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  1. Cyber Crime & Security Sanjeev Pokharel MScIT-III
  2. What is Cyber Crime? • Cyber Crime is a term used to broadly describe criminal activity in which computers or computer networks are a tool, a target, or a place of criminal activity and include everything from electronic cracking to denial of service attacks. • Crime committed using a computer and the internet to steal a person’s identity or illegal imports or malicious programs • Cybercrime is nothing but where the computer used as an object or subject of crime.
  3. Definition of Cyber Crime • According to Electronic Transaction Act of Nepal Theft of computer source code, Unauthorized access to computer system, Destructing the computer and computer system, Illegal publication, Violation of privacy , Providing wrong information, Compute fraud etc – are known as computer (cyber) crime.
  4. CYBER LAW Electronic Transaction Act (ETA) encompasses laws relating to: I. Electronic and Digital Signatures II. Computer Crime III. Intellectual Property IV. Data Protection and Privacy V. Telecommunications Laws
  5. • The Computer as a Weapon : – using a computer (ICT resources) to attack other computers. • Pornography, • Threatening Email, • Assuming someone's Identity, • Sexual Harassment, • Defamation, • Spam and Phishing • The computer as a Target : – using a computer to commit real world crimes. • Viruses, • Worms and Industrial Espionage, • Software Piracy and • Hacking
  6. – Financial fraud – Sabotage / disrupt of data/networks – Theft of proprietary information – System penetration from the outside – Denial of service/Making Service Unavailable – Unauthorized access by insiders – Employee abuse of internet privileges – Injection of Viruses
  7. • type of activity performed by the intruder Manipulate data integrity Installed a sniffer Stole password files Proving/scanning systems Trojan logons IP spoofing Introduced virus Denied use of services CYBER CRIME
  9. Hacking in simple terms means an illegal intrusion into a computer system and/or network. It is also known as CRACKING. Government websites are the hot targets of the hackers due to the press coverage, it receives. Hackers enjoy the media coverage.
  10. The Internet is being highly used by its abusers to reach and abuse children sexually, worldwide. As more homes have access to internet, more children would be using the internet and more are the chances of falling victim to the aggression of pedophiles.
  11. • This is an act by the criminal, who floods the bandwidth of the victims network or fills his e-mail box with spam mail depriving him of the services he is entitled to access or provide
  12. Malicious software that attaches itself to other software. (virus, worms, Trojan Horse, web jacking, e-mail bombing etc)
  13.  Damaging or destroying data rather than stealing or misusing them is called cyber vandalism.  Transmitting virus: These are programs that attach themselves to a file and then circulate .
  14.  Terrorist attacks on the Internet is by distributed denial of service attacks, hate websites and hate emails, attacks on sensitive computer networks, etc.
  15.  Theft of software through the illegal copying of genuine programs or the counterfeiting and distribution of products intended to pass for the original.
  16. Phishing • Phishing is just one of the many frauds on the Internet, trying to fool people into parting with their money. • Phishing refers to the receipt of unsolicited emails by customers of Financial Institutions, requesting them to enter their Username, Password or other personal information to access their Account for some reason.
  17. Cyber Stalking  Cyber Stalking is use of the Internet or other electronic means to track someone.  This term is used interchangeably with online harassment and online abuse.  Stalking generally involves harassing or threatening behaviour that an individual engages in repeatedly, such as following a person, appearing at a person's home or place of business, making harassing phone calls, leaving written messages or objects, or vandalizing a person's property.
  18. Nepali Crime Scene The major Cyber Crimes reported, in Nepal, are Defacement of Websites, Spam, Computer Virus and Worms, Pornography, VOIP Call Bypass,  Creation/design of Fake /Duplicate documents , Phishing and Fake Social Networking Users ID(fake facebook id in facebook) Bank ATM Fraud
  19. • Internet security is a branch of computer security specifically related to the Internet. • It's objective is to establish rules and measure to use against attacks over the Internet.
  20. • Use antivirus software’s • insert firewalls • uninstall unnecessary software • maintain backup • check security settings • Stay anonymous - choose a genderless screen name • Never give your full name or address to strangers
  21. • Don't respond to harassing or negative messages (flames) • Save offending messages • Learn more about Internet privacy • Treat your laptop/Computer like cash • Cryptography and digital signature • Cyber Ethics and Laws • Get out of uncomfortable or hostile situations quickly
  22. Contd… • Remember that any email or instant message you send could come back to haunt you • Lock it when you leave it • If you access the Internet from a shared computer, make sure you don't leave anything behind • Don't check the "remember my password" box. • When you're done, make sure you log off completely by clicking the "log off" button before you walk away. • If possible, clear the browser cache and history. • Trash all documents you used, and empty the recycle bin. • Don't reply to unsolicited email messages (spam)
  23. Contd… • Don't Trust Links Sent in Email Messages – Stop. Think. Click • If you suspect malware is on your computer – Stop, Confirm, Scan • Backup important files on a regular basis • Don't click on links in pop-ups or banner advertisements
  24. The Most Dangerous Things You Can Do • Opening attachments from unknown senders • Installing unauthorized applications • Disabling security tools. • Giving/lending passwords • Wireless networks are a huge risk • Filling in web forms and registration pages • Avoid social networking sites
  25. Top Password Tips • Never tell your password to anyone • Never write down your password • Make your password hard to guess — do not use the name of your pet (or your child). • Avoid using words found in a dictionary. • Be sure that you don't use personal identifiers in your password
  26. • The cyber security will defend us from critical attacks. • It helps us to browse the safe website. • Internet security process all the incoming and outgoing data on our computer. • security will defend from hacks and virus. • The application of cyber security used in our PC needs update every week. • The security developers will update their database every week once. Hence the new virus also deleted
  27. Cyber Security Strategies- Nepal • Legal Framework – IT Policy 2067 – Electronic Transaction Act 2063 – Telecommunication Act 1997 – Secure Password Practices 2067 • Institutional Development – Ministry of Science Technology and Environment(MoSTE) – Department of Information Technology(DOIT) – Office of Controller of Certification(OCC) – Cyber Forensics Lab – National Information Technology Centre (NITC) – Cyber Cell – Hanuman Dhoka – CIB – ITERT(Information Technology Emergency Response Team) –Under study
  28. Conclusion • Cyber Law of Nepal is well drafted and are capable of handling all kinds of challenges as posed by cyber criminals. • As internet technology advances so does the threat of cyber crime. • In times like these we must protect ourselves from cyber crime. Anti-virus software, firewalls and security patches are just the beginning. • Never open suspicious e-mails and only navigate to trusted sites. • If possible Use Digital Signature for every electronic Transactions

Notas do Editor

  1. Trojan Horse: secret undocumented routine embedded within a useful program, execution of the program results in execution of the routine Common motivation is data destruction