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Change Management In Organisations

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Change Management In Organisations

  3. 3. Module 1 Part 1 The Change / Learning Process
  4. 4. How does learning / change begin? • Disconfirmation – information that things are not working, expectations are not being met creates… • Survival anxiety or guilt. The fear, shame or guilt associated with not learning something new. But the prospect of learning something new creates… • Learning anxiety. The feelings associated with an inability or unwillingness to learn something new because (1) it requires unlearning and temporary incompetence, (2) loss of power or status, (3) loss of group membership, (4) loss of identity. • Hence resistance to change.
  5. 5. Basic proposition about learning • Survival anxiety must be > learning anxiety. • Learning method 1: Escalate survival anxiety until it is greater than learning anxiety. • Learning method 2: Reduce learning anxiety until it is less than survival anxiety – create “psychological safety”.
  6. 6. How to reduce learning anxiety and create “psychological safety” • Involve the “change targets” in all the steps of the learning process. • Provide a vision of a path. • Provide a safe environment for learning (practice field). • Provide the time and resources necessary for learning. • Provide first steps and a direction. • Work in groups. • Provide coaching and help. • Reward small steps in the right direction. • Work in a supportive climate (norms that support error embracing). CHANGE MANAGEMENT INTERVENTIONS AIM TO CREATE PSYCHOLOGICAL SAFETY
  7. 7. What is Change Management? • Gaining a mutual understanding of what we think Change Management is…
  8. 8. Discussion of the key concepts • Conscious / unconscious • Primary / secondary process • Strategic Improvisation • Dialogue
  9. 9. Module 1 Part 2 The Change Consultant
  10. 10. What is a change consultant? • What characteristics underpin the role that we have to perform? • What function do we perform in organisations? • What is our strategic relevance in organisations?
  11. 11. The different helping roles: 1. The Expert (Information Power) 2. The Doctor (Diagnostic Power) 3. The Process Consultant (Process Power)
  12. 12. The strategic goals of process consultation 1. Provide help i.e. create a situation where the client will get help. 2. Create a situation in which information will surface that will permit both consultant and client to understand better what may be going on – “diagnostic intervention.” 3. Create a situation in which the client will at all times feel ownership of the problem. Client and consultant become an intervention team.
  13. 13. Ten Principles of Process Consultation 1. Always try to be helpful. Obviously if I have no intention of being helpful and working at it, it is unlikely to lead to a helping relationship. In general, I have found in all human relationships that the intention to be helpful is the best guarantee of a relationship that is rewarding and leads to mutual learning.
  14. 14. Ten Principles of Process Consultation 2. Always stay in touch with the current reality. I cannot be helpful if I cannot decipher what is going on in me, the situation and in the client.
  15. 15. Ten Principles of Process Consultation 3. Access your ignorance The only way I can discover my own inner reality is to learn to distinguish what I know, from what I assume I know, from what I truly do not know. It is generally most helpful to work on those areas where I truly do not know. Accessing is the key, and I must make an effort to locate within myself what I really do not know by scanning my own inner database and gaining access to empty compartments. If I truly do not know the answer, I am more likely to sound congruent and sincere when I talk about it.
  16. 16. Ten Principles of Process Consultation 4. Everything you do is an intervention. Just as every intervention reveals diagnostic information, so does every interaction have consequences for both the client and for me. I therefore have to own everything I do and assess the consequences to be sure that they fit my goals of creating a helping relationship.
  17. 17. Ten Principles of Process Consultation 5. The client owns the problem and the solution. My job is to create a relationship in which the client can get help. It is not my job to take the client’s problems onto my own shoulders, nor is it my job to offer advice and solutions in a situation that I do not live in myself.
  18. 18. Ten Principles of Process Consultation 6. Go with the flow. In as much as I do not know the client’s reality, I must respect as much as possible the natural flow in that reality and not impose my sense of flow on an unknown situation. Once the relationship reaches a certain level of trust, and once the client and helper have a shared set of insights into what is going on, flow becomes itself a shared process.
  19. 19. Ten Principles of Process Consultation 7. Timing is crucial. Over and over I have learned that the introduction of my perspective, the asking of a clarifying question, the suggestion of alternatives, or whatever else I want to introduce from my own point of view has to be timed to those moments when the client’s attention is available. The same remark uttered at two different times can have completely different results.
  20. 20. Ten Principles of Process Consultation 8. Be constructively opportunistic with confrontive interventions. When the client signals a moment of openness, a moment when his or her attention to a new input appears to be available, I find I seize those moments and try to make the most of them. Those moments occur when the client has revealed some data signifying readiness to pay attention to a new point of view.
  21. 21. Ten Principles of Process Consultation 9. Everything is a source of data; errors are inevitable – learn from them. No matter how well I observe the above principles, I will say and do things that produce unexpected and undesirable reactions in the client. I must learn from them and at all costs avoid defensiveness, shame or guilt. I can never know enough of the client’s reality to avoid errors, but each error produces reactions from which I can learn a great deal about my own and the client’s reality.
  22. 22. Ten Principles of Process Consultation 10. When in doubt, share the problem. Inevitably there will be times in the relationship when I run out of steam, don’t know what to do next, feel frustrated, and in other ways get paralyzed. In situations like this, I find that the most helpful thing I can do is to share my “problem” with the client. Why should I assume that I always know what to do next? In as much as it is the client’s problem and reality we are dealing with, it is entirely appropriate for me to involve the client in my own efforts to be helpful.
