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PED 109 (Curriculum Development)
FACILITATORS # 4
Topic: CURRICULUM EVALUATION
SENIT, MARY ROSE ANNE
BIBAS, HENRY M.
ETQUIBAL, YCA TRINA
SALVADOR, DANNICA JOY
REBOLLOS, ELYZA JOYCE
DR. ALICIA T. BALDICANO
PED 109 Instructor
FACILITATOR TOPIC STRATEGY
Mary Rose Anne Senit What , Why, How, to Evaluate a Curriculum
Henry M. Bibas Curriculum Evaluation through Learning
Achieve Learning Outcomes
Strategies/ Tools to Asses the Curriculum
Level of Hierarchy
Yca Trina A. Etquibal Recording devices/ tools
Non-Test Monitoring and Assessment
Dannica Joy Salvador Planning, Implementing, Evaluating
Understanding the Connections
Elyzza Joyce Rebollos Planning, Implementing, Evaluating
Understanding the Connections
EVALUATING THE CURRICULUM
• Module Overview
This module is all about curriculum evaluation in the context of
its definition and the role of the teacher as an evaluator. It will
present the ways of evaluating the curriculum as written,
planned or implemented . It will reference popular models of
curriculum models currently used in educational programs here
Curriculum evaluation is a component of curriculum
development that responds to public accountability. It looks into
educational reforms or innovations that happen in the teacher’s
classrooms, the school, district, division or the whole educational
system as well. It is establishing the merit and worth of a curriculum .
Test results will only be used as one of the pieces of evidence of
evaluation. For at the end, the purpose of evaluation is to improve
and not to prove.
• What, Why, and How to Evaluate a Curriculum
• Curriculum Evaluation Through Learning
• Planning, Implementing, Evaluating, Understanding
WHAT, WHY AND HOW TO EVALUATE
Strategy: Oral/Written Presentations & Task
Facilitator: Senit, Mary Rose Anne S.
Ornstein, A. &
Hunkins , F. (1998)
Curriculum evaluation is a process done in order to gather
data that enables one to decide whether to accept,
change, eliminate the whole curriculum of a textbook.
McNeil, J. (1997) Evaluation answers two questions .
1. Do planned learning opportunities , programs, courses
and activities as developed and organized actually
produced desired results?
2. How can a curriculum best be improved?
Gay, L. (1985) Evaluation is to identify the weaknesses and strengths as
well as problems encountered in the implementation ,to
improve the curriculum development process. It is to
determine the effectiveness of and the returns on
allocated finance .
Olivia , P. (1988) It is a process of delineating, obtaining and providing
useful information for judging alternatives for purposes of
modifying, or eliminating the curriculum.
• Any aspect of an activity or undertakings should be evaluated for
purposes of better performance in the future.
• If evaluated objectively, this brings good result and achieves
• Curriculum assessment is not a one shot deal.
The intention and
• Graphic shows it is part of a process.
• Therefore, it is a continuous process from what is
intended to what is implemented to what is
Bilbao, et. Al. (2003) differentiated what is intended,
implemented and achieved.
• Intended curriculum-refers to the planned
objectives, goals, and purposes of the curriculum.
Answers what the curriculum maker/ framer wants to
• Implemented curriculum–refers to the various
learning experiences provided to the students to
achieve the goals.
• Achieved curriculum- refers to the learning
outcomes measured by learning performances.
What are the objectives of
These are the general objectives of curriculum evaluation:
examine and evaluate the historical, philosophical, ethical, social,
economic and political influence on curriculum.
evaluate curriculum methods and structures in relation to
national curricular standards and to national value-added
Relate cognitive and brain-based research to curricular
methods, structure and intents.
Analyze the compatibility of the curriculum and related
Explore the effects of curriculum on teaching, learning,
supervision and policy.
Evaluate the curricular demands of a digital age.
Define personal philosophy and approaches regarding
curriculum design, development and implementation.
4 Reasons for Curriculum
• Curriculum evaluation identifies the strengths and
weaknesses of an existing curriculum that will be the
basis of the intended plan, design or implementation.
