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Ancient Greece 
from the Minoans to the 
Macedonians
Greek Contributions to Western 
Civilization 
2
Table of Contents 
I. Minoans and Mycenaeans 
II. Greek Mythology 
III. Introduction to Greek Life – The Greek Polis 
IV. ...
Minoans and Mycenaeans 
Two Early Aegean Cultures 
Table of Contents 
I. Two Groups that Influenced Classical Greece 
•The...
5 
•The Mycenaeans – 1600 – 1200 B.C. 
A.____________________________ who settled on the Greek mainland 
B.named after the...
6 
I. The Dark Age of Greece 
A. Shortly after Trojan War, Mycenaean civ. collapses 
1. Around 1200 B.C. “Sea Peoples” att...
7 
II. The Epics of Homer 
A. Lacking writing, Greeks learned about Trojan War 
through spoken word. 
B. Greatest storytel...
Impact of Geography on Ancient Greece Table of Contents 
Big Question – How did the geography of 
Greece shape economic, s...
Grapes Olives 
Back to Geography
Greeks colonize throughout Mediterranean and Black Seas 
Back to Geography
Evolution of Greek Governments 
•Free adult males 
•Only ones with political 
rights and participation in 
government. 
•W...
Introduction to Greek Life 
Things to Know 
Table of Contents 
Ancient Greece 
Hellenic culture – Greeks 
refer to themsel...
The Agora in Athens 
The heartbeat of the Greek polis 
Back to Ancient 
Greece
The Acropolis in Athens Back to Ancient 
Greece
Back to Ancient 
Greece
Greek City-States Back to Ancient 
Greece
The Olympic Games – built rivalries and competition among Greeks 
Back to Ancient 
Next Olympic slide Greece
Back to Ancient 
Greece
Athens vs. Sparta 
Two city-states with very different views 
Table of Contents 
Athens Sparta 
Type of 
Government 
Gover...
Warring City-States - 5.2 
1. How did Sparta treat the Messenians? 
2. What was the primary cause of conflict 
between ric...
The Persian Wars 
Greek city-states vs. Persian Empire 
490 – 479 B.C. 
Table of Contents 
Persian War organizer 
1st Pers...
Persian Empire under Darius 
Back to Greece
Next phalanx
Major Events of the Persian WarsBack to Persian Wars
Ionian Revolt 
Persia 
•546 B.C. – ______________ conquers Greek settlements of _____________. 
•499 B.C. – ______________...
1st Persian War 
Battle of Marathon 
Aegean Sea 
•490 B.C. – Darius sent his fleet across ______________________________ t...
2nd Persian War 
Battle of Thermopylae 
10 years 
300 Spartans 
Back to Persian Wars 
north 
•________________ after Marat...
2nd Persian War 
Battle of Salamis 
•______________________ Xerxes 
and troops destroyed Athens. 
•Athenians led Persian f...
End of Persian Wars 
Battle of Plataea 
Back to Persian Wars 
•Spring of 479 B.C. – _______________________________ Persia...
Results of the Persian Wars 
•Athens and Sparta united to defeat Persians. 
•Greeks retain control of Aegean Sea. 
•Athens...
The Golden Age of Greece 
also known as the Age of Pericles 
Pericles 
Table of Contents 
•Golden Age notes
I. Greece’s Golden Age (480 – 430 B.C.) 
- For 50 years, Athens experienced significant intellectual and 
artistic learnin...
Pericles goals continued 
3. Glorify Athens 
a. Pericles used Delian League money to beautify Athens 
b. 15 year project t...
34 
•Golden Age notes
3. 2 Kinds of drama – tragedy and comedy 
a. Tragedy – themes such as love, hate, war, betrayal 
- featured tragic hero wh...
36
Peloponnesian Wars - Notes 
Back to Peloponnesian Wars 
Athens holds out against Sparta 
Athen and Sparta go to War – Pelo...
38 
•Golden Age notes
•Golden Age notes “Parthenon” 
Nashville, Tennessee 
39
40 
•Golden Age notes
41 
•Golden Age notes
3 Great “Golden Age” Greek Philosophers 
Socrates Plato Aristotle 
42 
•Golden Age notes
The Peloponnesian War 
Delian League vs. Peloponnesian League 
Table of Contents 
Notes 
Delian League 
Peloponnesian Leag...