  23. 23. Module 1 Part 3 The Facilitator
  24. 24. The Facilitator Functions • Preparing • Determining the group’s focus • Fostering trust • Assessing group process & providing feedback • Keeping communication channels open & exposing tension • Managing conflict • Concluding
  25. 25. The Metaskills of the Facilitator • Compassion • Mindfulness • Neutrality / Following the Process • Detachment / Dual Awareness • Playfulness • Beginners Mind / Humility • Patience
  26. 26. Facilitation techniques • Using the flipchart effectively • Sorting the field • Noticing silent participants • Climate report • Checking in • Reflective listening
  27. 27. Module 1 Part 4 The Solution Finder
  28. 28. Problem Solving - Edward de Bono’s Six Thinking Hats White Hat Facts, Information Data Red Hat Feelings, Hunches Intuition Black Hat Cautions, Problems Difficulties Yellow Hat Benefits, Values Positives Green Hat Ideas, Alternatives Possibilities Blue Hat Process Control Thinking about Thinking
  29. 29. Problem Solving - Levels of Thinking 7 Creative Wisdom 6 Joy / Passion 5 Perspective 4 OK with negative stress 3 Negativity / Unhappiness 2 Paralyses 1 Tormented Thinker Extremely negative, Very critical, Disbelief, Anxious, Neurotic, Life is unbearable, Aggressive, Withdrawn, No way out, Warped idea of reality Lethargic, Mind does not get body going, Do things slowly, Can’t cope with situation/life, Leaves things to other people, Puts life on hold, Lazy, Procrastinates, Moves into tormented state Unhappy, Habit forming, Finds fault, Critical, Negative conversation, Complaining, Revue minor perspective,Not action orientated, Problem centered, Lacks trying, Does not smile, Stereotypes Stand back, Contemplates, Sees bigger picture Enjoys life, Enjoys environment, Enjoys people interaction, Seeks enjoyment, Avoids passion killers Knowledge, Experience, Know - how, Ultimate Perspective, Open - minded, Awakens joy in others, Understand levels of thinking Rationalises, Blames others, situation, Happens to all of us, We all go of the rails at times, We are all alike
  30. 30. The concept of Mental Models “Mental models are deeply held internal images of how the world works, images that limit us to familiar ways of thinking and acting. Very often we are not aware of our mental models or the effects they have on our behaviour.” (Peter Senge)
  31. 31. The concept of Systems Thinking Systems thinking is a discipline for seeing problems holistically and for understanding how systems create patters and events we see around us.
  32. 32. The Advocacy / Inquiry Matrix Advocacy Inquiry Low High High Explaining Imposing Mutual Learning Over Engaging Observing Withdrawing Interviewing Interrogating
  33. 33. Types of Active / Inquiry Questions Pure Exploratory Inquiry Prompt the story and listen carefully and neutrally. • Use silence and encouraging body language • Tell me what is going on. • What is happening? • Describe the situation. • Tell me more. • Go on. • Can you give me some examples of that? • Can you give me some of the details of what went on? • When did this last happen?
  34. 34. Types of Active / Inquiry Questions Exploratory Diagnostic Inquiry Start to identify the issues i.e. diagnosing. Exploring emotional responses: • How did you feel about that? • What was your reaction? • How did others feel and react? Exploring reasons for actions and events: • Why do you think you did that? • Why do you think that happened? • Why do you think the other person did that? Exploring actions, past, present and future: • What did you (others) do about that? • What are you going to do?
  35. 35. Types of Active / Inquiry Questions Confrontive Inquiry Share own ideas and “force” the client to think about the situation from a new perspective. • Did you confront him / her about that? • Could you have done the following…? • Have you thought about doing…? • Did it occur to you that he / she did that because they were anxious? • Have you considered these other options? • Have you considered the possibility that you overreacted? • Did that not make you feel angry / anxious / elated etc?
  36. 36. Module 1 Part 5 Organisational and Business Context of Change
  37. 37. Deciphering the organisational and business contexts of change • World-wide demographics • Workforce demographics • Technological advances • Social trends • Changes in ownership • Natural shocks • Political ramifications • Competition • Internal changes
  38. 38. Discussion regarding organisational and business contexts of change • What have been some major change initiatives that you have seen implemented in organisations? • How successful would you gauge them to have been? • Have you ever been a change consultant / on an organisational change team? • What were the changes you were implementing and how successful were you?
