1. MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION
Diagnostic Equipments Therapeutic Equipments
Measure the Determine the Physiotherapy Inst.
Physical qua. Presence of Phy.qua. Haemodialysis Inst.
Recording Imaging Instrument for surgery
Inst. BIO CHEMICAL ANALYSIS INST.
2. BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS
• A lot of information can be obtained about
the function of the human body by the
chemical changes in the internal
environment of the body.
• There are Instruments that deals with the
structure and function of cellular components
such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids,
nucleic acids and other biomolecules.
• Biochemical testing looks at the levels of
specific substances and enzymes that are
produced by chemical reactions in the body.
3. • Pathology is the study and diagnosis of
disease. The different divisions of pathology
are Anatomical pathology, Dermato
pathology, Molecular pathology, clinical
• Clinical pathology is a medical specialty that
is concerned with the diagnosis of disease
based on the laboratory analysis of bodily
fluids such as blood and urine, and tissues
using the tools of chemistry, microbiology,
hematology and molecular pathology.
4. Complete analytical solutions for laboratories
involved with environmental analysis, forensics,
food & flavors, quality control & Biomedical
Analytical instruments are used to provide information
about the composition of a sample of matter.
They are employed
Qualitative information Quantitative data
about the presence or are sought from
Absence of one or more them.
Components of the
5. Bio-Chemical Analyzers/
Clinical Laboratory Instrumentation
• Analyze patient specimens for diagnostic &
therapy efficiency measurements.
• Bio-Chemical analyzers must be
exceptionally precise & accurate with fast
The instruments used can be categorized
• Chemistry section Instruments:
Determine how much of a clinically important
substance is present. (Samples usually
6. • Hematology section Instruments:
Determine number & characteristics of
formed elements in blood. (RBC, WBC,
Platelets,etc.), blood clotting tests.
• Microbiology/Hematology section
Instruments: Test blood & Tissue cultures
for presence of Microorganisms.
• Blood Bank section Instruments:
Determination of blood type & related tests.
• Analytical instruments analyze the samples
of body fluids taken from the tissues, blood,
urine, cerebro-spinal fluid etc.
7. Structure of Analytical Instruments
In the broadest sense, any analytical
instrument would comprise of the following
four basic units.
Chemical Signal Display
Information Transducer conditioner system
8. Chemical Information source
• This generates a set of signals containing
• The signal may be generated from the
• For ex: The yellow radiations emitted by
the heated sodium atoms constitute the
source of the signal in the flame
• This converts the signal to one of a different
• Because of the familiar adv. of electrical
methods of measurement, it is a usual practice
to convert all non-electrical phenomenon
associated with the analysis of the sample into
• For ex: A photocell is a transducer that convert
radiant energy into electrical signals.
10. Display system
• It provides a visual representation of the
• It may be a displacement on scale, or a
printout on a recorder, or on a screen of
CRT, or in numerical form.
11. • Thus the instrument can be conveniently
considered in terms of flow of information,
where operation of all parts is essentially
• The first two blocks constitute the
characteristic module, whereas the last
two blocks form the processing module of
12. • The characteristics module & each one of
its components contribute to the
performance of an instrument. For ex:
choosing a PM tube with broader spectral
• Similarly, each component of the
processing module decides the precision
of the results of the instrument.