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Graficación por computadora

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Introducción a la Asignatura: Graficación, que es parte de la Ingeniería en Sistemas Computacionales.

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Graficación por computadora

  1. 1. Diana M. González Delgado Enero-Junio 09 GRAFICACIÓN INTRODUCCIÓN •1
  2. 2. DEFINICIÓN  La graficación hecha por computadora es el arte o la ciencia de producir imágenes gráficas con la ayuda de la computadora. •2
  3. 3. …HISTORIA  1950. La graficación por computadora tuvo sus inicios con el surgimiento de las computadoras digitales. Una computadora digital como la Whirlwhin de la Mit fue una de las primeras en utilizar una pantalla capaz de representar gráficos.  En 1959 surgió el primer sistema de dibujo por computadora, la DAC-1 (Design Augmented by Computers) Fue creado por General Motors e IBM. La DAC-1 permitía al usuario describir un automóvil en 3D con la capacidad de rotar y cambiar el ángulo de la imagen.” •3
  4. 4. …HISTORIA •1960 - 1970. Ivan Suterland (Estudiante de MIT), creó un programa que llamó Sketchpad, mediante el cual podía realizar trazos en la pantalla de la computadora auxiliándose de una pluma de luz. •También en 1961 otro estudiante del MIT, Steve Rusell creó el primer juego de video, llamado guerra espacial. Escrito para la DEC PDP-1, la guerra espacial fue un éxito inmediato. •4
  5. 5. ...HISTORIA  1970 – 1980. Los años 70 consideraron la introducción de los gráficos por computadora en el mundo de la televisión. Computer Image Corporation (CIC), desarrolló sistemas complejos de la dotación física y de software tales como ANIMAC, SCANIMATE y CAESAR. •5
  6. 6. ...HISTORIA  1980 – 1990. Turner Whitted publicó un artículo en el año 80 sobre un nuevo método de representación para simular superficies altamente reflexivas. Conocido hoy como ray tracing.  1999 – 2000. En 1993, la película Jurassic Park revoluciona los efectos visuales, al crear dinosaurios como nunca antes se habían visto, con la ayuda de las computadoras. •6
  7. 7. ...PARA RECORDAR  "Genesis Effect", Lucasfilm, Computer Division (1981)  Lisberger, Steven "Tron" (1982)  Castle, Nick "The Last Starfighter (La aventura comienza)" (1984)  Hyams, Peter "2010 Odyssey Two (2010 Odisea dos)" (1984)  Lasseter, John "Young Sherlock Holmes (El secreto de la pirámide)", Levinson, Barry (1985)  Zemeckis, Robert "Who Framed Rogger Rabbit? (Quién engañó a Roger Rabbit?)" (1988)  Cameron, James "The Abyss", Digital Domain (1989)  Cameron, James "Terminator 2: Judgment Day" (1991)  Leonard, Brett "The Lawnmower Man (El cortador de césped)" (1991)  Spielberg, Steven "Jurassic Park", Universal Pictures (1993)  Allers, Roger & Minkoff, Rob "The Lion King (El Rey León)", Disney Productions (1994)  Russell, Chuck "The Mask (La máscara)" (1994)  Caro, Marc "La cité des enfants perdus (La ciudad de los niños perdidos)" (1995)  Longo, Roberto "Johnny Mnemonic" (1995)  Payson, John "Joe’s Apartment", Blue Sky Productions (1996)  Besson, Luc "Fifth Element (El quinto elemento)" (1997)  Burton, Tim "Mars Attacks!" (1997)  Zemeckis, Robert "Contact", Imageworks (1997)  Wachowski, Andy & Larry "Matrix" (1999)  Petersen, Wolfgang "The Perfect Storm (La tormenta perfecta)" (2000)  Verhoeven, Paul "Hollow Man (El hombre sin sombra)" (2000)  Fesser, Javier "Mortadelo y Filemón", Daiquiri-Telson (efectos) (2002)  Jackson, Peter "The Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers" (2002)  Meca, Toni "Glory Day" (2003)  Emmerich, Roland "The Day After Tomorrow (El dia de mañana)" (2004) •7
  8. 8. ... APLICACIONES  Análisis : topografía, espacio, movimiento actores, medicina, huellas digitales, matrículas, robótica, fotografía, posicionamiento automático, etc.  Síntesis : publicidad, cine, artes gráficas, ingeniería, investigación científica, interfaces de máquinas, entrenamiento de operadores (sistemas y vehículos)  Áreas de diseño para optimizar la geometría.  Visualización de micro-estructuras de moléculas complejas.  Diagnóstico médico apoyado fuertemente por las imágenes tridimensionales que representan el interior del cuerpo humano.  Los simuladores visuales avanzados crean los mundos virtuales del realismo imponente y son utilizados por la industria del entretenimiento.  En el área de educación, se presentan nuevos métodos de interacción basados en ambientes virtuales. •8

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