  40. 40. Module 2 Part 1 Change Management Methodology
  41. 41. In business improvement projects … In business improvement projects … Change Change Management Management is about …… is about ……
  42. 42. Change Management Methodology Model R E S U L T S Improved State Transition State Current State Leading Change Changing Systems and Structures Creating a Shared Need Mobilising Commitment Making Change Last Monitoring Progress Shaping a Vision
  43. 43. Module 2 Part 2 Generic Change Tools & Tactics
  44. 44. Change Management Methodology Model R E S U L T S Improved State Transition State Current State Leading Change Changing Systems and Structures Creating a Shared Need Mobilising Commitment Making Change Last Monitoring Progress Shaping a Vision
  45. 45. Leading Change Why bother? • Strong committed leadership is critical to accelerating change • Leadership impacts all other change processes • Leaders must play varied roles Overview
  46. 46. Leading Change Tools and tactics include : • Sponsorship strategy Tools and Tactics
  47. 47. Leading Change Sponsorship strategy : • What is a sponsor? – A person with the influence or responsibility to ensure that the change outcomes are delivered. – A sponsor has responsibility for initiating and sustaining change. • The purpose of a sponsorship strategy is to: – Identify the sponsors – Establish sponsor responsibilities – Build commitment of sponsors regarding the change process. – Highlight barriers to successful sponsorship. Tools and Tactics
  48. 48. Leading Change Sponsorship strategy : • Sponsor responsibilities might include the following: – DEMONSTRATE SUPPORT FOR THE CHANGE through words, actions and decisions. – SET A CHALLENGING PACE for the change program. – BE RESPONSIVE – to employees, customers and peers. – MEET REGULARLY WITH YOUR PEOPLE in order to show support, gain understanding and listen. – RAISE CONCERNS AND ASK QUESTIONS early in the transition process. – COMMUNICATE UPDATES on a regular basis. – IDENTIFY AND RESOLVE POTENTIAL “HOT SPOTS”. Tools and Tactics
  49. 49. Leading Change Sponsorship strategy : • Sponsor action plan might include the following: Tools and Tactics Sponsor Event Duration Developed By Delivered By Timing Message Primary Objectives Dept Head Etc… Sponsor Session 1 hour Change Consultant Dept Head, Change Consultant To co-incide with beginning of new project phase • Project changes • Identify hot spots • Obtain commitment
  50. 50. Leading Change To what extent do our change leaders : • Create a personal role for themselves in leading the change process? • Identify the key priorities and a critical path for the change? • Create a clear picture of “where we want to get to”. • Create a culture that will promote the desired behaviours? • Refine rewards, measures and feedback systems to reinforce behaviours? • Mobilise a network of committed change sponsors and agents? • Coach and counsel key stakeholders throughout the change process? • Identify and remove barriers that impede the change process? Assessment
  51. 51. Leading Change Change efforts can potentially derail when : • They fail to establish and clarify the key change roles of Sponsor. • Leaders fail to engage in behaviours necessary for change. • They lack quantifiable measures for establishing Sponsor accountability. • There are competing demands for sponsor time and resources. • Short term issues take priority over long term focus of “big picture” goals. • Sponsors object to change initiatives, Not all sponsor will 100% support the change process. Pitfalls
  52. 52. Change Management Methodology Model R E S U L T S Improved State Transition State Current State Leading Change Changing Systems and Structures Creating a Shared Need Mobilising Commitment Making Change Last Monitoring Progress Shaping a Vision
  53. 53. Creating a Shared Need Why bother? • Forces any resistance or apathy to be addressed head-on. • Validates why the project is important and critical to do. • Builds momentum needed to get the change initiative launched. Overview
  54. 54. Creating a Shared Need Tools and tactics include : • The Change implementation process and the change blueprint Tools and Tactics
  55. 55. The Process of Change Implementation Information Gathering Information Assessment Information Dissemination Information Monitoring, Stabilisation and Feedback CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION
  56. 56. Change Objectives • Requires considerable evaluation of the organisation's current position. • What you are hoping to achieve by the change process: a clear understanding of the change objectives • Are the changes compatible with the organisation’s current systems and processes? CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION
  57. 57. Information gathering Industry Benchmarkin g Information Sources Market Knowledge Internal information gathering Media Personal Experience Previous change attempts Info teams Key Areas:  Cultural fit  Strategic fit  Synergy Potential  Management fit and style  Corporate demographics  Structural fit Y CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION GATHER ASSESS TELL
  58. 58. Change Overview • Takes generic change objectives and applies them to the situation • Clarifies how the change objectives are going to be met • Serves as a practical reminder of what the organisation is attempting to achieve • Acts as a bridge between the objectives and the operational blueprint. CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION
  59. 59. Employee Input  Affected employees know more about their company/function  Opportunity to motivate  Most successful if well done  Employees must live with decisions  Prolongs uncertainty  Longer and slower process  Affected parties may not trust the change agent  Carnage if done poorly Immediate Approach  Less uncertainty  Quicker process  Greater clarity and certainty of action  May make wrong decisions  No affected employee participation  Requires detailed, thorough planning Delayed Approach  Greater knowledge of the changes necessary  Opportunity to motivate and involv affected employees  Prolongs uncertainty  Longer and slower process  Longer for results to show Key Operational Decisions Addressing cultural issues Assessing the change situation Resource Decisions Employee participation Speed of imple- mentation Y CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION GATHER ASSESS TELL “One off” financial costs e.g.  Implementation costs  Redundancy expenses  System harmonisation  Capital expenditure Continual financial costs Human resources costs Manifest in differences in:  Work legislation  Attitudes/ behaviours  Working practices  Management style  Company procedures Imposed decisions  Less uncertainty  Decision makers are a known quantity  No arguments or politics  May make wrong decisions  Can seriously demotivate  Requires detailed, thorough planning
