2. What is communication ?
Derived from the Greek word “communicare” or
“communico” which means “to share”.
Community implies a group of people living in
Languages are the codes of communications.
7. Formal communication
We use this type of communication in
offices and social gathering.
Two types of formal communication.
8. (1) Downward communication
Higher designation to lower
Ex. Boss ordered his
Here effect of this type of
communication is very much
than upward communication.
9. (2) Upward communication.
Lower designation to
Ex. Worker request to his
Here the effect of
communication is less than
10. Informal communication.
We use this type of communication with
our family or friends.
Three types of informal communication.
11. Lateral communication.
Found among members working at the same
Ex. Peer group.
Most effective form of communication.
Barrier of subordinates or boss is not
12. Diagonal communication.
The path is mixture of vertical and
In large communications various
departments need communication
support from each other.
13. Grapevine communication.
Also called as “backbiting” or
A backstabber is a colleague or an
employee who acts like a friend in public
but badmouth you in private.
14. Verbal Communication: Oral
“The Man Who Can Think And Does Not
Know How To Express What He Thinks,
is at the same level who as the person
15. Characteristics/salient Features of
Instantaneous Two Way Process
One Off Exercise
Day To Day Language
Presence Of Sender And Receiver
Effect Of Body Language And Speech
It Cannot Be Erased Or Mended
16. Method Of Oral Communication
1.Face To Face
17. Need For Learning Oral
Help In Problem Solving
Influence People To Work Together
Persuade Other To Be Involved In
Be Assertive Without Being Aggressive
Develop Listening Skills
Be An Effective Negotiator
18. Oral Communication
4.Effective Tool Of Persuasion
5.Effective Tool Of group communication
7.Allows To Measure Effectiveness Immediately
8.It Is The Only Way out During An Emergency
1.Lack Of Retention/Documentation
2.Distortion In Passing The Message
3.No Legal Validity
4.Possibility Of Misunderstanding
5.Unsuitable For Long Messages
6.Difficulty In assigning Responsibility
7.It Is Constrained by physical Barriers
8.Not Effective when The Target group Is
20. Tips for Effective Oral Communication
1.Consider The Objective
3.Think About The interest Level Of The Receiver
4.Be Sincere And Honest
5.Use simple Language And Familiar Words
6.Be Brief And Precise
7.Avoid Vagueness And Generalities
8.Give Full Facts
9.Use Polite Words And Tones
10.Leave Out Insulting Message
11.Say Something interesting and Pleasing To The
12.Allow Time To Respond
13.Avoid Disagreement And Argument
14.Avoid use Of slang Words
15.Be Sensitive And Courteous To The Listener
16.Develop New Areas Of Conversation
17.Maintain Eye Contact
18.Exhibit Positive Gestures And Body Language
19.Be Descriptive But Not Evaluation
20.Avoid Making The Speech Monotonous And
21.Don’t Be Repetitive
22.Hear The Other Person Too
23.Try To Summarize The Discussions For Clarity
23. Methods Of Written Communication
24. Characteristics Of Written
Most Formal Type Of Communication
Used For Documentation
Used For Circulation Of Information
Conventional by nature
Presence Of Both Sender And Receiver Is
Not Necessary At The Same Time
A Creative Activity
It has fewer Cycles
25. Written Communication
5.Suitable For Distance
8.Permanent In Nature
9.Facilities In Order To
10. Permits substitution and
Limited to literate world
Lot of paper work
Needs expertise in
Lack of immediate
More man hours needed
28. Relationship of non-verbal message
with verbal message
A non verbal message can
complement a verbal one.
It can emphasize a verbal one.
It can repeat a verbal one.
A non verbal message can regulate a
It can substitute for a verbal one.
A non verbal message can contradict
a verbal one.
It means body movements.
Body language is the reflection of thought,
feelings and position.
- Facial expressions
- Eye contact
- Body shape and posture
31. Why is Body Language important?
Body language plays a big role in
intuition as it gives us messages
about the other person, that we can
interpret at an intuitive level.
33. Direct eye contact of more than 10
seconds can create discomfort and anxiety.
Averted eyes show anger, hurt feelings.
Looking at somebody for a long time
shows the intensity of our interest in him.
- Patting the stomach – I’m full of food.
- Nodding the head up and down – yes
- Yawning – I’m bored.
- Waving – hello
- Leaning a little towards
- Tilting the head.
- Eye contact with the
- Gently nodding the
head in agreement.
- Hands in the pocket
- Covering the mouth
with the hand while
- Drumming fingers.
- Tapping feet
- Sitting on the edge of
- Clicking the pen
36. Proxemics / Space Language &
Proxemics is the study of how we communicate
with the space around us.
- intimate zone – physical contract/touch to 18
- personal zone – 18 inches to 4 feet.
- social zone – 4 to 12 feet.
- Public zone – 12 feet to as far as we can see
Para means ‘like’
Paralanguage literally means like
It tells us how speaker verbalizes his
Verbal includes ‘what’ but
paralanguage includes ‘how’
45. Barriers to Effective Communication
The barriers/negative forces may
affect the effective communication by
acting upon any or all of the basic
elements of communication process
46. Different Types of Barriers
Cross cultural barriers
Physical barriers/channel and media
g. Technological barriers
47. Semantic Barriers
Words having similar pronunciation
but multiple meaning
Badly expressed message
52. Individual / Psycho-sociological
Barriers - 2
2. Selective perception
3. Halo effect
4. Status relationship
5. Poor attention and retention
7. Undue importance of written words
9. Closed mind
10. State of health
56. Overcoming the Barriers
Desired to be effective and efficient
Check continuously during the
Be fully attentive
Listen, listen, listen and listen again
Share opinions, feelings and
perceptions generated by the
57. Measures to overcome Barriers in
Fostering good relationship
Purposeful and well focused communication
Co-ordination between superior and
Avoid technical language
Clarity in message
58. Measures to overcome Barriers in
communication - 2
Communication of organizational
Flat organizational structure
Division of labour
Minimize semantic problem
Proper communication channels