Delian League = foundation of Athenian Empire •Golden Age notes
Powerful Spartan Army Powerful Athenian Navy 
45
Athens uses protected port to hold out against Sparta Back
47
48 
Powerful Athenian Navy – Athenian Trireme
Spartan War Machine – Powerful Army 
49
Macedonian Conquest of Greece and the 
Rise of Alexander the Great 
Alexander the Great; Conqueror of the Persian Empire 
...
Back to Notes 
Phalanx
Next phalanx
Alexander defeats Darius III at Battle of Issus 
Back to Notes 
Back to Conquest Map
Back to Notes 
Back to Conquest Map
Back to Notes 
Back to Conquest Map
Notes on Alexander 
Greece Falls and Alexander the Great Conquers Persia 
A. Macedonia – Neighbor of Greece to the North 
...
Alexandria Lighthouse, Museum, and Library (world’s 1st research lib) 
57 
The Hellenistic Age 
From the death of Alexande...
58
Alexandria Egypt 
Center of Hellenistic World
The Hellenistic Age 
Pharos Lighthouse in Alexandria Egypt 
Table of Contents
This illustration shows how 
Eratosthenes actually calculated 
the circumference of the Earth. At 
noon on the summer sols...
Geocentric 
Theory adopted 
and modified by 
Hellenistic 
scientist Ptolemy 
62
Euclid 
Hellenistic mathematician 
Wrote Elements – basis of modern geometry 
Elements
Archimedes 
Law of the Lever Compound Pulley
Greek Mythology 
Essential Understanding: 
Greek mythology was based on a polytheistic religion that was 
central to the c...
Greek Mythology continued 
Essential Understanding: 
Many of Western civilization’s symbols, metaphors, words, and 
ideali...
The Twelve Olympians, in Greek mythology, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. 
The...
Greek Mythology 
In Our Lives 
• Ajax - Greek warrior in the Trojan War, who "cleaned up" in battle; popular household 
cl...
Greek Mythology 
In Our Lives 
• Mars - Roman name for Ares, god of War; name of popular candy bar. 
• Mercury - Roman nam...
Zeus
Hera 
Zeus’ wife and sister
Poseidon 
God of the Sea
Hades and Persephone
Athena 
Goddess of Wisdom, Peace and 
Defensive war.
Aphrodite 
Goddess of Beauty and 
Erotic Love
Apollo 
God of the Sun, Music, and Poetry
Hermes 
The Messenger God
Prometheus 
He was a champion of human-kind known for his wily intelligence, who stole fire 
from Zeus and gave it to mort...
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Classical Greece

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Overview of Classical Greece

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Classical Greece

  1. 1. Ancient Greece from the Minoans to the Macedonians
  2. 2. Greek Contributions to Western Civilization 2
  3. 3. Table of Contents I. Minoans and Mycenaeans II. Greek Mythology III. Introduction to Greek Life – The Greek Polis IV. Impact of Geography on Ancient Greece V. Evolution of Greek Governments VI. Athens vs. Sparta VII. The Persian Wars VIII. The Golden Age of Pericles IX. The Peloponnesian War X. Conquest of Greece and the Rise of Alexander the Great XI. The Hellenistic Age
  4. 4. Minoans and Mycenaeans Two Early Aegean Cultures Table of Contents I. Two Groups that Influenced Classical Greece •The Minoans – 2000 – 1400 B.C. A.Lived on _______________________________ in southern Aegean Sea B.main city = ________________ C.Seafaring people that dominated trade in __________________________ D.Produced/traded fine ______________________ E.Minoans had advanced civilization -culture named after ________________________________ -Great _______________ at Knossos -Much learned from colorful wall _____________ (painting) -Athletic people – boxing, wrestling, ___________________ -Loved nature F.Women held high position in Minoan society -key roles in ____________________________________ -Great __________________________ ruled over other gods G.Probably a peaceful society. Why? No defensive _______ around cities. H.1470 B.C. – Earthquakes, eruptions, & tidal wave destroys Minoan cities -Invaders from Greece (Mycenaeans) may have eventually conquered Minoans.
