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  1. 1. Drugs gangs or the Mexican State? Two sides of the same coin
  2. 2. Some known facts ● The student Julio César Mondragón was murdered, he appeared scarified, their eyes were taken, a sign of the drug cartels ● 43 students kidnapped by local police ● 28 cadavers in 11 clandestine caves – Oficially they are not the “desappearing” students ● Who they are?, they still are murdered, leaved in clandestine caves, they are humans ● victims of who?
  3. 3. Context ● The fake “war” against the drug cartels – The war is focused in the displacement of some cartels, an arrangement of places and power – This triggered an increasing spiral of extreme violence (Kaibiles and Maras were included) – The financial power of the drug cartels was not touched – Drug cartels control the goverment, the police, the army, the magistrates, the media... ● Aug 2014: 22,322 “desappeared”. 9,790 in the current narco-government
  4. 4. Context ● The normality established is based on: – Total control and the use of the “legitime” and ilegitime forces to support their criminal actions ● The chief of the municipality José Luis Abarca was delivering USD 22,000 monthly to the drug gang Guerreros Unidos – A frightened society, not informed, immobilized – Simulation of a “peaceful” society and the freedom from punishment of their accomplices – Full and bloody repression to their opponents
  5. 5. Context ● Before the fake anti-narco war, the goverment has been applying the low intencity war – Counterinsurgency strategy from USA adapted to the Mexican (and Latinamerican) context, particularly to confront the EZLN raising – Forced dessapearing is a central element against people ● Easy, quiet, not expensive ● Keep the society in a state of uncertainty, and spreads the scare ● Open the door to the raise of violence and crime – The goverment claim the social peace when in fact promoting the civil war
  6. 6. Ayotzinapa ● Teaching School for the rural zone (Normal Rural). Named Raúl Isidro Burgos ● Created in 1920's for spreading the education (massification) ● Socialist programme, pedagogic and politic education ● They has been continuously deprived by the next goverments after Lázaro Cárdenas – Normalistas answer: autogestive action, self-organization
  7. 7. Ayotzinapa ● The weight of the history, the famous students, teachers, social fighter and guerrilla leaders – Lucio Cabañas: during a meeting he was under attack and raised a guerrilla named Partido de los pobres (The Poor's Party) and the Brigada de Ajusticiamiento (Execution Brigade) – Genaro Vázquez: leader of the Guerrerense Civic Association, after National Revolutionary Civic Association ● Thousands of deads, villages distroyed including napalm attacks
  8. 8. Ayotzinapa ● Stigmatization of Ayotzi: a hotbed for guerrilla ● The students has been murdered, desappeared and injured without any consequence ● 12 Dic 2013: 3 students murdered during a domostration in a highway ● Modus operandi of the government: – Attempts to close their schools – Strong disdain, discredit campaign in media and society – Criminalize the protest, bloddy repressive actions
  9. 9. 43 of Ayotzinapa ● The students arrived to Iguala for taking buses, not to make any demonstration in this city ● The wife of the municipality governor Ma. de los Ángeles Pineda order the attack to the students ● They are attacked by the local police and they are delivered to the drug gang GU ● They are treated as a oppositor drug cartel, attacked with the same actions, the same cruelty ● Step by step the narco-government is behavioring as an omnipotent entity out/over the law, no matter wat it does, they only simulate the normality.
  10. 10. 43 of Ayotzinapa ● Civil response ● The other students inform quicly triggering solidarity reaction all around Mexico and in other countries ● The expansion of the protest reached an international scope – ONU – CIDH – OEA ● What is next?
  11. 11. Some references • http://www.proceso.com.mx/?p=385152 • http:// www.eldiario.es/contrapoder/matanza_de_Ayotzinapa-narcopolitic • http:// www.jornada.unam.mx/2011/12/15/opinion/029a1pol • https://www.academia.edu/8706313/La_masacre_de_Ayotzinapa._ Memoria_narcotr%C3%A1fico_y_estado • http://www.m-x.com.mx/2014-11-01/estudiantes-convocan-a-un-p / • http://www.m-x.com.mx/2014-11-02/realizaran- marcha-de-iguala-a-la-ciudad-de-mexico-para- exigir-la-aparicion-con-vida-de-los-43-estudiantes/