• When evaluation is done in the middle of the
curriculum development, it will designed or
implemented curriculum can produce or is producing
the desired results . This is related to monitoring.
• Curriculum evaluation will guide whether the results
have equaled or exceed the standards (
sometimes called as TERMINAL ASSESSMENT)
• Curriculum evaluation provides information necessary
for teachers, school managers, curriculum specialist for
policy recommendations that will enhance achieved
learning outcomes. This ids the basis of decision making.
In curriculum evaluation , important processes were
evolved such as
(a) needs assessment,
(c) terminal assessment and
(d) decision making.
• Steps in Conducting a Curriculum Evaluation
8. Preparing modes of
7. Preparing evaluation report
6. Identifying Techniques
5. Identifying established
standards and criteria
4. Identifying techniques
for collecting data
3. Identifying data
2. Identifying critical
DIFFERENT CURRICULUM EVALUATION
PERSONS EVALUATION / MODEL SHORT
DIFFERENT CURRICULUM EVALUATION MODELS
PERSONS EVALUATION/ MODEL SHORT
L.H . BRADLEY
DANIEL STUFFLE BEAM
PARLETT AND HAMILTON
Steps What to Consider
1. Identifying primary audiences •Curriculum Program Sponsors, managers and
administrators. School heads, participants (teachers&
students) content specialist; and other stake holders.
2. Identifying critical issues/ problems •Outcomes(expected, desired, intended) process
(implementation) resources (inputs)
3. Identifying data source • people(teachers, students , parents , curriculum
developers) existing documents , available records
4. Identifying techniques for collecting data •Standardized test, informal test, sample of students
work, interview, participant observations, checklist,
5. Identifying established standards and criteria •Standards previously set by agency( DepEd, CHED,
6.Identifying techniques in data analysis •Content, process analysis, statistics, comparison ,
7. Preparing evaluation report • Written, oral; progress; final ;
summary ; descriptive; graphic;
evaluative and judgmental ; list of
8.Preparing modes of display • Case studies; test scores summary ;
testimonies; multi media presentations
; product display (exhibit); technical
The steps are easy to follow. Begin thinking of how
curriculum evaluators will proceed in finding out if there
is a need to modify , enhance or continue with the
implementation of the curriculum . After all, the main
purpose of evaluation is to improve the existing
condition, so that it would benefit the students.
Despite of variety o methods in curriculum evaluation ,
the approaches are usually classified in to two broad
Traditional evaluation – is concerned with
determining the extent to which students achieve the
outcomes of curriculum.(relies heavily on the testing of
New-wave evaluation –testing should not play the
only role in evaluation but that a great variety of
factors should be considered.
Following are several models consistent with the
traditional and new wave approaches.
Different Curriculum Evaluation Models
PERSONS EVALUATION/ MODEL SHORT
L.H . BRADLEY BRADLEY EFFECTIVENESS MODEL
RALPH TYLER TYLER’S OBJECTIVE CENTERED MODEL
DANIEL STUFFLE BEAM DANIEL STUFFLE BEAM MODEL (CIPP)
ROBERT STAKE STAKE’S COUNTENACE MODEL (1967) ,
STAKE RESPONSIVE MODEL(1976),
STAKE’S CASE STUDY MODEL(1978)
MICHAEL SCRIVEN SCRIVEN CONSUMER ORIENTED
HAMMONDS HAMMOND’S GOAL- ATTAINMENT MODEL
PARLETT AND HAMILTON (1976) ILLUMINATIVE MODEL
KEMMIS KEMMI’S (1974) SURROGATE
CURRICULUM EVALUATION MODEL
Curriculum models by Ralph Tyler and Hilda Taba end with
evaluation. Evaluation is a big idea that collectively tells about the
value or worth of something that was done.
curriculum specialist have proposed an arrays of models which
are useful for classroom teachers and practitioners.
Let’s look some of these.
BRADLEY EFFECTIVENESS MODEL
-first , you have to identify what curriculum you will evaluate ,
then find out if the curriculum you are evaluating answers
yes or no. answering yes to all questions means good
curriculum as describe by Bradley.
