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The legacy of remote emergency teaching and the way to innovative learning strategies

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The legacy of remote emergency teaching and the way to innovative learning strategies

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought new challenges to higher education, demanding innovative strategies and the adaptation to a new reality. Furthermore, even though there are certain scientific areas where the transition has been rather satisfactory, in many education areas the challenges seek to persist. Thus, there is a need to identify both the solutions and limitations of the models currently in use, encompassing a diversity of cultural and educational perspectives.
The recent experience, when it comes to higher education, has been primarily in two domains. One dealing with innovation policy, and how to support higher education institutions and universities. And the other, connected with this one, is how to advance the digital transition of higher education. It's very important to realize that creativity and innovativeness have provided the ability to deliver education in non-standard circumstances. Educational technologies and instructional design had a strong push, and we are going to see a continuation of hybrid learning in the near future.

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought new challenges to higher education, demanding innovative strategies and the adaptation to a new reality. Furthermore, even though there are certain scientific areas where the transition has been rather satisfactory, in many education areas the challenges seek to persist. Thus, there is a need to identify both the solutions and limitations of the models currently in use, encompassing a diversity of cultural and educational perspectives.
The recent experience, when it comes to higher education, has been primarily in two domains. One dealing with innovation policy, and how to support higher education institutions and universities. And the other, connected with this one, is how to advance the digital transition of higher education. It's very important to realize that creativity and innovativeness have provided the ability to deliver education in non-standard circumstances. Educational technologies and instructional design had a strong push, and we are going to see a continuation of hybrid learning in the near future.

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The legacy of remote emergency teaching and the way to innovative learning strategies