  5. 5. 5 •The Mycenaeans – 1600 – 1200 B.C. A.____________________________ who settled on the Greek mainland B.named after their leading city _________________ C.developed a strong culture led by wealthy _________________________ -Warrior-kings built fortified palace-forts around Greece -Built wealth by controlling production and ____________ D.Mycenaeans most likely invade Crete and _________________________ -Mycenaeans preserved Minoan culture by making it theirs 1.expanded _____________________ was adopted 2.Minoan writing adapted to _____________________________ 3.Minoan legends form core of Greek religious practice, art, politics and literature 4.Western civ. has roots in these early _____________________ E.Mycenaeans defeat Troy in the ______________________________ -Mycenaean kings wage 10-year war against _______, a trading city _____________________. -Legend = war fought over Helen, kidnapped wife of Greek king. -Reality? = fought over control of crucial waterway leading to Black Sea; ___________________
  6. 6. 6 I. The Dark Age of Greece A. Shortly after Trojan War, Mycenaean civ. collapses 1. Around 1200 B.C. “Sea Peoples” attacked and burned palaces. B. A new group, the Dorians, moved into Greek lands 1. They have no written language 2. No written records exist between 1150 – 750 B.C. 3. Trade and economy collapsed 4. This Doric Period is called the Dark Age of Greece
  7. 7. 7 II. The Epics of Homer A. Lacking writing, Greeks learned about Trojan War through spoken word. B. Greatest storyteller was a blind poet named Homer 1. 750-700 B.C. Homer composed two great epic poems: 2. The Iliad and The Odyssey C. The Iliad = Trojan War - Greek Achilles vs. Hector of Troy D. The Odyssey = Odysseus’ 10 year journey home after the war 1. The poems celebrated heroic deeds & values. 2. Poems were used to teach values important to Greeks.
  8. 8. Impact of Geography on Ancient Greece Table of Contents Big Question – How did the geography of Greece shape economic, social, and political development and patterns of trade and colonization? Mountains covered 75 % of terrain, separating Greece into small isolated regions. City-states develop. No central government! Scarcity of level land for farming grains caused rivalries between city-states. Rugged, hilly terrain was ideal for growing crops such as grapes and olives. Many deep harbors and calm waters invited sea trade. Overseas trade and travel made easy by many seas, islands, and coastal settlements. Lack of resources and farmland + overpopulation forced Greeks to establish colonies.
  9. 9. Grapes Olives Back to Geography
  10. 10. Greeks colonize throughout Mediterranean and Black Seas Back to Geography
  11. 11. Evolution of Greek Governments •Free adult males •Only ones with political rights and participation in government. •Who were not “Citizens” in Greece? rule by one who took over by force/through revolt Table of Contents Monarchy – earliest form of government in Greece; rule by a king Aristocracy - rule by small group of noble, land-owning families rule by a few powerful people Democracy – Tyranny – Oligarchy – *Citizenship in the Greek Polis •Who were “Citizens” in Greece? •Women, foreigners and slaves have no political rights Where did the right to rule usually come from in a monarchy? What would be a drawback to an aristocracy? Why do you think oligarchies eventually lost power? How and why did early tyrants often come to power? rule by the people How did Athens’ democracy differ from ours today? Hereditary rule and often claiming divine right Did not represent the masses. Very few had right to participate in government. Rulers did not look out for good of the people. Became self-serving; and people revolted. Tyrants appealed to the poor & discontented promising changes and reform. Athens had narrow definition of “citizenship”. However, Athenian gov’t expected participation.