TYLER OBJECTIVE CENTERED MODEL
- Involves: establishing goals or objective; stating the
objectives in behavioral terms; measuring aspects of
student performance at the completion of teaching ;
comparing test results with behavioral objectives
- it is a continuing process
DANIEL STUFFLEBEAM MODEL- CIPP
- The model made emphasis that the result of evaluation
should provide data for decision making. There are four
stages of program operation. These include:
1. context evaluation
2. input evaluation
3. process evaluation
4. product evaluation
- however, any evaluator can only take any of the four stages
as the focus of evaluation
STAKE’S COUNTENANCE MODEL
-model emphasizes the importance of both description
and observation in evaluation.
-distinguishes between the evaluators description and
judgment at the different stages of implementing a
curriculum or program; antecedents’, transactions’ and
STAKE RESPONSIVE MODEL
- is oriented more directly to program activities than the
program intents. Evaluation focuses more on the
activities rather than intent or purposes.
STAKE’S CASE STUDY MODEL
- The case study model is so called because of its
emphasis on the specific situation to be investigated.
SCRIVEN CONSUMER ORIENTED EVALUATION
- uses criteria and checklist as a tool for either
formative or summative evaluation purposes. The use
of criteria and checklist was proposed by Scriven for
HAMMOND’S GOAL-ATTAINMENT MODEL
- Five steps for determining whether a curriculum has
achieved its objectives:
Isolating the program or part of the curriculum to be
Defining the descriptive variables
Stating objectives in behavioral terms
Assessing the behavior described in the objectives
Analyzing results to arrive at conclusions about the
PARLETT & HAMILTON’S ILLUMINATIVE MODEL
-this model aims to illuminate the audience’s
understanding of a curriculum or program.
-illuminative evaluation is less restricting than traditional
- Is more concerned with description and interpretation
tan measurement and prediction.
KEMMI’S SURROGATE EXPERIENCE MODEL
-based on the view that curriculum cannot be measured
in precise and objective ways, but requires a broad
evaluation involving the interaction of many variables.
PED 109 (Curriculum Development)
FACILITATOR # 2
Main Topic: CURRICULUM EVALUATION THROUGH
HENRY M. BIBAS
Level of Hierarchy
STRATEGIES/ TOOLS TO
Dummy for the ACHIEVED LEARNING OUTCOMES
Expected Outcome for the ACHIEVED LEARNING OUTCOMES
Dummy for the STRATEGIES/ TOOLS TO ASSESS THE CURRICULUM
Expected Outcome for the STRATEGIES/ TOOLS TO ASSESS THE CURRICULUM
s to Assess the
We have gone a long way in understanding, interpreting
and applying the concept of curriculum development. We will
continue to understand that curriculum can be evaluated right in the
teacher’s classroom. Finding out if the planned, written,
implemented curriculum are functioning as intended in the
assessment of learning is very crucial.
how does a teacher know, that the students have learned
from what is been taught? Many educational practitioners agree that
the measure of one’s teaching is indicated by what the children
have learned. The teacher cannot claim that he/she has taught if the
students have not learned anything.
Assessment of learning is an evaluation process that tells
whether the intended learning outcomes, through the teaching-
learning process, have been converted into achieved learning
outcomes. Learning outcomes can be measured through the use of
different assessment tools.
ACHIEVED LEARNING OUTCOMES
Achieved learning outcomes is an outcomes based
education as a product of what are have been intended in the
beginning of the teaching-learning process. Indicators of the
learning outcomes which are accomplished are called achieved
learning outcomes. Standards and competencies are used as the
indicators and measures of these outcomes.
which can be used as
an evidence of learning.
Big concepts or ideas.
Skills that students use based on facts and
information for making meaning and understanding.
Factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge,
procedural knowledge and metacognition.
Knowledge, Process, and Understanding are learning
outcomes. Students who can show that they have gained
knowledge, can apply such knowledge and have achieved several
meaning on the particular knowledge have achieved the learning
Level IV of the learning outcomes can be assessed through
Performance or Product. These learning outcomes can best be done
through the use of authentic evaluation.