  1. 1. THE LEGACY OF REMOTE EMERGENCY TEACHING AND THE WAY TO INNOVATIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES JOSÉ BIDARRA UNIVERSIDADE ABERTA
  2. 2. LOCKDOWN AFTERMATH
  3. 3. Just move on… ?
  4. 4. CONNECTING THE DOTS "You can't connect the dots looking forward, you can only connect them looking backward” Steve Jobs
  5. 5. “NEW NORMAL” UNDER COVID-19  Emergency remote work and teaching  Online peer and social interaction  Online shopping and customer help  Digital equipment and network access  Facing security and privacy issues
  6. 6. SOME QUESTIONS 1. Is the pandemic a turning point in teaching and learning? 2. The transition to online learning has been satisfactory? 3. What are the solutions and limitations of the models used? 4. What changed from a cultural and educational point of view? 5. Is there a dominant pedagogical model for online or hybrid learning? 6. What challenges seek to persist in Higher Education?
  7. 7. A PEDAGOGICAL MODEL FROM THE MIDDLE AGES  One-to-many in a physical environment  Knowledge starts with the teacher  Teacher supplies the study resources  Interaction is restricted in time and space  Student assessment is driven by the teacher
  8. 8. THE CAMPUS REALITY  College campuses in many parts of the world are like small cities.  They are like a functioning society with housing (residence halls), restaurants (dining halls), businesses (bookstores and cafés), law enforcement (campus police), decision makers (administration), academic work (classes), and a lively community (students, faculty and staff).  Can all this be moved to virtual spaces?
  9. 9. EMERGENCY REMOTE TEACHING
  10. 10. SPACE / TIME MATRIX Same time Different time Same space Face-to-face classes, exams and other onsite events (no time and space flexiblity) Completion of activities in a lab, library, science centre (anytime in a fixed location) Different space Remote teaching, online events and other virtual activities (same time in a variable location) Online interaction, asynchronous activities, project development (anytime and anywhere) Adapted from Bidarra & Rusman, 2017
  11. 11. EMERGING NEEDS  Access to technology (for students and faculty)  Pedagogical model (online/hybrid)  Faculty development (use of new tech & model)  Institutional change (flexibility and resilience)  Cultural change (digital education)
  12. 12. A PERSONAL RESEARCH PROJECT  Sabbatical year at UNSW in Sydney, Australia (on Distance Learning Innovation);  COVID-19 Pandemic and lockdown in 2020;  All changed from face-to-face to online platforms on a very short notice;  New aims:  Identify the constraints and the emerging solutions concerning online teaching;  Assess the situation in Europe, hardly hit with the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to Australia and New Zealand.
  13. 13. DATA COLLECTION Total participants interviewed 12 Participants reporting on Europe countries 8 Participants reporting on Australia/New Zealand 5 Open and Distance Learning HEI 4 Face-to-Face Learning HEI 8 Associations and networks 2 Interviews by videoconferencing 9 Interviews by e-mail 3 Online transcription service Otter (otter.ai) Natural Language Processing LDA (Latent Dirichlet Allocation)
  14. 14. CHANGES DURING THE PANDEMIC  “classes were forced to move to remote models (online) in a very short time”;  “lecturers and students had to adopt new technology and new skills”;  “lecturers and students worked from home most of the time”;  “changes included editing down old recordings of lectures or creating new videos altogether, and rethink interaction with students”;  “most universities were unprepared for an unexpected online teaching engagement”;  “diverging from Europe, Higher Education is very much run like a business in Australia, and because of the pandemic hundreds of staff lost their jobs”.
  15. 15. DRIVERS AND BARRIERS  (pro) “lecturers and students are now using Zoom and Teams proficiently”;  (pro) “implementation of teaching programs based on online and hybrid learning”;  (pro) “enabling digital access to materials and support through technology”;  (pro) “lecturers had to learn several technologies that they were not used to”;  (con) “lack of adequate social contact among students and with lecturers”;  (con) “with so many online sessions there was more superficial learning”;  (con) “academics are not competent instructional designers for online platforms”.
  16. 16. NEW EXPERIENCES  “we introduced Miro to facilitate graphical communication and tested Wonder, as it allows a teacher to set up different tracks” (DK);  “there was a need to have some sort of online activity, like a workshop or practice, because students wanted more than recorded lectures” (AUS);  “we used a myriad of tools, such as Padlet, Poll Everywhere, Mural, Socrative, Slido, and everyone is now very skilled in these tools” (AUS);  “Jitsi is an open-source alternative to Zoom that we use for lab sessions, it’s hosted within the university, and we use Queue for our online exams” (NL);  “UNED had to develop software (it was in a prototype phase), to proctor online exams (in one year, we delivered nearly 800,000 exams)”.
  17. 17. COMMUNICATION CHANNELS  “the Open University (UK) didn't allow the use of Zoom because of data privacy issues, so primary vehicles were both Adobe Connect and MS Teams”;  “we use mainly WebEx but also have social media channels with students” (AT);  “we have Discourse (online forum) for our students” (AT);  “we explored more the Teams and Sway services from Microsoft” (ES);  “Moodle is the baseline platform but, in terms of communication, it's mainly Zoom, Teams, and Collaborate Ultra from Blackboard” (AUS);  “every week I used Zoom, Teams, Meets, Hangouts or Adobe Connect, depending on the link” (ES);
  18. 18. DIGITAL ASSESSMENT  “we used our customized Moodle system for assignments and exams” (AT);  “I'm a big believer in progressive assessment (of portfolios) and that means exams are particularly useless, however, some staff members have produced quizzes as part of the supplementary learning tasks (AUS);  “assessment was based on portfolio assignments over an entire semester” (DK);  “most people just shifted or cancelled their examinations and moved to continuous assessment. To introduce a proctoring infrastructure under emergency remote teaching conditions is a recipe for disaster” (IE);  “we relied essentially on grading case studies. The goal was to define cases where students could apply theory to practice” (AUS);  “we have relatively few proctored exams. Instead, we have developed several other anti-fraud measures. One of them is post-exam interviews” (NL).
  19. 19. PRIVACY AND SECURITY  “when running synchronous sessions participants are asked to accept recording for academic purposes”;  “before students enter any online examination, they must click or state that they agree to the conditions”;  “with Zoom there were issues, including students who weren't enrolled, attending, disrupting class, sharing the screen with pornography, all those types of things” (AUS);  “there's been an overreaction by a small community of educators, because online proctoring must have a role in the future” (NZ);  “it's probably a decade or more UCL has been using Moodle for student assessments, keeping track of marks, records, etc. It has all been part of the process. So, nothing changed because of COVID-19 in that respect” (UK).