  12. 12. Introduction to Greek Life Things to Know Table of Contents Ancient Greece Hellenic culture – Greeks refer to themselves as Hellenes; Greek culture = Hellenic culture Greek Polis = City-state - an urban center and the countryside surrounding it. Ancient Greece consisted of hundreds of independently-governed city-states Greeks considered themselves members of their polis, not of a country. An outdoor lifestyle – the mild Mediterranean climate promoted an outdoor civic & cultural life. The Agora – open area gathering place in the center of the polis; center of social, economic and political life. The Acropolis – a fortified hilltop in the center of many city-states. The most famous is the Acropolis in Athens. The most famous building on the Acropolis is the Parthenon. Four Bonds that United All Greeks •Common language & literature – Homeric epic & others •Religion – Greek mythology connected to all Greeks •Olympic Games – united city-states in competition; 1st held in 476 B.C. •Fear of the Persians – Defense of homeland unites Greeks
  13. 13. The Agora in Athens The heartbeat of the Greek polis Back to Ancient Greece
  14. 14. The Acropolis in Athens Back to Ancient Greece
  15. 15. Back to Ancient Greece
  16. 16. Greek City-States Back to Ancient Greece
  17. 17. The Olympic Games – built rivalries and competition among Greeks Back to Ancient Next Olympic slide Greece
  18. 18. Back to Ancient Greece
  19. 19. Athens vs. Sparta Two city-states with very different views Table of Contents Athens Sparta Type of Government Government participation Education and military duty Position of women 5.2 Wkbk Democracy Oligarchy Assembly = All citizens; Assembly passed laws + served as supreme court Council of 500 – randomly chosen - proposed laws Boys – school from age 7-18 •literature, math, drawing, music, & rhetoric •At 18 – served 2 years in military •Strongest Greek navy Girls – no formal ed. •Learned household duties: weaving, baking, child care •No gov’t participation! Council of Elders – proposed laws Assembly – elected officials, voted on issues 2 kings – commanded military Life revolved around military! •Boys – Age 7, went to military barracks; read, write & use weapons. Soldiers from 20-60 •Strongest Greek army Expected to be healthy & strong = healthy babies •Gymnastics, boxing, wrestling •More personal rights than other women •Still, no gov’t participation
  20. 20. Warring City-States - 5.2 1. How did Sparta treat the Messenians? 2. What was the primary cause of conflict between rich and poor in Athens? 3. What type of society did Sparta create in response to the revolt? 4. What economic and political reforms did Solon initiate? Back to Athens vs. Sparta 5. How did Pisistratus gain the support of the poor? 6. What steps did Cleisthenes take to create a limited democracy in Athens? 7. What advantages did the Greek soldiers have over the Persians? 8. What were the consequences of the Persian Wars? Made them Helots, peasants forced to stay on the land they worked and turn over half their crop Struggle over political power Strong, highly disciplined military state Outlawed debt slavery, gave more power to the Assembly, allowed all citizens to bring legal suits, encouraged overseas trade. Gave funds to peasants to buy farm equipment; created jobs by launching building programs Reorganized law-making assembly, allowed all citizens to introduce laws, created Council of Five Hundred chosen by lot to counsel assembly. Discipline, training, heavy armor, and the phalanx formation End of Persian threat and emergence of Golden Age of Athens
  21. 21. The Persian Wars Greek city-states vs. Persian Empire 490 – 479 B.C. Table of Contents Persian War organizer 1st Persian War •Begins with Ionian Revolt 2nd Persian War •Battle of Thermopylae •Battle of Marathon •Battle of Salamis •Battle of Plataea
  22. 22. Persian Empire under Darius Back to Greece
  23. 23. Next phalanx
  24. 24. Major Events of the Persian WarsBack to Persian Wars
  25. 25. Ionian Revolt Persia •546 B.C. – ______________ conquers Greek settlements of _____________. •499 B.C. – _________________________ against Persian rule. •_____________ Athens sends troops to help Ionians fight Persians. Athenians destroy Persian town. •Persia’s _______________________________ King Darius sends troops to put down the revolt. •After 5 years, Persia suppresses the revolt. Persia back in control. •Darius decides to _____________________________________________ attack mainland Greece to punish Athens. Ionia Ionians revolt Ionia Back to Persian Wars
  26. 26. 1st Persian War Battle of Marathon Aegean Sea •490 B.C. – Darius sent his fleet across ______________________________ to attack Athens. •Persian landed on the beaches of ________________________; Marathon Athenians attacked them there. •________________________ Greeks attacked while the Persians were preparing to board their ships. •____________________ Persians were defeated and sailed home rather than attack Athens directly. Back to Persian Wars
  27. 27. 2nd Persian War Battle of Thermopylae 10 years 300 Spartans Back to Persian Wars north •________________ after Marathon, Darius’ son Xerxes invades Greece from the ___________. •_____________________________ and other Greeks decide to fight Persians at Thermopylae. •Thermopylae = narrow strip of land between ________________ mountains and _____ sea in northern Greece. •________________ Spartans hold back massive Persian army long enough for other Greeks to escape. •Persians surround Spartans and all 300 Spartans are killed; _____________________________. they become heroes
  28. 28. 2nd Persian War Battle of Salamis •______________________ Xerxes and troops destroyed Athens. •Athenians led Persian fleet into narrow ______________________________________ •Persia’s _______________________________ larger heavier ships crowded together in the narrow strait. •Greece’s lighter faster ships rammed Persian ships, _____________ destroying most of the Persian fleet. •____________________ Xerxes and most of the Persian army ______________________________. retreat for home •Xerxes ________________________________________ to continue the fight. leaves one army Strait of Salamis Back to Persian Wars
  29. 29. End of Persian Wars Battle of Plataea Back to Persian Wars •Spring of 479 B.C. – _______________________________ Persian army continued their assault •_________________________, 40,000 Greeks led by the Spartans, met the Persians at ________________. •The _________________________________ the Persian army, the Persian Wars were over. Greeks destroyed Plataea
  30. 30. Results of the Persian Wars •Athens and Sparta united to defeat Persians. •Greeks retain control of Aegean Sea. •Athens leads Greece into Golden Age. •Athens forms Delian League; alliance of 140 city-states. •Delian League drives Persians out of bordering areas. •Athens establishes an “Aegean Empire”.
