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# Design elements and principles1

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Design elements and principles

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### Design elements and principles1

1. 1. DESIGN ELEMENTS AND PRINCIPLES
2. 2. POINTA point marks a position in space It is static, centralized and directionless It can mark-  the two ends of line the intersection of two lines the meeting of lines at corner of a plane or volume the center of a field Within a visual field: At the center- it is stable and at rest and dominating the field. When moved off center- field becomes more aggressive. Visual tension is created A point has no dimension.
3. 3. To mark a position in space, a point must be projected vertically into a linear form as a column, obelisk or tower. Two points established in space by columnar elements or centralized forms can define an axis. In plan two points can denote a gateway signifying a passage. When extended vertically defines both plane of entry and an approach perpendicular to it.
4. 4. LINEA point extended becomes a line. It has length but no width or depth. A line is the path of a point in motion and is capable of visually expressing direction, movement and growth. It can serve to- Join link support surround or intersect other visual elements. Describe the edges and give shape to planes. Articulate the surface of planes. A vertical line can express a state of equilibrium with the force of gravity. A horizontal line can represent stability. An oblique line is deviation from the vertical or horizontal. It is dynamic and visually active in its unbalanced state.
5. 5. Vertical linear elements such as columns, obelisks and towers establish particular points in space. Vertical linear elements may define transparent volume of space i. e. outline a spatial field. Linear elements can express movement across space It can provide support for an overhead plane It can form a 3 dimensional structural frame for architectural space
6. 6. PLANE A line extended in a direction other than its intrinsic direction becomes a plane. It has length and width but no depth Shape is the primary identifying characteristic of a plane. Its supplementary properties are surface color, pattern and texture which affect its visual weight and stability. A plane defines the limits or boundaries of a volume. Two parallel lines have the ability to visually describe a plane. The closer these lines are to each other the stronger will be the sense of plane they convey.
7. 7. A row of columns or colonnade forms a semi transparent screen that unifies individual building forms behind it. The view shows the rhythmic measure of space depicted by a row of columns.
8. 8. The ground plane can be manipulated to establish a podium or a building form such as it can be carved or terraced or stepped to allow changes in elevation to be easily traversed. The overall form can be made distinctly planar by introducing openings which expose the edges of vertical and horizontal planes.
9. 9. Exterior wall planes provides protection to the interior spaces, while the openings reestablish a connection with the exterior environment. Thus shaping the exterior space and describing the form, massing and image of a building in space. The plane of exterior wall can be the primary façade of a building. These facades serve as wall that define spaces like courtyards, streets, etc.
10. 10. VOLUME A plane extended in a direction other than its intrinsic direction becomes a volume. It ahs three dimensions- length , width and depth. All volumes can be analyzed to consist of- Points or vertices where several planes come together Lines or edges where two planes meet Planes or surfaces which define the limits or boundaries of volume. Form is the identifying characteristic of a volume. It is established by the shapes and inter relationships of the planes that describe the boundaries of volume. A volume can be either a solid space displaced by mass or a void space contained or enclosed by planes. Planes define limits of volume Lines or edges where two planes meet Points or vertices where several planes come together
11. 11. A volume can be seen as either a portion of space contained and defined by wall, floor, ceiling or quantity of space displaced by the mass of building. Building forms can be read as masses that define volumes of space like a series of buildings enclosing an urban square. Building forms can also be a volume of space carved out of massive rock.
12. 12. ORDERING PRINCIPLES
13. 13. AXIS A line established by two points in space about which forms and spaces can be arranged in a symmetrical or balanced manner. It is essentially a linear condition so it has qualities of length and direction and induces movement and promotes views along its path. It implies symmetry, it demands balance.
14. 14. SYMMETRY The balanced distribution and arrangement of equivalent forms and spaces on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane or about a center or axis. An axis is established by two points; a symmetrical condition requires the balanced arrangement of equivalent patterns of form and space on opposite sides of a dividing line or plane, about a center or axis.
15. 15. Types of symmetry- Bilateral symmetry- Balanced symmetry of similar or equivalent elements on opposite sides of a median axis so that only one plane can divide the whole into essentially identical halves.  Radial symmetry- Radial symmetry refers to the balanced arrangement of similar, radiating elements such that the composition can be divided into similar halves by passing a plane at any angle around a center point or along a central axis.
16. 16. Building form can have a symmetrical facade Symmetry can be utilized to organize forms and spaces. An entire building can be made symmetrical or the condition can occur in only one portion of the building and organize an irregular pattern of forms spaces about itself
17. 17. HIERARCHY The articulation of the importance or significance of a form or space by its size shape or placement relative to the other forms and spaces of the organization. In most of the architectural compositions real differences exist among their forms and spaces which reflect the degree of importance of these forms and spaces as well as the functional formal and symbolic roles they play in the organization. The visual emphasis can be achieved by endowing a shape or form with- Exceptional size A unique shape A strategic location
18. 18. HIERARCHY BY SIZE A form or space may dominate a composition by being significantly different in size from all the other elements. HIERARCHY BY SHAPE A form or space can be made visually dominant by differentiating its shape from that of the other elements in the composition. HIERARCHY BY PLACEMENT A form or space may be strategically placed so as to make it the most important element in composition.
19. 19. In the view the cathedral is dominating over the urban landscape The plan of the palace shows hierarchy by shape
20. 20. DATUM A line, plane or volume that by its continuity and regularity serves to gather, measure, organize a pattern of forms and spaces. A datum can be a straight line. It can be a planar or volumetric form. LINE
21. 21. PLANE VOLUME
22. 22. RHYTHMA unifying movement characterized by a patterned repetition or alternation of formal elements or motifs in the same or modified form. The importance of space can be emphasized y its size and placement. Structural patterns often incorporate repetition of vertical supports at regular intervals which define modular bays or division of space.
23. 23. Rhythmic patterns provide continuity. Any break in the pattern announces and emphasizes the importance of the interrupting element or interval.
24. 24. TRANSFORMATION The principle that an architectural concept, structure, or organization can be altered through a series of discrete manipulations and permutations in response to a specific context or set of conditions without a loss of identity or concept.
25. 25. Transformation of a cruciform plan organization
26. 26. THANK YOU