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Towards 'Resilient Cities' - Harmonisation of Spatial Planning Information as One Step Along the Way

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Towards 'Resilient Cities' - Harmonisation of Spatial Planning Information as One Step Along the Way
Manfred Schrenk, Julia Neuschmid, Daniela Patti - Department for Urbanism, Transport, Environment and Information Society, Central European Institute of Technology, Austria

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Towards 'Resilient Cities' - Harmonisation of Spatial Planning Information as One Step Along the Way

  1. 1. Towards ‘Resilient Cities’ Harmonisation of Spatial Planning Information as One Step Along the WayCTP 2011, Santander, SpainManfred Schrenk, Julia Neuschmid, Daniela PattiCentral European Institute of TechnologyInstitute of Urbanism, Transport, Environment and Information Society<br />
  2. 2. Grand Challenges<br />By 2050 two-thirds of the world’s population will live in urban areas (UN Habitat, 2006)<br />What about...world‘s resources…climate change…energy…pressure on cities…land use…? <br />
  3. 3. The RoleofSpatialPlanning<br />Givesgeographical expression to the economic, social, cultural and ecological policies of society. <br />is at the same time a scientific discipline, an administrative technique and a policy developed as an interdisciplinary and comprehensive approach<br />directed towards a balanced regional development and the physical organisation of space according to an overall strategy. <br />strongly influences society on all levels as <br />it addresses the environment where people live and work, the location of social and economic activities and the way in which processedresourcesareexploited.<br /> (Council of Europe, 1983)<br />
  4. 4. To improve<br /><ul><li> quality of life,
  5. 5. sustainability,
  6. 6. resilience
  7. 7. competitiveness,
  8. 8. happiness and contentedness</li></ul>To reduce<br /><ul><li> environmental stress,
  9. 9. waste of resources,
  10. 10. inequities</li></ul>Supporting the management of Cities and Regions,<br />PUBLIC INTEREST<br />fair distribution of chances/opportunities and burdens/impacts.<br />PurposeofPlanning?<br />
  11. 11. <ul><li> Numerous diverging interests
  12. 12. numerous (in)dependent actors
  13. 13. numerous, unforeseeable possibilities
  14. 14. hidden agendas
  15. 15. open system
  16. 16. 2 opposed interests
  17. 17. each with 16 actors (limited possib.)
  18. 18. exactly defined rules
  19. 19. clear agenda
  20. 20. closed system</li></ul>ComplexityofPlanning<br />
  21. 21. <ul><li>Balance in short-,mid- and long-term
  22. 22. 1 winner, 1 loser„The winner takes it all!“</li></ul>Challenge: Goal Definition<br />
  23. 23. © Ric Stephens, www.stephensplanning.com<br />
  24. 24. Resilient Cities<br />can ADAPT to changes, grand challenges and can balance ecosystem and human functions.<br />Resilience is “the capacity of a system to survive, adapt, and grow in the face of unforeseen changes, even catastrophic incidents” (Holling, 2001).<br />Resilience in cities is a DYNAMIC PROCESS covering implementation and constant evaluation over time.<br />
  25. 25. © Ric Stephens, www.stephensplanning.com<br />
  26. 26. Resilient Cities<br /><ul><li>Among requirements for resilience are innovation, foresight, adaptive multi-layered governance, effective partnership and networks among all actors involved in spatial planning processes AND
  27. 27. datainfrastructures</li></li></ul><li>THE SPATIAL PLANNING RECIPE?<br />„Perfect<br />World“<br />Is spatial planning a technical science where each step can be exactly described so that different planners confronted with the same problem generate the same result?<br />Planning: an easy task?<br />
  28. 28. THE SPATIAL PLANNING RECIPE?<br />„Perfect<br />World“<br />Planning: an easy task?<br />
  29. 29. Planning processes and their outputs are highly diverse across Europe and the world.<br />Plans are taylor-made attempts to improve given situations<br />The results of planning depends highly on the PLANNING PROCESS<br />There are very different approaches and understandings of urban and spatial planning(design driven, technically/legally driven, real-estate-driven, participatory approach …)<br />HarmonisationofPlanning?<br />
  30. 30. Planningcycle<br />Dynamic <br />World<br />Technical project or (also) a <br />unique, creative, dynamic, process <br />with unpredictable outcomes?<br />INFORMATION/ DATA <br />PLANNING <br />CYCLE<br />Land cover<br />Land use<br />Agricultural and aquacultural facilities<br />Production and industrial facilities<br />Area management/ restriction/ regulation zones and reporting units <br />Utility and Government services<br />Natural Risk Zones<br />…<br />…<br />…<br />ACTORS<br />Planners<br />Politics <br />Public administration<br />Economy<br />Citizens<br />Media<br />Investors<br />Interest groups<br />Citizens<br />Researchers<br />GIS Experts<br />…<br />
  31. 31. © Ric Stephens, www.stephensplanning.com<br />
  32. 32. What is more important in planning processes? The process itself with the involvement of stakeholders that generates certain dynamics or just the final results, "the plan"?<br />Is spatial planning a technical science where each step can be exactly described and confronted with the same problem different planners generate the same result?<br />Unique, creative process with unpredictable outcomes?<br />Spatial planning is never finished ("planning cycle“)<br />Always one key question: How/where to get reliable data / information?<br />Characteristicsofplanningprocesses<br />