  60. 60. Change Blue Print • Reduces overview into task specific actions • Serves as the basis for the post-change implementation plan by determining: – What – action to be taken – When – the timescale for change – Who – is to be affected and who is to be responsible for leading the changes – How – the actual blueprint – Why – the logic behind the actions taken CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION
  62. 62. Implementation plan and techniques • Implementation is reliant on: – Prior employee knowledge of change – Employees being comfortable with their role in the change via communication – The enactment of the change process – The alignment in systems and processes of the ultimate changes • Techniques include: – Change co-ordinator or manager – Change team – Steering committee – Information gathering teams – Working committees – External specialists / facilitators CHANGE OBJECTIVES CHANGE OVERVIEW CHANGE BLUEPRINT = IMPLEMENTATION PLAN CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION
  63. 63. Creating a Shared Need 1. Are all members of the project team aligned in terms of the need to change? 2. Have we framed the need for change in such a way to reflect the concerns of customers and key suppliers? 3. Would each team member deliver essentially the same “message” regarding the need for change if asked by someone outside of the team? 4. Who are the key constituencies affected by this initiative, and how much importance does each give to the initiative? 5. How can we help others increase their sense of the need for change? Assessment
  64. 64. Creating a Shared Need Change efforts can potentially derail when they : • Fail to check for alignment and build true consensus. • Assume the need for change in obvious. • Fail to frame the need for change in a meaningful way • Assume that when others fail to appreciate the need for change, its “their” problem. • Fail to search beneath the surface for root causes. • Underestimate the resistance to change. Pitfalls
  65. 65. Change Management Methodology Model R E S U L T S Improved State Transition State Current State Leading Change Changing Systems and Structures Creating a Shared Need Mobilising Commitment Making Change Last Monitoring Progress Shaping a Vision
  66. 66. Shaping a Vision Why bother? • Visions paint a picture that appeals to both the “head” and the “heart” and answer the question “Why change?” • Visions help create shared meaning and thereby help gain genuine commitment from all. Overview
  67. 67. Shaping a Vision Tools and tactics include : • Facilitating a visioning session Tools and Tactics
  68. 68. Shaping a Vision Facilitating a visioning session : • Prior to session – interview key stakeholders. – What is working? – What is not working? – Look at what our competitors are doing and ask ourselves, “What can be learned from this?” Tools and Tactics
  69. 69. Shaping a Vision Facilitating a visioning session : • Facilitating the session (2 days). – Start with the end – brainstorm loosely what the future state looks like in as much detail as possible – blue sky thinking. – Use visualisation techniques to envision daily life scenarios once change is achieved. – Design a dream using the language of: o What we do o What we sell o Who we are – Discuss feedback from key stakeholder interviews. Tools and Tactics
  70. 70. Shaping a Vision Facilitating a visioning session : • Facilitating the session (2 days). – Engage in rigorous self examination. Look at the relevance / effectiveness / efficiency of: o Our purpose o Our people o Our processes – Develop a mission i.e. saying in a given time frame, what do we want to be? – Identify and explore values and philosophies which will change the way people think and feel and which will guide our interactions through the change process. – Identify first steps – processes, forums etc. to instigate the change process. Tools and Tactics
  71. 71. Shaping a Vision To what extent : • has a vision be clearly articulated for the project? • is the vision simple and straightforward? • is the vision motivating and energising? • is the vision shared and understood across the business? • is the vision actionable? and finally, • How aligned is the team around the vision? Assessment
  72. 72. Shaping a Vision Change efforts can potentially derail when : • Everyone has their own vision, and no effort is made to gain alignment. • Vision statements remain at such a “lofty” level that one one pushes back. • The vision changes too often, or conversely, is so rigid that others feel excluded. • The vision fails to reflect the interests and needs of customers &/suppliers. • The vision is too complex to be easily understood or translated into day-to-day behaviours. Pitfalls
  73. 73. Change Management Methodology Model R E S U L T S Improved State Transition State Current State Leading Change Changing Systems and Structures Creating a Shared Need Mobilising Commitment Making Change Last Monitoring Progress Shaping a Vision
  74. 74. Mobilising Commitment Why bother? • Helps deliver a culture of individual accountability and daily problem solving. • Helps create an organisation that is fundamentally more flexible and able to implement change programs quickly and efficiently. • Helps speed up the pace of change and ensures that performance is maximised during the transition state. Overview
  75. 75. Mobilising Commitment Tools and tactics include : • Stakeholder analysis • Change readiness • Communication strategy Tools and Tactics
  76. 76. Mobilising Commitment Stakeholder analysis : • A stakeholder is anyone who is impacted by or who impacts the change. • Can be an individual or a group of individuals with similar stakes in the change. Tools and Tactics
  77. 77. Mobilising Commitment Stakeholder analysis : • Stakeholder analysis is a starting point for understanding the change readiness of key stakeholder groups. • By understanding the requirements, and readiness gaps of key stakeholder groups, we are better equipped to plan and implement appropriate change interventions. Tools and Tactics
  78. 78. Mobilising Commitment Stakeholder analysis : • Stakeholder analyses are best conducted by way of a 2 hour brainstorming session. • Steps to be followed include: – Explain your role. – Explain the purpose of the session. – Explain outcomes i.e. next steps for assessing appropriate change interventions. – Ask: What is the end-to-end nature of the change? This helps to identify who is impacted by it. – Complete stakeholder analysis tool. Draw the table on a whiteboard. Work your way across the table as directed. Tools and Tactics
