid nitrogen to achieve a liquid bath temperature of -160 °C. Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D. (ABD)
  8. 8. 2,2-dimethylpropane (neopentane): One of three structural isomers with the molecular formula C 5 H 12 , the others being pentane and isopentane. Extremely flammable gas at room temperature and pressure which can condense into a highly volatile liquid on a cold day, in an ice bath, or when compressed to a higher pressure. Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D. (ABD)
  9. 9. n-hexane n-heptane n-octane Presented by Brent Daigle, Ph.D. (ABD)

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