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RFID
Radio Frequency Identification
AMBER BHAUMIK
PG-DESD
What is RFID?







Radio Frequency Identification
The use of radio frequency readers
and tags to identify real objec...
Identification






Assign IDs to objects
Link the ID to additional information
about the object
Link the ID to compl...
How Does RFID Work?


3 Components




Transceiver – Tag Reader
Transponder – RFID tag
Antenna
RFID Hardware
Magnetic / Inductive Coupling

Transceiver
Tag Reader

IC or microprocessor

RFID
Tag
antenna

antenna
RFID Hardware
Propagation Coupling

Transceiver
Tag Reader

IC or microprocessor

RFID
Tag
antenna

antenna
RFID system
RFID reader





Also known an interrogator (as it is used to interrogate an
Tag).
Reader powers passive tags with RF ...
RFID tags




Tag is a device used to transmit
information such as a serial number to
the reader in a contact less manne...
Components of a Tag
Types of Tags


Passive Tags





No battery
Low cost

Active Tags





On-board transceiver
Battery – must be rep...
Types of Tags


Read Only





factory programmed
usually chipless

Read / Write





on-board memory
can save dat...
Different Tags available in Market
Real Tags
Frequency Ranges


Low – 100-500 kHz




Intermediate – 10-16 MHz




short range, low data rate, cost, & power
mediu...
Frequency Trade-Offs


Frequency





Power
Cost
Bandwidth
Line of Sight




Lifespan
Range
Frequencies of operation






Low frequency
 30-300 kHz
 Tags need to be closer to the reader
 Poor discrimination
...
UHF passive tag
Maximum Distances to Read UHF
Passive Tag
Antenna Gain
(dBi)
6 (legal)

Distance
(meters)

Distance

5.8

(feet)
19*

9

8...
Applications, frequencies, and standards

Applications

Frequencies

Standards

< 135 KHz

ISO 18000–2
ISO 11784
ISO 11785...
Data Transfer



Frequency Shift Keying (FSK)
Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
Frequency Shift Keying


It is a frequency modulation scheme in
which digital information is transmitted
through discrete...
FSK







Fc/8/10
 0’s are the carrier divided by 8
 1’s are the carrier divided by 10
Count clock cycles between ...
Phase Shift Keying


It is a digital modulation scheme that
conveys data by changing, or modulating,
the phase of a refer...
PSK


One frequency






Change the phase on the transition
between a 0 to 1 or 1 to 0

Faster data rate than FSK
No...
Data Encoding
Multiple Tags?






What happens when multiple tags are
in range of the transceiver?
All the tags will be excited at t...
Collision Avoidance



Similar to network collision avoidance
Probabilistic




Tags return at random times

Determini...
General Applications used in our
Day-to-Day Life




Keyless entry
Electronic Product Code (EPC)
Proximity cards
General Applications (cont’d)


Payment tokens






Contact-less credit cards
Automatic toll-payment

Euro banknotes...
General Applications (cont’d)



Libraries
Security device


Bookstores
Current Applications







Livestock Tagging
Wild Animal Tracking
Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS)
Automated T...
More Applications





Passive / Secure Entry
Airline Baggage Tracking
Postal Package Tracking
Time and Attendance
Security Applications






RFID used to grant entry to secure
areas
Tracks time and movement of people
Dynamically ch...
Electronic Passports




Dept. of State begins issuing e-passports Aug. 14, 2006
Contactless chip in rear cover





...
Livestock Tagging
Meet Bobby the Cow

Bobby has an old
fashioned ear tag
for identification.
Bobby’s Part of a Herd
Benefits in Livestock Tagging



Each one needs to be recorded
Why use RFID tags instead of the oldfashioned tags?



...
Animal Identification Standards




Pets such as dogs and cats
Livestock such as cattle, pigs, etc.
International stand...
VeriChip







Human implantable RFID tag operating at about 134 KHz
because at these frequencies the RF can penetra...
Tracking Penguins
Automated Toll Collection
Package Tracking
Some RFID tags for consumer use
4 requirements for consumer use





Notify the consumer
Visible and easily removable tags
Disabled at point of sale
T...
Barcode Vs RFID
Potential Applications




Smart Grocery Store
Smart Kitchen
Smart Sitterson
Smart Grocery Store





Every item in the store already has a
bar code.
Why not use an RFID tag?
Speed up checkouts
Smart Grocery Store




Several carts this
full in early evening
could seriously
slow down the
checkout process.
How muc...
Smart Grocery Store






Add an RFID tag to
all items in the
grocery.
As the cart leaves
the store, it passes
through ...
RFID UPC

Artist conception courtesy Motorola
Smart Groceries Enhanced


Track products
through their
entire lifetime.

