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Water And a City

PPT for Women in Science Summer School TIFR-ICTS. How cities manage their water

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Water And a City

  1. 1. Water Water and a City Rebuilding an Urban Water Culture Biome Environmental Trust Shubha Ramachandran
  2. 2. How much water do I use ? Use Litres/person Drinking 3 Cooking 4 Bathing 20 Flushing 40 Washing-clothes 25 Washing Utensils 20 Gardening 23 Total 135 Real Consumption range : from 50 to 300 liters per person per day National Town planning Norms : Urban : 135 Lpcd Rural (Karnataka) : 55 Lpcd
  3. 3. WATER AVAILABILITY AND WHERE DOES MY WATER COME FROM ?
  4. 4. Cities search for water •Chennai: 235 km •Bangalore: 95 km •Delhi: from Tehri dam (450 km). Chennai Veeranam lake Map of Tamil Nadu
  5. 5. Manjira dam Hyderabad Nagurjuna 105 km 100 km Himayat Sagar Osman Sagar
  6. 6. Vaitarna cum Tansa 90 km 105 km Mumbai Bhatsa
  7. 7. Bangalore need Bangalore Bangalore gets its water from the Cauvery 95 kms and 500 meters below the city
  8. 8. My water comes from a tap !!
  9. 9. My tap gets its water from an overhead tank...... .....to which water is PUMPED from my sump tank........ And My sump tank Gets water from ??
  10. 10. But Many people don’t Have “taps” at home !!!! (Many places don’t have City/municipal connections and many cant afford it) Where do they get their Water from ???
  11. 11. .... The unlucky many.....
  12. 12. …..And the lucky few….. Tankers or borewells borewells !!
  13. 13. .... Some (i think) clever lot.....
  14. 14. WHAT HAPPENS AFTER THE WATER HAS BEEN USED
  15. 15. What happens to all the water I have already used ?????? Use Litres/person Drinking 3 Cooking 4 Bathing 20 Flushing 40 Washing-clothes 25 Washing Utensils 20 Gardening 23 Total 135 I use clean water And i throw out Dirty water What happens to The rainwater that falls on My house ?
  16. 16. The Sewerage treatment plant Primary, Secondary and Tertiary treatment
  17. 17. …sewer and storm water drain networks …. Sewage treatment plant Lakes And tanks
  18. 18. …but then many times storm water and sewage water gets mixed…. ….. And lands up in lakes untreated…..
  19. 19. Photo : Norma Angelica Hernandez Bernal Ultimate source of all water : RAIN
  20. 20. Local hydrologic cycle
  21. 21. Twin problems Urban FloodingWater Scarcity
  22. 22. PARADOX ?
  23. 23. Rainwater harvesting components: 1) Catchment 2) Conveyance 3) Filtration 4) Storage 5) Recharge <<< The saree is the Catchment, conveyance And filter !!!!!! The collection and storage of rain for future productive use
  24. 24. MONTH DAYS QUANTITY (mm) JAN 0.2 2.70 FEB 0.5 7.20 MAR 0.4 4.40 APR 3.0 46.30 MAY 7.0 119.60 JUN 6.4 80.80 JUL 8.3 110.20 AUG 10.0 137.00 SEP 9.3 194.80 OCT 9.0 180.40 NOV 4.0 64.50 DEC 1.7 22.10 TOTAL 59.8 970.00 Rainfall pattern in Bangalore 30 years data
  25. 25. How much water can I harvest
  26. 26. How much water do I use ? Use Litres/person Drinking 3 Cooking 4 Bathing 20 Flushing 40 Washing-clothes 25 Washing Utensils 20 Gardening 23 Total 135 Real Consumption range : from 50 to 300 liters per person per day National Town planning Norms : Urban : 135 Lpcd Rural (Karnataka) : 55 Lpcd
  27. 27. How much water can I harvest Plot Size Area(sqm) Avg 30mm rain runoff (KL) Annual 970mm rain runoff (KL) No of days of use 30ft x 40ft 110 3 96 142 60ft x 40ft 220 6 192 285 50ft x 80ft 367 10 321 475  Assumed 5 member families with a daily per capita consumption of 135 litres  Assumed only 90% runoff from rooftops
  28. 28. ….So how clean is Rainwater ?.... Rainwater in a Glass Cauvery water in a Glass - Guess Which is which ? A Bucket of Rainwater in Kurubarakunte village, Bangalore
  29. 29. A clean roof means clean water
  30. 30. Join all the pipes……
  31. 31. Bring it to a Storage
  32. 32. Clean Rainwater :FRS & Filtration
  33. 33. First rain separation – let the rain clean the roof
  34. 34. Filter
  35. 35. Commercial Filters
  36. 36. Rain barrel : easiest way to begin rainwater harvesting
  37. 37. Storage
  38. 38. Groundwater recharge : Wells & Borewells
  39. 39. …a source and a sink GROUNDWATER Sink Source
  40. 40. Digging an open well step by step First the soil is excavated to the desired depth. You may encounter rock or water inflow/seepage. The hole is normally 6”-8” wider than the external dia of the concrete rings. These wells can cost anywhere between 20k and 100k INR.
  41. 41. The soil is excavated to the required depth Concrete rings are lowered in one by one into the well Aggregate or jelly stones line the gaps between the rings This reinforces the well structure
  42. 42. MILLION WELLS !!
  43. 43. GROUND Water ● What DOES an individual do ? ● What DOES a City do ? ● What CAN an individual do ? ● What CAN a City do ?
  44. 44. PRINCIPLES ?
  45. 45. Floating wetland pic 82
  46. 46. Waste Water ● What DOES an individual do ? ● What DOES a City do ? ● What CAN an individual do ? ● What CAN a City do ?
  47. 47. PRINCIPLES ??
  48. 48. THANK YOU !!

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