Value assignment

18 de Dec de 2020

Mais conteúdo relacionado

Apresentações para você(20)

Similar a Value assignment(20)


Value assignment

  2. 1. Value theory involves various approaches that examine how, why, and to what degree humans value things and whether the object or subject of valuing is a person, idea, object, or anything else. 2. Within philosophy, it can be known as ethicsor axiology. Early philosophical investigations sought to understand good and evil and the concept of "the good". Today, much of value theory aspires to the scientifically empirical, recording what people do value and attempting to understand why they value it in the context of psychology, sociology, and economics.
  3. 1. In ecological economics value theory is separated into two types: donor-type value and receiver-type value. Ecological economists tend to believe that 'real wealth' needs a donor-determined value as a measure of what things were needed to make an item or generate a service (H. T. Odum, Environmental Accounting: Emergy and environmental decision-making, 1996). 2. In other fields, theories positing the importance of values as an analytical independent variable (including those put forward by Max Weber, Émile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, and Jürgen Habermas).
  4. 1. Classical examples of sociological traditions which deny or downplay the question of values are institutionalism, historical materialism (including Marxism), behaviorism, pragmatic-oriented theories, postmodern philosophy and various objectivist-oriented theories.
  5. 1. there is a difference between moral and natural goods. Moral goods are those that have to do with the conduct of persons, usually leading to praise or blame. Natural goods, on the other hand, have to do with objects, not persons. For example, the statement "Mary is a good person" uses 'good' very differently than in the statement "That is good food".
  6. 1. Ethics is mainly focused on moral goods rather than natural goods, while economics has a concern in what is economically good for the society but not an individual person and is also interested in natural goods. However, both moral and natural goods are equally relevant to goodness and value theory, which is more general in scope.
  7. Main article: Value (ethics)
  8. 1. In sociology, value theory is concerned with personal values which are popularly held by a community, and how those values might change under particular conditions. Different groups of people may hold or prioritize different kinds of values influencing social behavior. 2. Methods of study range from questionnaire surveys to participant observation. Values can be socially attributed. What the community perceives as of paramount significance to them denotes or decipher their social attributes.
  9. Theory of value (economics)
  10. 1. Economic analysis emphasizes goods sought in a market and tends to use the consumer's choices as evidence (revealed preference) that various products are of economic value. In this view, religious or political struggle over what "goods" are available in the marketplace is inevitable, and consensus on some core questions about body and society and ecosystems affected by the transaction, are outside the market's goods so long as they are unowned.[2] 2. However, some natural goods seem to also be moral goods. For example, those things that are owned by a person may be said to be natural goods, but over which a particular individual(s) may have moral claims. So it is necessary to make another distinction: between moral and non-moral goods. A non-moral good is something that is desirable for someone or other; despite the name to the contrary, it may include moral goods. A moral good is anything which an actor is considered to be morally obligated to strive toward
  11. 1. moral and natural goods can conflict. The value of natural "goods" is challenged by such issues as addiction. The issue of addiction also brings up the distinction between economic and moral goods, where an economic good is whatever stimulates economic growth. For instance, some claim that cigarettes are a "good" in the economic sense, as their production can employ tobacco growers and doctors who treat lung cancer. Many people would agree that cigarette smoking is not morally "good", nor naturally "good," but still recognize that it is economically good, which means, it has exchange value, even though it may have a negative public good or even be bad for a person's body (not the same as "bad for the person"
  12. Instrumental and intrinsic value
  13. 1. Discreetness can be established by distinguishing between instrumental valueand intrinsic values by giving value intrinsic and extrinsic properties. First introduced by Plato in the "Republic": an instrumental value is worth having as a means towards getting something else that is good (e.g., a radio is instrumentally good in order to hear music). An intrinsically valuable thing is worth having for itself, not as a means to something else. 2. Intrinsic and instrumental goods need not define mutually exclusive categories. As some things can be found to be both good (in themselves) while also simultaneously good for getting other things that are good. A concept of: "Understanding science" may be one such a good, by being a means as achieving other goods as well as worthwhile in and of itself.