STRATEGIES/TOOLS TO ASSESS THE
Assessment Strategies are the structures through which
student knowledge and skills are assessed.
Finding out what students know and can do requires
multiple sources of information and differing types of assessment.
The key is to match the learning and the assessment tool. The
selection of a strategy is determined both by what is to be assessed
and the reasons or purposes for the assessment. The phase of the
learning process at which the teacher and the students are working
affects the selection of the assessment strategy and the tools used
as one tool maybe unsuitable for different purposes.
STRATEGIES/ TOOLS TO ASSESS THE
EXAMPLES OF ASSESSMENT STRATEGIES:
2.) PERFORMANCE BASED STRATEGY
3.) OBSERVATIONAL STRATEGY
4.) PERSONAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
5.) ORAL STRATEGY
6.) REFLECTIVE STRATEGY
7.) COMBINATION OF STRATEGIES
-Is a writing sample used to assess student understanding and/ or how
well students can analyse and synthesize information.
-A student constructs a response to a question, topic or a brief statement.
-Provides the student with the opportunity to communicate his/her
reasoning in a written response.
THE SELECT RESPONSE
-An assessment in which the student is used to identify the correct one
-Is a commonly used procedure for gathering formal evidence about
student learning, specifically in memory, recall and comprehension.
PERFORMANCE BASED STRETEGY
THE PERFORMANCE TASK
- Is the assessment which is requires students to demonstrate a skill
or proficiency by asking them to create, produce, or perform.
-May be an observation of a student or group of students performing
a specific task to demonstrate skills and or knowledge through
open-ended, “hands-on” activities.
- Is a performance in which a student demonstrates individual
achievement through application of specific skills and knowledge.
- Is used to assess progress in task that require students to be
actively engaged in an activity. (e.g. performing an experiment)
- Is a process of systematically viewing and recording
student behaviour for the purpose of making
programming decisions; permeates the entire teaching
process by assisting the teacher in making the
decisions required in effective teaching.
PERSONAL COMMUNICATION STRATEGY
- Is a formal or informal meeting between/among the teacher and
student and/or parent;
- Has a clear focus on learning for discussion.
- Is a form of conversation in which all parties (teacher, student and
parent) increase their knowledge and understanding.
THE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS
-Are posed by the teacher to determine if the students understand what
is being/has been presented or to extend thinking, generate ideas or
-To provide opportunities for oral assessment when the student
responds to a question by speaking rather than writing.
THE CLASSROOM PRESENTATION
-Is an assessment which requires students to verbalized their
knowledge, select and present samples of finished work and organize
thoughts, in order to present a summary of learning about topic.
-Is the process of gathering information and reflecting on one’s
-Is the student’s own assessment of personal progress in
knowledge, skills, processes, or attitudes;
-Leads a student to a greater awareness and understanding of
himself or herself as a learner.
THE RESPONSE JOURNAL
-Provides frequent written reflective responses to a material that
a student is reading, viewing, listening to, or discussing.
COMBINATION OF STRATEGIES
-Is a purposeful collection of samples of a student’s work that is
selective, reflective, and collaborative;
-Demonstrates the range and depth of a student’s achievement,
knowledge, and skills overtime and across a variety of contexts;
-Has student involvement in selection of portfolio materials as part of
-Is a visual presentation of a student’s accomplishments, capabilities,
strengths, weakness, and progress over a specified time.
RECORDING DEVICES/ TOOLS
Recording devices provide various means of
organizing the recordings of information about student
achievement. Teachers can choose or develop recording
devices which suit the teacher’s style, the students and the
activity or learning being assessed. These are:
1. Anecdotal Record
3. Rating Scale
5. Learning Log
THE ANECDOTAL RECORD
• Is a short narrative describing both a behaviour and
the context in which the behaviour occurred;
• Should objectively report specific and observed
• Describes student’s performance in detail and in
• Is a list of actions or descriptions that a rater (teacher) checks
off as the particular behaviour or expectation is observed.