  79. 79. Mobilising Commitment Stakeholder analysis : • Stakeholder analysis template Tools and Tactics Stakeholder Group Nature of Stakeholding Rate Rank Stakeholder Group 1 • What is the complete list of stakeholders that impact or are impacted by the change? • Does the stakeholder group need to be broken down into subgroups at this point? - Do they have different stakes in the change? - Is there a likelihood that they will be at varying degrees of readiness? • What is their relationship to the change? - Are they a customer / supplier? - Are they a part of the process? - Are they affected by the outcomes only? - What would be their concerns and what would the impact of their concerns have on others? - What type of involvement would they require? Wins Losses Neutral How important is the stakeholder group to the delivery of the change? • Critical • Important • Marginal How would you prioritise stakeholder groups relative to one another? 1 = most critical
  80. 80. Mobilising Commitment Change readiness : • Change readiness is the capacity of key stakeholders to support change in a manner that ensures that change is sustainable. • Sustainability is achieved by facilitating the uptake along three key dimensions: – Stages of concern, based on their degree of understanding of the change. – Preparedness to support i.e. willingness to change. – Ability to support, based on the development of the skills and knowledge required. Tools and Tactics
  81. 81. Mobilising Commitment Change readiness : • The change readiness tool examines change readiness for key stakeholder groups and… • Identifies what change interventions will be necessary to successfully guide the change. Tools and Tactics
  82. 82. Mobilising Commitment Change readiness – stages of concern : Tools and Tactics Stages of Concern Focus of Concern Expression of Concern Awareness Stage (0) Information Stage (1) Personal Stage (2) Management Stage (3) Impact / Consequence Stage (4) Collaboration Stage (5) Refocusing Stage (6) Little concern or involvement. General awareness & an interest in learning more about it. Uncertainty about demands of change. Uncertainty about decision making, potential conflicts. Issues relating to efficiency, organisation, scheduling, time etc. Focus is on impact of change for individuals in immediate sphere of contact. Focus is on coordination and cooperation with others. Focus is one of exploration of more universal benefits. “I’m not concerned about it.” “I would like to know more about it.” “How will using it affect me? “I seem to be spending all my time in paperwork.” “How is it affecting my team?” “I am concerned about relating what I am doing with others.” “I have some ideas about something that will work even better.”
  83. 83. Mobilising Commitment Change readiness – stages of concern : • Awareness Stage. Tactics are mainly around… – Informing. • Information Stage. Tactics are mainly around… – Further information and motivating. • Personal Stage. Tactics are mainly around… – Allaying personal concerns and providing a level of support. • Management Stage. Tactics are mainly around… – Coaching, training and development. • Impact / Consequence Stage. Tactics are mainly around… – Involving people in shaping the change. • Collaboration Stage. Tactics are mainly around… – Creating opportunities to use them to influence others. • Refocusing Stage. Tactics are mainly around… – Creating opportunities for them to innovate. Tools and Tactics
  84. 84. Mobilising Commitment Change readiness – stages of concern : • Determining stage of concern is best conducted by way of a 2 hour small group session. • Steps to follow include: – Familiarise yourself with the Stages of Concern. – Spend time in open discussion about what their concerns are. – Sythesise concerns on a flipchart, looking for themes. – Refer to Stages of Concern and, together with participants, plot their stage of concern. – Jointly discuss tactics to help overcome their concerns, using the interventions previously discussed as guidelines for suggestions. Tools and Tactics
  85. 85. Mobilising Commitment Change readiness – preparedness to support : • Gauging support is best conducted by way of a half day facilitated small group session. • Steps to follow include: – Explain the purpose of the session. – Get people to talk about the current change. Facilitate discussion on: o What are the critical / core changes? o What do you feel you are losing in the process? o How do you feel about it? – Facilitate discussion about object vs state loss – What can you control? – Facilitate discussion on, “What do you need?”: o All boils down to support – “Where can you get support from?” o List of actions / commitments. – Put all unresolved issues into further process. Tools and Tactics
  86. 86. Mobilising Commitment Change readiness – ability to support : • Refer to elements of a training & support strategy in section on IT Change. Tools and Tactics
  87. 87. Mobilising Commitment Change readiness : • Change readiness plan template Tools and Tactics Stakeholder Group Ability Tracking Outcomes As detailed in Stakeholder Analysis • Identify the appropriate individuals to the tactic. • Individuals can be selected because of functional expertise, organisational influence, relationship to stakeholder etc. Stage of Concern Preparedness to Support Change Tactic Resp • Not initiated • Initiated and working • Initiated and not working
  88. 88. Mobilising Commitment Communication : • The purpose of a communication strategy is to: – Define the objectives of the communication effort. – Develop guiding principles for communication. – Provide a framework for developing and implementing the communications. – Troubleshoot possible barriers to communication and determine the appropriate solutions. Tools and Tactics
  89. 89. Mobilising Commitment Communication : Elements of a communication strategy could include: Communication objectives • e.g. Enroll people in the change through involvement at all levels in the organisation. Critical success factors • e.g. Availability of resources to produce communications materials. • e.g. Maximising the use of respected and influential people to deliver messages. • e.g. Maximising the use of face-to-face communication. Tools and Tactics
  90. 90. Mobilising Commitment Communication : Elements of a communication strategy (cont.): Guiding principles for effective communication • e.g. Employees should hear information from the appropriate source. • e.g. Communication should be two-way and face-to-face to the extent possible. Key messages • Key messages are the themes that will underpin all communication. Tools and Tactics
  91. 91. Mobilising Commitment Change readiness : Elements of a communications strategy (cont.): Communications plan Tools and Tactics Target Audience Sender Name of stakeholder group. Communication Activity Message Timing Description of: • Meeting • Presentation • Roadshow • Workshop • Teleconference • Briefing • Demo Description of: key points to be highlighted: • Issues & concerns • Project timeframes • Vision & direction • Feedback • Q & A • Project status • Job changes • Etc. Specific person / role required to deliver the message. Date for communication activity to commence.