  14. 1. According to C. V. Good — ”Value-education is the aggregate of all the process by means of which a person develops abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviour of the positive values in the society in which he lives.” 2. Objectives of Value-Education: 3. Traditionally the objectives of value-education were based on religion and philosophy. There was no secular value-education; but in today’s modern world, this has been taken as very much essential. 4. Accordingly, the objectives for value-education may be taken up as follows:
  15. Need For the Inculcation of Value-Education:
  16. A wide range of values of moral, aesthetic and social nature that have evolved during the marathon march of the human civilisation is posing before us a crisis of priorities: which of these values is to be cultivated and what is the appropriate stage of doing so? Hence, the issue becomes all the more jumbled when it comes to fixing up of the responsibilities: who is to inculcate values? — parents, leaders, the affluent, the business tycoons, thinkers, artists, teachers? The easy and obvious answer is — “the teacher is the prime inculcator of values because the young are under his or her formal care”. Whatever may be the answer! Really speaking, it is not enough just to know about values, because values have to be practiced. Our country is undergoing radical, social changes. So, the students who are the future citizens of tomorrow have to be oriented to respond to and adjust with these social changes satisfactorily by equipping them with desirable skills and values. The Modern India has committed to the guiding principles of socialism, secularism, democracy, national integration and so on. These guiding principles should be emphasised in the educational system and suitable value; are to be included in the students for promoting equality, social justice, national cohesion and democratic citizenship.
  17. 1. Modern age of science and technology has created many evils. Violence, immorality, egoism, self-centeredness, frustration are rampant everywhere. The world has already experienced the horrors of modern wars during WORLD WAR I and II. 2. It has been the victim of passions and evils like violence, jealousy, national superiority and arrogance. That is why, in spite of wonderful, scientific achievements the world is a place of violence, gloom and unease.
  18. 1. Accordingly, the National Conference On Minimum Curriculum Standards for primary stage organised by NCERT (National Council For Educational Research and Training) in July 1970, emphasised the importance of inculcating in the students moral and spiritual values which form a part of our culture viz., honesty, kindness, charity, tolerance, courtesy, sympathy and compassion. 2. The National Seminar on Primary and Work-oriented Education organised by NCERT in November, 1976, in the context of International Education Year recognised the relevance and importance of the Gandhian Values in reforming education. 3. The Seminar, therefore, recommended the following Gandhian Values for inculcation at the Primary Stage:
  19. 1. Tremendous advance in science and technology’ has resulted in a complete change in the lifestyle of the people. 2. Science and technology is being used to produce weapons of mass destruction endangering the very existence of the human race instead of using it for the betterment of human life. 3. Erosion of traditional values. 4. Life in the future is going to be faster and more complex. The student of today have to face such moral situations in future, in which, instead of depending on others, they may be required to take their own decision. 5. The present youth has special problems. It has started to question the conduct of elders — especially political leaders. They do not see the relevance of the values preached.
  20. 1. Really speaking, value-education influences all aspects of a person’s growth and development. Thus, value- education consequently, is an integral part of education which cannot be separated from the educational process. Value-education has to be placed, therefore, at the centre of the educational endeavour. 2. Schools should be induced to create a climate of values which should run various activities and would be conducive to the promotion of values among students, teachers, parents and educational administrators. Programmes of value- education should incorporate values of integral personality in all its dimensions — physical, vital, intellectual, aesthetic, ethical and spiritual.
  21. The above discussion stresses again and again the importance of the need of value-education. Value-education involves exposing students to a whole series of values in their complete totality. I helps to bring about an improvement in the child’s thoughts, ideas attitudes, interests, emotions, sentiments, personality and character.
  22. Thank you very mach Name: Deivananana.R Dept : Social science 2nd year