  31. 31. The Golden Age of Greece also known as the Age of Pericles Pericles Table of Contents •Golden Age notes
  32. 32. I. Greece’s Golden Age (480 – 430 B.C.) - For 50 years, Athens experienced significant intellectual and artistic learning. - Legacies of this time continue to inspire and instruct today. A. Pericles leads Athens through Golden Age 1. Pericles was a skillful politician and respected general 2. 461-429 B.C. often called Age of Pericles B. Pericles had 3 goals for Athens 1. Strengthen the democracy a. Increased # of paid public officials – more poor could serve b. Introduced direct democracy – citizens rule directly, not through reps. 2. Strengthen Athenian Empire a. Pericles used Delian League money to build navy of 200 ships b. Increased safety and secured overseas trade routes
  33. 33. Pericles goals continued 3. Glorify Athens a. Pericles used Delian League money to beautify Athens b. 15 year project to build Parthenon = temple to Athena C. Greek Styles in Art and Architecture 1. Artists and sculptors create idealized human form a. Figures were strong, graceful and perfectly formed 2. Greek buildings were classified by their columns – 3 types a. Doric – no base and a plain round capital (top part) – Parthenon b. Ionic – rounded base and a scroll-shaped capital c. Corinthian – most elaborate, rounded base with capitals intricately carved with leaf patterns. D. Greek Drama 1. Greeks invented drama and built first theaters in the west. 2. Stories involved leadership, justice, and duties to the gods.
  34. 34. 34 •Golden Age notes
  35. 35. 3. 2 Kinds of drama – tragedy and comedy a. Tragedy – themes such as love, hate, war, betrayal - featured tragic hero whose flaw was downfall b. Comedy – slapstick situations and crude humor - many comedies were satires – poked fun at a subject - Playwrights made fun of fashion, politics, respected people or ideas - This showed an openness of public discussion in Athens. E. Greek Philosophers Search for the Truth 1. Philosophers, meaning “lovers of wisdom”, based philosophy on 2 assumptions. a. The universe is put together in an orderly way, subject to absolute and unchanging laws. b. People can understand these laws through logic and reason. 2. Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle = leading Greek philosophers a. Their ideas laid foundations for western thought & education.