• Is a written list of performance criteria which is used to
assess student performance through observation, or may be
used to assess written work.
• Is a list of skills, concepts, behaviours, processes, and/or
attitudes that might, or should occur in a given situation.
THE RATING SCALE
• Is a simple tool for assessing performance on a several-
point scale ranging from low to high. It may have as few as 3
points, or as many as 10 points.
• Assess the extent to which specific facts, skills, attitudes,
and/or behaviours are observed in a student’s work or
• Is based on a set of criteria which allows the teacher to
judge performance, product, attitude, and/or behaviour
along a continuum.
• Is used to judge the quality of a performance.
• Is a series of statements describing a range of levels of
achievement of a process, product or a performance.
• Contains a brief, written descriptions of the different levels
of student performance.
• Defines desired expectations with specific performances
outlined for each level.
• Uses criteria and associated descriptions to assess the
THE LEARNING LOG
• Is an on going record by the student of what he/she does
while working on a particular task or assignment.
• Makes visible what a student is thinking and/or doing
through frequent recordings over time.
Non- Test Monitoring and Assessment
Many of the following suggestions are similar to
the suggested teaching strategies. Those who advocate
increased use of non-test monitoring and assessment
argue that instruction and assessment at their best are
intertwined. Good instruction involves observing and
analyzing student performance and the most valuable
assessment activities should be learning experiences as
1. Oral and Written Reports- Students research a topic and then present either
orally or in written form.
2. Teacher Observation- The teacher observes student while they work to make
certain the students understand the assignment and are on task. Example:
3. Journal- Student write daily on assignment or personal topics. Example:
What is the thing you remember about yesterday’s lesson.
4. Portfolio of Student’s Work- Teacher collects samples of student’s work and
saves for determined amount of time. Example: Dated sample of student’s
writing, test, etc.
5. Slates or Hand Signals- Student’s use slates or hand signals as a means of
signaling answers to the teacher. Example: Review questions – write answers
and hold up slate.
6. Games -Teachers utilize fun activities to have the students practice
and review concepts. Example: Science Trivia.
7. Projects-The students research on a topic and research on a topic
and present it in a creative way.
8. Debates- The students take opposing position on a topic and defend
their position. Examples: The pros and cons of an environment
9. Checklist- The teacher will make a list of objectives that students
need to master and then check off the skill as the students masters it.
10. Cartooning- Students will use drawings to depict situation and
ideas. Example: Environmental Issues.
11. Models-The student produce a miniature replica of a given topic.
12. Notes-Students write a summary of a lesson.
13. Daily Assignments-The students complete work assigned on a daily
basis to completed at the school or home. Example: Worksheets issues.
14. Anecdotal Record- The teachers record a student’s behaviour.
Example: A daily log of student’s success.
15. Panel- A group of students verbally present information. Example: A
discussion presenting both the pros and cons of the environmental
16. Learning Centers- Students use teacher provided activities for hands-
on learning. Example: An activity folder on frog dissection.
17. Demonstration- Students present a visual enactment of a particular
skill or activity. Examples: Proving that air has a weight.
18. Problem Solving- Student follow a step by step solution of a problem.
19. Discussions- Students in a group verbally interact on a given topic.
Example: Environmental issues.
20. Organize Note Sheets and Study Guides- Students collect information
to help pass a test. Example: one 3x5 note card with information to be
used during a test.
Facilitators: Salvador, Dannica Joy and
Rebollos, Elyza Joyce
Strategies: Chain of Event and Placemat
• Planning is an initial process in curriculum development. It
includes determining the needs through an assessment. Needs
would include those of the learners, the teachers , the community
and the society as these relate to curriculum. After the needs have
been identified the intended outcomes should be SMART.
Intended outcomes should be double, achievable and desired.
• After establishing these, then a curricularist should find out
in planning the ways of achieving the desired outcomes
.These are ways and means and the strategies to achieve
outcomes .Together with the methods and strategies are the
identification the support materials. All of these should be
written, and should to include the means of evaluation.