  92. 92. Mobilising Commitment Communication : Elements of a communication strategy (cont.): Feedback mechanisms • Feedback mechanisms are important for ensuring that communication objectives are being met and messages are conveyed in the most effective way possible. • They provide a facility for target audience groups to communicate their concerns, thereby ensuring a two-way communication. • Examples include: – Departmental representative – Open dialogue forums – Survey / questionnaire – Communications log (This would be a mechanism to track any communications issues that are being identified.) Tools and Tactics
  93. 93. Mobilising Commitment Communication : Elements of a communication strategy (cont.): Barriers to effective communication • Examples include: – Desire to keep information secret. – Diversity of different audiences requiring different types of information. – Lack of clear and consistent information due to the perception of the “evolving” nature of the project. – Conflicting information from different sources. Tools and Tactics
  94. 94. Mobilising Commitment How well have you : • Understood the needs and concerns of the people impacting or impacted by the change? • Analysed sources of resistance? • Developed problem solving process to resolve resistance? • Developed tactics to help prepare the stakeholders for and support them through the change? Assessment
  95. 95. Mobilising Commitment Change efforts can derail when : • Too little information is shared with key stakeholders. • Too much information is shared with key stakeholders. • They assume technical solution is sufficient. • They don’t involve others due to time constraints. • They underestimate human resistance to change. Pitfalls
  96. 96. Change Management Methodology Model R E S U L T S Improved State Transition State Current State Leading Change Changing Systems and Structures Creating a Shared Need Mobilising Commitment Making Change Last Monitoring Progress Shaping a Vision
  97. 97. Making Change Last Why bother? • Experience shows that successful, sustained change is difficult to achieve without attention from the entire team • Every change initiative will compete for time, resources and attention. • We often spend most available time on the launch of an initiative rather than its institutionalisation. Overview
  98. 98. Making Change Last Tools and tactics include : • Forcefield analysis • Systems and Structures worksheet Tools and Tactics
  99. 99. Making Change Last Forcefield analysis : Tools and Tactics ENABLERS RESTRAINERS
  100. 100. Making Change Last Systems and Structures worksheet : Tools and Tactics Measurement Reward Staffing Development Organisational Design Identify specific opportunities to use or modify various systems and structures to make change last
  101. 101. Making Change Last To what extent have we accurately estimated : • The magnitude of the total change effort? • The level of resistance this initiative will face? • The amount of time required to implement the change? • The level of clarity and alignment regarding the kind of implementation process required? And also… • How has the change effort been integrated into other business initiatives? • To what extent are needed resources made available? • To what extent have we altered (or used) existing systems and structures as “levers for change”? Assessment
  102. 102. Making Change Last Change efforts can potentially derail because of ten classic implementation pitfalls : • Underestimating the time. • Unexpected problems. • Poorly co-ordinated activities. • Competing distractions. • Inadequate capabilities / skills of employees. • Lack of support for the initiative. • Unclear goals and objectives. • Lack of involvement of Change Targets. • Dismissing complaints outright. • Uncontrollable externalities (life happens). Pitfalls
  103. 103. Change Management Methodology Model R E S U L T S Improved State Transition State Current State Leading Change Changing Systems and Structures Creating a Shared Need Mobilising Commitment Making Change Last Monitoring Progress Shaping a Vision
  104. 104. Monitoring Progress Why bother? • An accurate measure of the project provides focus, direction and momentum • Corrective action can only occur if you know you are off track • Monitoring Progress enhances you ability to reward key events and milestones, building momentum and commitment. Overview
  105. 105. Monitoring Progress Tools and tactics include : • Characteristics of a good measurement system • Robot system • Status report Tools and Tactics
  106. 106. Monitoring Progress Characteristics of a good measurement system: 1. Completeness: The extent to which a measure adequately measures the phenomenon rather than only some aspect of the phenomenon. 2. Timeliness: The extent to which a measurement can be taken soon after the need to measure, rather than being held to an arbitrary date. 3. Visibility: The extent to which a measure can be openly tracked by those being measured. 4. Controllability: The extent to which a measure can be directly influenced by those being measured. 5. Cost: Whether the measure is inexpensive, making use of the data easily obtained or already being collected for some other purposes. 6. Interpretability:The degree to which a measure is easy to understand and produces data that is readily comparable to other organisations and/or time periods. 7. Importance: Whether the measure is connected to important business objectives rather than being measured because it is easy to measure. Tools and Tactics
  107. 107. Monitoring Progress Using the ROBOT system to measure: Tools and Tactics The robot system is a good, colourful, eye-catching technique that makes you focus on your problem areas and decide on where you have encountered implementation pitfalls and instigate corrective strategies. RED – Change not implemented at all / little progress on this objective. YELLOW – Change has been partially implemented / some resistance occurring / installation not complete or signed off. GREEN – Sound progress has been made on change objective and / or has been signed off as complete. One of the easy techniques to use for the tracking of change progress is to use the robot system – or even the colours of the robot.
