Big budget Hollywood film (vertical integration)
Small budget British film (horizontal/independent)
US/UK co-production (US take care of distribution for
added chance of success)
Kickstarter production (new ways of producing film)
Section B: Institutions and Audiences
Candidates should be prepared to understand and discuss the processes of Production,
Distribution, Marketing and Exchange as they relate to contemporary media institutions, as well as
the nature of audience consumption and the relationships between audiences and institutions. In
addition, candidates should be familiar with:
•the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;
•the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing;
•the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution,
marketing and exchange;
•the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences;
•the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences;
•the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by
international or global institutions;
•the ways in which the candidates’ own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns
and trends of audience behaviour.
This unit should be approached through contemporary examples in the form of case studies based
upon one of the specified media areas.
SORTING OUT KEY TERMS
Ownership of institution
How the way the company is owned effects the type of films it produces.
Cross Media Convergence
The use of multiple media forms by a media company to increase the awareness of or possible
audience for a media product. For example, the BBC show Eastenders on their TV channels, then
make them available on the internet through BBC iPlayer for a further seven days. A single company
will often own all of the media forms.
When two or more institutions promote their products on one media text. Business deals are created
between institutions who stand to benefit from reaching the same audience at the same time.
Product placement in films (where for example, James Bond might be denoted wearing an Omega
watch) and the promotion of stars and their songs through TV advertisements for other products are
good examples. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R22qigXhFjk
New Media Technology
The emergence of digital, computerized, or networked information and communication technologies in
the later part of the 20th century. Most technologies described as "new media" are digital. This is
simply a quicker, smaller, more efficient and compressed form of data-storage when compared with
older analogue methods.
Proliferation of content
An increase in the number of films being made over the last 30 years
SORTING OUT KEY TERMS
The combination of a variety of different digital technologies into one piece of hardware e.g. a PC
which can show DVDs, digitally edit, using a camera take video footage and using the internet,
How films are made in terms of appeal to audience, effect of ownership and technologies used
In the film business, the term "distribution" refers to the marketing and circulation of movies in
and for home viewing (DVD, Video-On-Demand, Download, Television etc). This will usually be
through a cinema first and then onto DVD and download, although some films are released straight to
The process of creating and raising audience awareness of a new film. It is part of the responsibility
the distributor, along with circulation, after they have acquired a film. The objective of film marketing is
to stand out in an environment that is competing very fiercely for the audience’s money. This does not
simply mean against other film campaigns, but the marketing of any other product too. Split into three
sections – advertising, publicity and promotion.
Exhibition is the retail branch of the film industry. It could relate to public cinema exhibition or private
home exhibition through DVD or downloads.
POSSIBLE QUESTION TOPICS
The question will be BROAD, allowing you to discuss a
variety of issues relating to your case study.
and audience in a
Effect of New
on institutions and
audiences in a
These are the areas that the exam question is most likely to ask you to discuss.
HOWEVER it is possible that the question may ask you to apply your knowledge
in a slightly different way, so you must be prepared to adapt your answer to the
THE FILM PROCESS
There are three distinct areas of the film industry.
Each one of these could be viewed as a type of media institution.
PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION EXHIBITION
What happens at each stage?
• Production involves the creation of the media
product and is the responsibility of the
• This includes all pre-production, production &
• Before that the writer/director/producer must
find finance for a film – which may come from
one or many production companies (a co-production)
Kidulthood had a
production budget of
£600,000. This budget
was mostly provided by
director Menhaj Huda
and producer friend
Why would this film
have found it difficult to
get finance from a
Some of this budget was
funded by the UK Film
What criteria did the film
have to meet to be
awarded the funds?
•Film distributors are responsible for prints and marketing:
PRINTS – producing physical copies of a film for cinema/home
release and finding the exhibitors/retailers to sell the film
MARKETING – raising audience awareness and anticipation of a
•A distributor may:
-Be a part of the same parent company as the production
-Have a long term arrangement with a production company and
provide financial assistance for many of their productions
-Provide financial assistance for a single film by a production
-Acquire a film after it has completed production
•A film will likely have different distributors for:
-Releases in different countries
promoted there was
limited distribution of
the film, why?
• Exhibition is divided into two sections:
- Cinema – the distributor is paid by the cinema for a copy
of the film
- Home – the distributor is paid by the company who is
selling the film for a copy
• A film’s success is often decided on the amount of
money it makes during it’s cinema release. This is
known as the Box Office Takings
• Home Exhibition is becoming an increasing valuable
and varied source for distributors to increase profits.
WHAT METHODS OF HOME EXHIBITION CAN WE THINK OF?
Kidulthood made just
£454,000 at the cinema
It was far more
successful on DVD
Why would this film be
more successful on DVD
than in the cinema?
Notas do Editor
Thursday 13th Nov
Went through the PowerPoint, sent them to research The Dark Knight, and they must do the word definitions too. Work needs to presented in an PowerPoint or word document and can include links to were information was sourced from