• What should be implemented ? The planned curriculum
which was written should be implemented. It has to be put
into action or used by a curriculum implementer who is the
teacher, curriculum plans should not remain as a written
• A curriculum planner can also be a curriculum
implementor. In fact a, curriculum planner who implements
the curriculum must have a full grasp of what is to be done.
• With the well written curriculum plan a teacher can
execute this with the help of instructional materials,
equipment, resources materials and enough time. The
curriculum implementor must also see to it that the
plan which serves as guide is extended correctly. The
skill and the ability of the teacher to impart guide
learning are necessary in the curriculum
• Curriculum evaluation as a big idea may follow evaluation models
which can be used for programs and projects. These models
discussed in the previous lesson guide the process and the
corresponding tools that will be used to measure outcomes.
• However when used for assessment of learning, which is also
evaluation more attention is given to levels of assessment for the
levels of learning outcomes.
• As defined by the Department of Education , the use of the
description for the proficiency the learner described by the
qualified values of the weighted test scores in an interval scale.
• That broader perspective mentioned above requires a less constricting
view of both the Purposes and foci of curriculum evaluation.
• In reviewing the literature and acquiring a Broader understanding of
purpose, two concepts delineated by Guba and Lincoln (1981)
• Seem especially useful: merit and worth. Merit, as they use the term,
refers to the intrinsic
• Value of an entity—value that is implicit, inherent, and independent of any
• Merit is established without reference to a context. Worth, on the other
hand, is the value Of an entity in reference to a particular context or a
• It is the “pay off” Value for a given institution or group of people.
• The same course, however may have relatively little
worth for a teacher instructing unmotivated working-
• Youth in an urban school: It may require teaching
skills that the teacher has not mastered And learning
materials that the students cannot read.
• In this sense, then, curriculum evaluation should be
concerned with assessing both merit and worth.
The following are strategies that successful administrators use in
developing assessment and evaluation programs.
• Setting Goals and Indicators
The evaluation and assessment process must be linked back to
the original mission statement and objectives of the district.
Indicators of successful curriculum integration for the purposes
of evaluation should be established during the early planning
stages of the program.
• Identifying Target Populations
Successful evaluation and assessment procedures should
focus on targeting specific external and internal population
groups. Parents and community represent external groups.
Trustees, administrators, teachers, and students represent
internal target groups. Data collection needs to focus
specifically on these target areas and how they relate to
school and curriculum.
• Evaluation Centers
Provides a wealth of information on technology evaluation
• Regional Technology Training Centers
They also provide conferences and workshops on evaluation
strategies. Regardless of the process used to evaluate a program,
planners need to be willing to utilize data and make changes and
adjustments where necessary. They must understand that
curriculum improvement and instructional improvement are
interconnected and that a change in one area will probably elicit a
change in another area
. Problems and concerns
Can cloud issues at hand, making evaluation an important
tools. With higher-quality and more detailed information at our
disposal, curriculum leaders will be able to focus more on how
technology can help teachers with student achievement in the
• Implementing the Evaluation Design
With the design developed, the evaluation team can move
expeditiously to implement the design and report the results.
Two matters should be stressed here: First, the
implementation process should be flexible. If new issues
develop or if additional data sources become apparent, they
should be built into a revised design and incorporated into the
implementation process. Second, the results should be
reported in ways that will accommodate the special needs of
the several audiences
• Thus, several reports might be envisioned: a summary written
in plain language for the public, an action plan presented to the
board and school administrators, and a detailed technical
report for the broader educational community. Once people
know, firsthand, and are able to measure the benefits of
effective curriculum planning and evaluation, the public
support for funding will become viable. Indicators of success
used to measure the impact of student achievement in schools
will be a determining factor.
• It is hoped that future research will be based on these
indicators to give educational planners a more complete picture
as to the impact of technology on teaching and learning in our
nation’s classrooms. A key to the success of any curricular
program in the future is the ability of school leaders to develop
awareness and understanding through the implementation of an
effective evaluation program. Throughout the entire evaluation
process, the focus for administrators should be on combination
appropriate strategies with measurable results indicating
positive correlations with teaching and learning.