  33. 33. The past years have led to the development of spatial data infrastructures and more harmonised spatial data which can positively effect spatial planning processes. <br />Spatial planning / Stakeholders can use interoperable information that is provided through spatial data infrastructures to <br />monitor ongoing developments, <br />to integrate different stakeholders and themes, and <br />to make decision processes more transparent. <br />SDI helps spatial planning to receive more up-to-date information than ever. <br />As a consequence spatial planning can detect new developments and changes, analyse them according to existing plans and visions, and<br />is able to steer the spatial order to better improve resilient cities.<br />Planning & SDI?<br />
  34. 34. Planningand SDI?<br />Tofaceclimatechange, urbanisation, energysupply etc. citiesneedtoberesilient<br />CITIES arecomplex<br /> so is PLANNING!<br />Spatialdatais a keyinputforplanningprocessesbecauseithelpsto understand betterthecomplexworldandtofulfilplanning‘spurpose<br />Thereforeplanninghasgreathopesin recentlydevelopedspatialdatainfrastructures (SDI)<br />
  35. 35. SDI: A Pan-European Matter<br />
  36. 36. SDI: A Pan-European Matter<br />European Environment Agency (EEA) <br />provides sound, independent <br />information on the environment<br />Climate change<br />Air pollution<br />Biodiversity<br />Land use<br />Water<br />cross-border &<br />accessible<br />http://www.eea.europa.eu<br />
  37. 37. Project: CentropeMAP<br />Interoperable, cross-boder geodata<br />Infrastructure for the CENTROPE <br />region<br />
  38. 38. Project: CentropeMAP<br />2222<br />
  39. 39. Project: Plan4all<br />Plan4all <br />Harmonisation of spatial planning data according to the INSPIRE directive based on the existing best practises in EU regions and municipalities and the results of current research projects<br />www.plan4all.eu <br />
  40. 40. Project: Plan4all<br />co-funded by the<br />Community programme<br />eContentplus<br />
  41. 41. Common Data Sharing Infrastructure:<br />Common Web services allowing to visualise, overlay information from different sources<br />PILOT 1: <br />PILOT 2: <br />PILOT 3:<br />LU/LC data <br />analysis system<br />national<br />land<br />information<br />system<br />Waste dumpsstratification<br />Project: HLanData<br />Harmonisation of Land Use and Land Cover Databases for the creation of <br />value added services<br />www.hlandata.eu<br />
  42. 42. SDI: A Pan-European Matter<br /><ul><li>INSPIRE – Infrastructure for Spatial Informationin the European Community
  43. 43. Best Practice Plan4all Data harmonisation and access to planning-related data in Europehttp://www.plan4all.eu/
  44. 44. Best Practice HLanData</li></ul>Harmonisation of Land Use and Land Cover Data<br />www.hlandata.eu<br /><ul><li>Best Practice CentropeMAP</li></ul>Cross-border geodata infrastructure for the CENTROPE region <br /> (HU, AT, CZ, SK)<br /><ul><li>User-generated content, OPEN SOURCE DATA(Open Street Map, …)</li></li></ul><li>DATA and INFORMATION are key inputs into planning processes<br />Best practice projects try to harmonize data and to make it accessible and shareable<br />Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) try to provide better access to data and information<br />Accessibility to new DATA better allows planning<br />To monitor and to detect changes<br />To be able to act and react on changes<br />To make planning processes and decisions more transparent<br />To try to better fulfill planning’s purpose<br />SDI & Planning?<br />
  45. 45. BETTER ACCESS<br />to data and information<br />BETTERCONNECTING<br />themes and actors<br />SDI & Planning?<br />
  46. 46. BETTER INTEGRATING <br />different planninglevels<br />SDI & Planning?<br />
  47. 47. SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURES<br />Providing NEW DATA & INFORMATION & KNOWLEDGE forplanningprocesses<br />SDI & Planning?<br />
  48. 48. SDI / Knowledge INFRASTRUCTURESWiserdecisionsforbetter Cities<br />
  49. 49. Categoriesofspatialdataaccordingtheir „spatialclearness“<br />Geometrically/mathematicallyclearlydefined<br />Not clearlydefindedphenomena<br />Continuouslychanging<br />Spatialphenomensthatcan notclearlybedescribed in spatialterms<br />
  50. 50. A matter ofview-point:<br />If the only toy you have is a hammer …<br />every problem looks like a nail …<br />(Abraham Maslow)<br />
  51. 51. To improve<br /><ul><li> quality of life,
  52. 52. sustainability,
  53. 53. resilience
  54. 54. competitiveness,
  55. 55. happiness and contentedness</li></ul>To reduce<br /><ul><li> environmental stress,
  56. 56. waste of resources,
  57. 57. inequities</li></ul>Supporting the management of Cities and Regions,<br />PUBLIC INTEREST<br />fair distribution of chances/opportunities and burdens/impacts.<br />PurposeofPlanning?<br />
  58. 58. Infrastructure?!?<br />© Ric Stephens, www.stephensplanning.com<br />
  59. 59. Infrastructure?!?<br />© Ric Stephens, www.stephensplanning.com<br />
  60. 60. Infrastructure?!?<br />© Ric Stephens, www.stephensplanning.com<br />
  61. 61. CEIT ALANOVA<br />Central European Institute of Technology<br />Department for Urbanism, Transport, Environment & Information Society<br />Schwechat/ Austria<br />www.ceit.at<br />Manfred Schrenk, Julia Neuschmid, Daniela Patti<br />m.schrenk@ceit.at, j.neuschmid@ceit.at, d.patti@ceit.at<br />Thankyou!<br />