  36. 36. 36
  37. 37. Peloponnesian Wars - Notes Back to Peloponnesian Wars Athens holds out against Sparta Athen and Sparta go to War – Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 B.C.) A. Athens formed the Delian League 1. Alliance between Athens and other city-states 2. Athens required large tributes & loyalty from members 3. Many city-states turned to Sparta for protection B. Sparta formed the Peloponnesian League 1. Alliance between Sparta and other city-states 2. Sparta & Pel. League declare war on Athens C. The Peloponnesian War (Delian League vs. Pelo. League) 1. Lasted 27 years 2. Athens stricken/weakened by a great plague 3. Sparta eventually defeats Athens 4. Sparta wins Peloponnesian War! D. Greece enters period of instability and weakness 1. Leaves them open to attack 2. Macedonia (land to the north) conquers Greek city-states
  38. 38. 38 •Golden Age notes
  39. 39. •Golden Age notes “Parthenon” Nashville, Tennessee 39
  40. 40. 40 •Golden Age notes
  41. 41. 41 •Golden Age notes
  42. 42. 3 Great “Golden Age” Greek Philosophers Socrates Plato Aristotle 42 •Golden Age notes
  43. 43. The Peloponnesian War Delian League vs. Peloponnesian League Table of Contents Notes Delian League Peloponnesian League
  44. 44. Delian League = foundation of Athenian Empire •Golden Age notes
  45. 45. Powerful Spartan Army Powerful Athenian Navy 45
  46. 46. Athens uses protected port to hold out against Sparta Back
  47. 47. 47
  48. 48. 48 Powerful Athenian Navy – Athenian Trireme
  49. 49. Spartan War Machine – Powerful Army 49
  50. 50. Macedonian Conquest of Greece and the Rise of Alexander the Great Alexander the Great; Conqueror of the Persian Empire Notes Table of Contents
  51. 51. Back to Notes Phalanx
  52. 52. Next phalanx
  53. 53. Alexander defeats Darius III at Battle of Issus Back to Notes Back to Conquest Map
  54. 54. Back to Notes Back to Conquest Map
  55. 55. Back to Notes Back to Conquest Map
  56. 56. Notes on Alexander Greece Falls and Alexander the Great Conquers Persia A. Macedonia – Neighbor of Greece to the North B. 359 B.C. Philip II becomes king of Macedonia – he has 3 goals Conquest Map 1. Create strong army – based on phalanx formation 2. Conquer Greek city-states 3. Defeat Persian Empire – Philip was murdered after conquering Greece. C. Philip’s son Alexander takes command at age 20. 1. Set out to conquer Persia. 2. Victories at Granicus River & Issus gained control of Anatolia 3. Victory at Gaugamela broke Persians for good. 4. 336-323 Alexander the Great conquers Persian Empire 5. Takes control of Asia Minor, Egypt, Fertile Crescent, and Persia – becomes largest empire! D. Alexander’s Empire begins Hellenistic Era 1. Hellenistic Era = fusion of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian culture E. 323 B.C. Alexander dies and his empire is divided between 3 generals. 1. Antigonus – Macedonia & Greece 2. Seleucus – Syria, Mesopotamia & Persia 3. Ptolemy - Egypt
  57. 57. Alexandria Lighthouse, Museum, and Library (world’s 1st research lib) 57 The Hellenistic Age From the death of Alexander to the Roman conquests 1. After Alexander’s death, what three things linked the many new cities he created? Trade, Greek culture and Greek language ___________________________________________________________________________ 2. With what three main cultures did Greek (Hellenic) culture blend? Egyptian, Persian, Indian ___________________________________________________________________________ Hellenistic 3. This blended culture became known as ______________________ (Greek-like) culture. Alexandria 4. Which city was at the center of the Hellenistic world? ___________________________ Mediterranean coast of Egypt 5. Where was this city located? ____________________________________________ 6. List a couple key attractions one might have found in Alexandria. ___________________________________________________________________________ 7. Describe Alexandria’s role as the center of learning during the Hellenistic Age. - Scholarship shifted from Athens to Alexandria - Hellenistic scholars in Alexandria preserved Greek & Egyptian learning - Alexandrian scholars provided most of scientific knowledge until Scientific Revolution in 17th century.
  58. 58. 58
  59. 59. Alexandria Egypt Center of Hellenistic World
  60. 60. The Hellenistic Age Pharos Lighthouse in Alexandria Egypt Table of Contents
  61. 61. This illustration shows how Eratosthenes actually calculated the circumference of the Earth. At noon on the summer solstice, Eratosthenes measured the length of the shadow cast by a column of known height at Alexandria. With these two lengths, he could solve for the angle between them (θ). If the length of the shadow, and height of the column (h) were proportional to the distance between Alexandria and Syene (s=4,400 stades), and the radius of the Earth, then by calculating the angle on the column (θ), he was calculating the same angle formed at the center of the Earth (θ). The equation he used to determine the circumference of the Earth [(360° ÷ θ) x (s)] reflects this theory.