  20. 20. FACULTY DEVELOPMENT  “a lot of webinars for staff training took place at the Open University” (UK);  “we had many conferences and training on the job using Webex” (AT);  “even though I was completely overloaded with work it was nice to have some more training related with technology. Every week we had at least one or two webinars (UNED/ES);  “at Copenhagen Business School, every two weeks, there's a one-hour seminar on specific topics”;  “we organized a webinar series in response to the COVID-19 and introduced European and US contributors that were lesser known within the Australian and New Zealand communities”;  “we have a unit called Teaching and Learning Services, and they offered weekly webinars on a variety of topics, mostly related to online education” (NL);
  21. 21. USE OF CREATIVE MEDIA  “new digital media have potential but there was no time to explore”;  “the pandemic has not changed the approach to instructional design” (UKOU);  “there's been a gradual shift towards making online content more engaging”;  “we didn't have the time to invent new collaborative activities or anything creative”;  “the skills learners are required to evidence on completion determines whether 'new' pedagogies are appropriate (not related to COVID-19)”;  “some courses have invested in creating videos, or creating a more blended experience, and they are more innovative in that way. But I would say we've been so busy with online teaching that we couldn´t focus elsewhere” (NL).
  22. 22. DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION  “we have now more skilled teachers using e-learning technology and driving change” (AT);  “I don't think universities were really pushing for e-learning, it was more the need for this combination of online with face-to-face learning” (ES);  “the problem with people working at home is that they must be very serious, disciplined, organized and diligent (not often the case in Spain)”;  “the universities really led the digital transformation, the management boards really saw the financial situation and decided to move to online learning” (AUS);  “there was little pressure from politicians or even higher management within the university. Mostly it has been about lecturers wanting to provide the best possible experience for students” (NL).
  23. 23. POST-PANDEMIC CHANGES  “some of the habits will stay on to some extent, like more use of the internet for pedagogical purposes”;  “there is the danger that online teaching across the UK is set in a very cheap format with the possibility that it becomes basically outsourced and online” (UK);  “parents and students have realized the importance of teachers and pedagogy in the new models” (ES);  “the social interaction in class is important and should be integrated with online learning” (ES);  “online teaching effectiveness will depend on the kind of academic subject”;  “the blended learning models and the habit of connecting via videoconferencing are here to stay”;  “the future it's going to be different for each institution, according to its kind of leadership and its institutional culture”.
  24. 24. LESSONS LEARNED  Technology has become vital in helping to ensure that no one was left behind;  The imposed digital transformation opened a lot of options for everyone;  It has become clear that the use of streaming lectures alone is not an effective solution;  The hybrid model of teaching in higher education must be reviewed to maintain the quality of learning;  The traditional examination needs to be replaced by more contemporary forms of assessment.
  25. 25. NEED FOR A PEDAGOGICAL MODEL  Define a CONTEXT for hybrid learning  Identify the TECHNOLOGY to be used  Choose the adequate PEDAGOGY  Implement an effective INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
  26. 26. CONTEXT Design dualities Typical features Formal and non-formal learning Specification of topics and types of activities and how they fit together in a learning scenario (e.g. Courses, Lab Practice, Science Club, Field Trip, etc.). Individual and collaborative learning Specification of study modes and related resources, both online and offline, allowing for learner’s interaction and project building (e.g. mindmapping, coding, designing). Open and closed learning environments Combination of free and restricted access learning environments and resources (e.g. MOOCs and OERs). Adapted from Bidarra & Rusman, 2017
  27. 27. TECHNOLOGY Design dualities Typical features Synchronous and asynchronous learning Technology supporting learning interaction modes (dealing with time flexibility). Virtual and physical settings Technology supporting hybrid learning environments (dealing with space flexibility). Single platform and multi platform Online learning platforms integration and flexibility (e.g. Moodle, Moodle Mobile, H5P plugins, Urkund, etc.) Adapted from Bidarra & Rusman, 2017
  28. 28. PEDAGOGY Design dualities Typical features Theoretical and hands-on activities Mix of learner-centred activities set in a hybrid learning curriculum (including online and offline activities). Compulsory and open learning design Design of structured activities for required outcomes (e.g. multiple-choice tests and tutor marked assignments), and design of open learning activities (e.g. games, simulations, portfolios, and open discussions). Centralized and open assessment Modes of learner assessment components in a learning scenario with many activities (e.g. formative and summative assessment, peer assessment, self- assessment). Pre-structured and open guidance Modes of supporting the learning process and tutoring of activities (e.g. video tutorials, mentoring Adapted from Bidarra & Rusman, 2017
  29. 29. THE WAY AHEAD?  Global world events (war, pandemic, climate)  Policy decisions and paths of action  Social movements and collective action  Emerging technology solutions
  30. 30. THE ARRIVAL OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) Source: Microsoft
  31. 31. EMERGING SCENARIOS Source: Microsoft
  32. 32. ABC Teach University of Lisbon
  33. 33. LEARNING SCORECARD Learning Scorecard ISCTE
  34. 34. LEARNING WITH, ABOUT AND FOR AI Holmes et al. (2019)
  35. 35. Holmes et al. (2019) and Bidarra et al. (2020)
  36. 36. OTHER TECHNOLOGY IN THE NEAR FUTURE  Blockchain (in universities?)  Virtual Reality (metaverse?)  Serious games (just a niche?)  Video-LMS platforms (new wave?)
  37. 37. DIGITAL LITERACY FOR ALL Digital literacy is the ability to navigate our digital world using reading, writing, technical skills, and critical thinking. It’s using technology to find, evaluate, and communicate information. Source: Microsoft
  38. 38. Source: https://www.jisc.ac.uk/rd/projects/building-digital-capability
  39. 39. Source: avast.com
  40. 40. TOWARDS A CHANGED UNIVERSITY  Professors become mentors instead of supervisors  Grades will be learning-based not score-based  Failure is seen as a learning opportunity not a set-back  Students collaborate instead of competing for higher scores  Onsite and online classes take place in interactive spaces  Personal interests and initiatives can be integrated with the curriculum
  41. 41. THE RIGHT MINDSET “Education is not the learning of facts, but the training of the mind to think” Albert Einstein
  42. 42. THANK YOU! Jose.bidarra@uab.pt

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