  108. 108. Monitoring Progress Status report : • Status reports track progress in: – Completing deliverables – Achieving specifications – functional, technical, operational Tools and Tactics
  109. 109. Monitoring Progress Status report – effort and time: • The GANNT chart is a well-known Project Management tool for monitoring progress against objectives. If used to its fullest potential, is regularly updated and visibly displayed, it can show true progress against implementation objectives. Tools and Tactics
  110. 110. Monitoring Progress Status report - risk: Tools and Tactics Category Area of Impact Description of Risk Level of Impact Alternative Responses 0 = negligible impact 5 = very high impact Who does it impact? Description of the different alternatives to be taken to mitigate the risk. Response Taken Description of the alternative chosen. Comments
  111. 111. Monitoring Progress Status report - issues: Tools and Tactics Issue No. Resolution # Issue Description Action to be Taken Responsibility Description of the issue. Description of identified action to be taken. Description of when and how issue was finally resolved. Name of individual responsible for resolution of issue. Date Resolved Name of individual responsible for resolution of issue. Status In process Complete
  112. 112. Monitoring Progress 1. Have we stated our objectives in concrete terms? 2. Have we translated these objectives to observable behaviours? 3. Have we set milestones that all understand and agree to? 4. Are expected results tied to external and internal goals and have we ensured that outcomes will be evident to stakeholders? 5. Are individuals and teams accountable for results? 6. Do we know which existing data will pick up progress toward our goal? 7. Have we established new ways to gather data? 8. Do we have accurate and timely baseline data to work from? Assessment
  113. 113. Monitoring Progress Change efforts can potentially derail when they : • Want results too soon and fail to look for long-term indicators of progress. • Assume all stakeholders know how things are going and fail to keep them informed. • Measure only against internal issues or goals, forgetting that customers are often impacted by the change initiative. • Don’t see how the change project is connected to other initiatives and fail to measure impact. • Think some things are too “soft” to measure, only looking at “hard” indicators of progress. • Simply get too busy to track progress. Pitfalls
  114. 114. Change Management Methodology Model R E S U L T S Improved State Transition State Current State Leading Change Changing Systems and Structures Creating a Shared Need Mobilising Commitment Making Change Last Monitoring Progress Shaping a Vision
  115. 115. Changing Systems and Structures Why bother? • When the way we organise, train, develop, reward, compensate, promote etc is changed, we are likely to see individual behaviour change • Successful changes usually involve significant re-alignment of “organisational infrastructure”. • Need to develop the capacity to change, not just the ability to change – “Can we build this change into our ongoing systems?” Overview
  116. 116. Changing Systems and Structures Changing Systems & Structures involves modifying: 1. STAFFING 2. DEVELOPMENT 3. MEASURES 4. REWARDS 5. COMMUNICATION 6. DESIGNING ORGANISATIONS Six Aspects (How we acquire / place talent) (How we build competence / capability) (How we track performance) (How we recognise / reward desired behaviour) (How we use information to build and sustain momentum) (How we organise to support the change initiative?
  117. 117. EXTRA DATA Change Implementation Process Model
  118. 118. Twelve “Golden Rules” of implementation  Manage employee and customer expectations  Project manage and measure the process  Be seen to add value  Build on some “quick wins”  Use the line managers  Be realistic about what you can achieve personally and corporately  Manage conflict  Repeat key messages and communicate even when you think you have nothing to say  Expect strange behaviour and be ready for it  Realise everything you say and do will be scrutinised and exaggerated  Remain visible and “out of the bunker”  Keep your eye on the ball and don’t forget about your customers
  119. 119. The impact of change (its called resistance) UNCERTAINTY IMMOBILITY TO MEET/TRY OUT CHALLENGES BEYOND PERSONAL COMFORT ZONES UPWARD ABDICATION (Wait for direction, Claim lack of direction) FEAR FAILURE FEAR CONSEQUENCES OF NON-DELIVERY FRUSTRATION (By seniors) LACK OF CONFIDENCE (Portrayed overtly and subtly)
  120. 120. Readiness for change Readiness = D (Dissatisfaction) x V (Vision) x F (First steps) > R (Resistance) D V F Is there enough dissatisfaction with the current state? What is the gap between the current reality and the envisioned future? Is there a sense of compelling vision of a highly desirable future state? To what degree is it shared? To what degree are individuals committed to the vision? Are the first steps for making the change 'doable'?
  121. 121. The Change Curve “I’m being told something I don’t like” AWARENESS DENIAL “NO WAY!” FEAR “What will happen to me?” EXPLORATION “”Let me take a look anyway” UNDERSTANDING “I can see why they want to do this” POSITIVE PERCEPTION “This is good” LEARNING “Let me test it” ADOPTION “We have to do it this way” INTERNALISATION “This is the way we work here”
  122. 122. Responses Awareness Full communication and explanation Reassurance (where possible) Denial Full communication and explanation Understanding of the consequences of non-conformance “Word picture” of the process of the change Fear Reassurance where possible Understanding of all possible outcomes for the individual Exploration Full training in the new behaviours and/or systems Full understanding of the benefits Understanding Full training in the new behaviour and/or systems Full understanding of the benefits
  123. 123. Responses Positive Perception Reinforcement of the positive perception Learning Full training in the new behaviour and/or systems Reinforcement of benefits Adoption Reinforcement of benefits Recognition of efforts Use as champion to those further down the change curve Internalisation Recognition of efforts Awareness of the change process the individual has gone through
  124. 124. Effects of change  In most organisations, it requires a change in management perspective and skill base as well as a new alignment of systems and processes  If handled well, change can increase organisational flexibility and responsiveness  If handled poorly, the organisation can experience: – Lower management credibility – Higher employee turnover – Lower employee productivity – Lower employee satisfaction and trust  MOST CHANGE PROGRAMMES FAIL
  125. 125. According to Hammer and Co:  Only 20-30% of all reengineering projects succeed  Only 23% of all mergers and acquisitions make back their costs  Just 43% of quality-improvement efforts make satisfactory progress  Only 9% of all major software development applications in large organisations are worth the cost  31% of software implementation projects get cancelled before completion  Irrespective of success or failure, 53% of software implementations will result in cost overruns by up to 189%! The Reason: According to Fortune 500 executives resistance/people not accepting changes was the primary reason changes failed Source: Maurer and Co.