  62. 62. Geocentric Theory adopted and modified by Hellenistic scientist Ptolemy 62
  63. 63. Euclid Hellenistic mathematician Wrote Elements – basis of modern geometry Elements
  64. 64. Archimedes Law of the Lever Compound Pulley
  65. 65. Greek Mythology Essential Understanding: Greek mythology was based on a polytheistic religion that was central to the culture, politics, and art in Ancient. Essential Question: How did mythology help the early Greek civilization explain the natural world and the human condition? Table of Contents Greek Mythology = polytheistic religion - Explained mysteries of nature and human life -Gods directly involved in human life -Gods displayed human qualities/characteristics -Gods believed to have lived on Mount Olympus
  66. 66. Greek Mythology continued Essential Understanding: Many of Western civilization’s symbols, metaphors, words, and idealized images come from ancient Greek mythology. Essential Question: What impact did Greek mythology have on later civilizations and the modern world? Greek Mythology - Major deities = Zeus, Hera, Apollo, Artemis, Athena, Hades, Aphrodite, Poseidon - Romans adopt Greeks gods but change names - Things we see and say everyday come from Greek mythology. Table of Contents
  67. 67. The Twelve Olympians, in Greek mythology, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. There were, at various times, fourteen different gods recognized as Olympians, though never more than twelve at one time. Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Ares, Hermes, Hephaestus, Aphrodite, Athena, Apollo, and Artemis are always considered Olympians. Hestia, Demeter, Dionysus, and Hades are the variable gods among the Twelve. Hestia gave up her position as an Olympian to Dionysus in order to live among mankind (eventually she was assigned the role of tending the fire on Mount Olympus). Persephone spent six months of the year in the underworld (causing winter), and was allowed to return to Mount Olympus for the other six months in order to be with her mother, Demeter. And, although Hades was always one of the principal Greek gods, his home in the underworld of the dead made his connection to the Olympians more tenuous. The Olympians gained their supremacy in the world of gods after Zeus led his siblings to victory in war with the Titans; Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Hestia, and Hades were siblings; all other Olympians (with the exception of foam-born Aphrodite) are usually considered the children of Zeus by various mothers, except for Athena, who in some versions of the myth was born of Zeus alone. Additionally, some versions of the myth state that Hephaestus was born of Hera alone as Hera's revenge for Zeus' solo birth of Athena.
  68. 68. Greek Mythology In Our Lives • Ajax - Greek warrior in the Trojan War, who "cleaned up" in battle; popular household cleanser. • Apollo - God of music; Apollo Theater is a famous music hall in New York city. • Ares - Greek god of war; popular car model. • Atlas - Was doomed to support the heavens on his shoulders; a modern moving company (Atlas Van Lines); also, Atlas Travel is a popular name for travel agencies all over the globe. • Hercules - Roman name for Heracles, the greatest Greek hero; the company called Hercules - http://www.hercules.com - makes a top-selling video graphics card (their slogan is Legendary Strength, Quality and Performance); there is also the Hercules transport plane, used by the United States Air Force to carry large volumes of war material and food • Hermes - Olympian Herald and Messenger god; popular brand of soap. Also, the FTD flower delivery company incorporates Hermes and his winged heels in their logo.
  69. 69. Greek Mythology In Our Lives • Mars - Roman name for Ares, god of War; name of popular candy bar. • Mercury - Roman name for Hermes, the Messenger god; name of car model produced by the Ford Motor Company; also, an entertainment records label, Mercury Records. • Midas - King with the golden touch, who transformed all he touched to gold; a famous muffler and brake chain of service stations. • Nike - Winged goddess of Victory, who can run and fly at great speeds; a famous company that sells...well...if you haven't heard of the company Nike, welcome to our planet...:) • Olympus - Home of the Olympian gods; name of popular camera and photographic technology company. Titans - Race of gods preceding the Olympians; Titan Tool & Die Company manufactures tools for industry. • Saturn - Roman name for Cronus, father of Zeus; also the name of the Saturn Automobile Corporation.
  70. 70. Zeus
  71. 71. Hera Zeus’ wife and sister
  72. 72. Poseidon God of the Sea
  73. 73. Hades and Persephone
  74. 74. Athena Goddess of Wisdom, Peace and Defensive war.
  75. 75. Aphrodite Goddess of Beauty and Erotic Love
  76. 76. Apollo God of the Sun, Music, and Poetry
  77. 77. Hermes The Messenger God
  78. 78. Prometheus He was a champion of human-kind known for his wily intelligence, who stole fire from Zeus and gave it to mortals. Zeus then punished him for his crime by having him bound to a rock while a great eagle ate his liver every day only to have it grow back to be eaten again the next day.

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