Diagram courtesy How Stuff Works
Smart Fridge





Recognizes what’s been put in it
Recognizes when things are removed
Creates automatic shopping lists...
RFID Chef




Uses RFID tags to recognize food in
your kitchen
Shows you the recipes that most
closely match what is ava...
Smart Sitterson





Tag locations throughout Sitterson
User walks around with handheld and
transceiver
RFID tags point...
RFID’s Advantages


Passive







wireless

Store data on a tag
Can be hidden
Work in harsh environments
Low cost?
RFID’s Disadvantages







Lack of standards!
Short range
Cost
Authentication
Denial of service
More open research ...
Conclusion






RFID has many potential uses
Likely to play a key technological role
Perceptions of privacy and secur...
RFID revolution
THANKS FOR
SHOWING INTEREST
…
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RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)

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RFID (Radio Frequency Identification)

  1. 1. RFID Radio Frequency Identification AMBER BHAUMIK PG-DESD
  2. 2. What is RFID?     Radio Frequency Identification The use of radio frequency readers and tags to identify real objects. New frontier in the field of information technology One form of Automatic Identification What does it mean to identify something?
  3. 3. Identification     Assign IDs to objects Link the ID to additional information about the object Link the ID to complementary info Find similar objects
  4. 4. How Does RFID Work?  3 Components    Transceiver – Tag Reader Transponder – RFID tag Antenna
  5. 5. RFID Hardware Magnetic / Inductive Coupling Transceiver Tag Reader IC or microprocessor RFID Tag antenna antenna
  6. 6. RFID Hardware Propagation Coupling Transceiver Tag Reader IC or microprocessor RFID Tag antenna antenna
  7. 7. RFID system
  8. 8. RFID reader     Also known an interrogator (as it is used to interrogate an Tag). Reader powers passive tags with RF energy Can be handheld or stationary Consists of:     Transceiver Antenna Microprocessor Network interface
  9. 9. RFID tags   Tag is a device used to transmit information such as a serial number to the reader in a contact less manner Classified as :    Passive – energy from reader Active - battery Semi-passive – battery and energy from reader
  10. 10. Components of a Tag
  11. 11. Types of Tags  Passive Tags    No battery Low cost Active Tags     On-board transceiver Battery – must be replaced Longer range High cost
  12. 12. Types of Tags  Read Only    factory programmed usually chipless Read / Write     on-board memory can save data can change ID higher cost
  13. 13. Different Tags available in Market
  14. 14. Real Tags
  15. 15. Frequency Ranges  Low – 100-500 kHz   Intermediate – 10-16 MHz   short range, low data rate, cost, & power medium range and data rate High – 850-950 MHz & 2.4-5.8GHz   large range, high cost, high data rate needs line of sight
  16. 16. Frequency Trade-Offs  Frequency    Power Cost Bandwidth Line of Sight   Lifespan Range
  17. 17. Frequencies of operation    Low frequency  30-300 kHz  Tags need to be closer to the reader  Poor discrimination High frequency/radio frequency  3-30 MHz  Tags can be read from relatively greater distances  Tags can hold more information Ultra high frequency/microwave  >300 MHz  Longest range  More interference
  18. 18. UHF passive tag
  19. 19. Maximum Distances to Read UHF Passive Tag Antenna Gain (dBi) 6 (legal) Distance (meters) Distance 5.8 (feet) 19* 9 8.3 27 12 11.7 38 15 16.5 54 *Reality: Today, in the lab 8 to 12 feet.
  20. 20. Applications, frequencies, and standards Applications Frequencies Standards < 135 KHz ISO 18000–2 ISO 11784 ISO 11785 ISO 14223 Smart cards, Passport, Books at library 13.553 – 13.567 MHz ISO 18000–3 ISO 7618 ISO 14443 ISO 15693 13.56 MHz ISM Band Class 1 Supply chain for retail 868 – 928 MHz EPCglobal Class-1 Gen-2 ISO 18000–6 Animal Identification, dogs, cats, cattle
  21. 21. Data Transfer   Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) Phase Shift Keying (PSK)
  22. 22. Frequency Shift Keying  It is a frequency modulation scheme in which digital information is transmitted through discrete frequency changes of a carrier wave.
  23. 23. FSK      Fc/8/10  0’s are the carrier divided by 8  1’s are the carrier divided by 10 Count clock cycles between changes in frequency Slows the data rate Provides for a simple reader design Fair noise immunity
  24. 24. Phase Shift Keying  It is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing, or modulating, the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave).
  25. 25. PSK  One frequency     Change the phase on the transition between a 0 to 1 or 1 to 0 Faster data rate than FSK Noise immunity Slightly more difficult to build a reader than FSK
  26. 26. Data Encoding
  27. 27. Multiple Tags?    What happens when multiple tags are in range of the transceiver? All the tags will be excited at the same time. Makes it very difficult to distinguish between the tags.
  28. 28. Collision Avoidance   Similar to network collision avoidance Probabilistic   Tags return at random times Deterministic  Reader searches for specific tags