  126. 126. A model for organisational change (Kurt Lewin) Unfreezing Change & movement Re-freezing
  127. 127. UNFREEZING Creating motivation and readiness to change Techniques to reinforce unfreezing . . . • Acknowledge feelings and empathise • Give people as much information about the change as possible • Say what will not change • Treat the past with respect • Help others to see the gap
  128. 128. CHANGE & MOVEMENT Guiding through the transition Techniques to reinforce movement . . . • Provide focus and direction • Strengthen peoples' connections to one another • Open up two way communications • Provide the individual with a specific role in the change process • Provide leadership and tenacity
  129. 129. RE-FREEZING Integrating the new point of view Techniques to reinforce re-freezing: • (before reverting to the old point of view) • Ensure that individuals and leaders are reinforced for new behaviour • Implement quick results and highlight successes • Build feedback mechanisms • Celebrate!
  130. 130. Why Do People Resist Change? • The phrase, “overcoming resistance,” indicates an adversarial relationship … since resistance is an emotional process, the key is understanding it: – People resist change because the change is: • Perceived by them to be negative, and • They do not want to deal with the reasons for it – Resistance is a way of expressing feelings of concern about making a change – These concerns tend to be: • Concerns over loss of control • Concerns over vulnerability – Your task is to help the person who is resisting change to express these concerns directly Resistance is nature’s way of telling you something important is going on and that you are on target
  131. 131. Why Resistance Occurs . . . • Resistance can occur because people fear: – Loss of credibility or reputation – Lack of career or financial advancement – Possible damage to relationships with boss – Loss of employment – Interpersonal rejection – Change in job role – Embarrassment/loss of self-esteem – Job transfer or demotion Real/ Underlying Concerns Indirect Expressions of Concerns/ Visible Resistance Your task is to encourage the full expression of the real/underlying concerns.
  132. 132. Three Steps to Dealing with Resistance • Step 1: Identify the form the resistance is taking: – Trust what you see more than what you hear – Pick up cues – Listen to yourself — use your own feelings as a barometer • Uneasy, bored, irritated – Listen for repetition/telltale phrases – Make two good-faith responses • Step 2: Acknowledge, name the resistance: – Tell person your perception of the resistance – Do it in a “win/win” manner; neutral, non-aggressive - “What I think I hear you saying is . . .” – Tell the person how the resistance is making you feel – Be specific, clear, authentic • Step 3: Be quiet, listen, let the person respond: – Get him/her talking – Encourage full expression of the concerns – Gradually uncover underlying resistance/issue - be aware of other forms of resistance surfacing
  133. 133. • Fight the resistance • Go into more data collection • Reengineer in the attempt to get a better intervention • Avoid the individual • Work more with your “allies” • Give lots of reasons • Get hooked into the details Dealing With Resistance: What Not To Do • Expect approval, encouragement, support and/or affection • Lose your confidence • Expect to have all the answers • Collude with the individual • Avoid giving “bad news” • Use aggressive language – “You Dummy” Rule • Delay/wait one more day
  134. 134. • Provide appropriate training in new skills and coaching in new values and behaviors • Encourage self-management • Give more feedback than usual to ensure people always know where they stand • Allow for resistance. Help people let go of the “old” • Measure results, step back and take a look at what is going on. Keep asking “Is the change working the way we want it to?” • Encourage people to think and act creatively • Look for any “opportunity” created by the change • Allow for withdrawal and return of people who are temporarily resistant Tactics to Minimise Resistance • Explain why • Identify the benefits • Invite and answer questions • Solicit participation, and, if possible, early involvement • (“first-draft/strawmodel” reviews, membership in planning/implementation teams, etc.) • Avoid surprises • Set standards and clear targets • Inform/involve informal leaders • Recognize and reward efforts • Over communicate
  135. 135. Summary: Dealing With Resistance • Resistance is inherent to change • To deal with resistance, you should be able to: – Identify when resistance is taking place – View resistance as a natural process and a sign that you are on target – Support the client in expressing the resistance directly – Not take the expression of the resistance personally or as an attack on you or your competence • Some common forms of resistance are: – Attack – Moralizing – “Give me more detail” – Avoiding responsibility – They flood you with detail – Compliance – No time – Pressing for solutions – It’s impractical – “We’re unique” – “I’m not surprised” – Methodology – Confusion – Nit-picking – Silence – Flight into health – Intellectualizing – Changing the subject – One word answers – Low energy, inattention