  29. 29. General Applications used in our Day-to-Day Life    Keyless entry Electronic Product Code (EPC) Proximity cards
  30. 30. General Applications (cont’d)  Payment tokens     Contact-less credit cards Automatic toll-payment Euro banknotes Passports
  31. 31. General Applications (cont’d)   Libraries Security device  Bookstores
  32. 32. Current Applications       Livestock Tagging Wild Animal Tracking Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) Automated Toll Collection Animal Husbandry Vehicle Anti-Theft
  33. 33. More Applications     Passive / Secure Entry Airline Baggage Tracking Postal Package Tracking Time and Attendance
  34. 34. Security Applications     RFID used to grant entry to secure areas Tracks time and movement of people Dynamically change access codes Provide automated entry
  35. 35. Electronic Passports   Dept. of State begins issuing e-passports Aug. 14, 2006 Contactless chip in rear cover        ISO 14443 Name, date of birth, gender, place of birth, dates of passport issuance and expiration, passport number, digital image of the bearer’s photograph stored electronically Digital photograph is used as biometric identifier Anti-skimming material in cover to prevent unauthorized reading when it is closed Eavesdropping prevented by reading machine readable key inside passport to unlock chip Randomized unique identification (RUID) to prevent tracking Information signed with a digital signature 35
  36. 36. Livestock Tagging Meet Bobby the Cow Bobby has an old fashioned ear tag for identification.
  37. 37. Bobby’s Part of a Herd
  38. 38. Benefits in Livestock Tagging   Each one needs to be recorded Why use RFID tags instead of the oldfashioned tags?   cows get dirty herds can be large
  39. 39. Animal Identification Standards    Pets such as dogs and cats Livestock such as cattle, pigs, etc. International standard 134.2 kHz     ISO 11784: “Radio-frequency identification of animals” – code structure ISO 11785: “Radio-frequency identification of animals” – Technical concept ISO 14223: “Radio-frequency identification of animals” – Advanced transponders At these frequencies the RF can penetrate mud, blood, and water
  40. 40. VeriChip      Human implantable RFID tag operating at about 134 KHz because at these frequencies the RF can penetrate mud, blood, and water About the size of uncooked grain of rice Oct. 22, 2002 – US Food and Drug Administration ruled VeriChip not regulated device Oct. 2004 – FDA ruled serial number in VeriChip could be linked to healthcare information Healthcare applications       Implanted medical device identification Emergency access to patient-supplied health information Portable medical records access including insurance information In-hospital patient identification Medical facility connectivity via patient Disease/treatment management of at-risk populations (such as vaccination history)
  41. 41. Tracking Penguins
  42. 42. Automated Toll Collection
  43. 43. Package Tracking
  44. 44. Some RFID tags for consumer use
  45. 45. 4 requirements for consumer use     Notify the consumer Visible and easily removable tags Disabled at point of sale Tag the product’s packaging
  46. 46. Barcode Vs RFID
  47. 47. Potential Applications    Smart Grocery Store Smart Kitchen Smart Sitterson
  48. 48. Smart Grocery Store    Every item in the store already has a bar code. Why not use an RFID tag? Speed up checkouts
  49. 49. Smart Grocery Store   Several carts this full in early evening could seriously slow down the checkout process. How much do cashiers cost?
  50. 50. Smart Grocery Store    Add an RFID tag to all items in the grocery. As the cart leaves the store, it passes through an RFID transceiver The cart is rung up in seconds.
  51. 51. RFID UPC Artist conception courtesy Motorola
  52. 52. Smart Groceries Enhanced  Track products through their entire lifetime. Diagram courtesy How Stuff Works
  53. 53. Smart Fridge     Recognizes what’s been put in it Recognizes when things are removed Creates automatic shopping lists Notifies you when things are past their expiration
  54. 54. RFID Chef   Uses RFID tags to recognize food in your kitchen Shows you the recipes that most closely match what is available
  55. 55. Smart Sitterson    Tag locations throughout Sitterson User walks around with handheld and transceiver RFID tags point the handheld to a webpage with more information about their location or the object of interest
  56. 56. RFID’s Advantages  Passive      wireless Store data on a tag Can be hidden Work in harsh environments Low cost?
  57. 57. RFID’s Disadvantages       Lack of standards! Short range Cost Authentication Denial of service More open research issues  Nominal read range  Rogue scanning range  Tag-to-reader eavesdropping  Reader-to-tag eavesdropping
  58. 58. Conclusion     RFID has many potential uses Likely to play a key technological role Perceptions of privacy and security vary Privacy and security concerns must be addressed
  59. 59. RFID revolution
  60. 60. THANKS FOR SHOWING INTEREST …

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