O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a navegar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nosso Contrato do Usuário e nossa Política de Privacidade.
O SlideShare utiliza cookies para otimizar a funcionalidade e o desempenho do site, assim como para apresentar publicidade mais relevante aos nossos usuários. Se você continuar a utilizar o site, você aceita o uso de cookies. Leia nossa Política de Privacidade e nosso Contrato do Usuário para obter mais detalhes.
POINTA point marks a position in space
It is static, centralized and
It can mark-
the two ends of line
the intersection of two lines
the meeting of lines at corner of a
plane or volume
the center of a field
Within a visual field:
At the center- it is stable and at
rest and dominating the field.
When moved off center- field
becomes more aggressive.
Visual tension is created
A point has no dimension.
To mark a position in space, a point must be projected vertically
into a linear form as a column, obelisk or tower.
Two points established in space by columnar elements or
centralized forms can define an axis.
In plan two points can denote a gateway signifying a passage.
When extended vertically defines both plane of entry and an
approach perpendicular to it.
LINEA point extended becomes a line.
It has length but no width or depth.
A line is the path of a point in motion and is capable
of visually expressing direction, movement and
It can serve to-
Join link support surround or intersect other visual
Describe the edges and give shape to planes.
Articulate the surface of planes.
A vertical line can express a state of equilibrium
with the force of gravity.
A horizontal line can represent stability.
An oblique line is deviation from the vertical or
horizontal. It is dynamic and visually active in its
Vertical linear elements such as columns, obelisks
and towers establish particular points in space.
volume of space
i. e. outline a
Linear elements can express movement
It can form a 3
A line extended in a direction other than its
intrinsic direction becomes a plane. It has length
and width but no depth
Shape is the primary identifying characteristic of
Its supplementary properties are surface color,
pattern and texture which affect its visual weight
A plane defines the limits or boundaries of a
Two parallel lines have the ability to
visually describe a plane.
The closer these lines are to each other the
stronger will be the sense of plane they
A row of columns or
colonnade forms a semi
transparent screen that
unifies individual building
forms behind it.
The view shows the rhythmic
measure of space depicted
by a row of columns.
The ground plane can be
manipulated to establish a
podium or a building form
such as it can be carved or
terraced or stepped to allow
changes in elevation to be
The overall form can be
made distinctly planar by
which expose the edges of
vertical and horizontal
Exterior wall planes
provides protection to the
interior spaces, while the
openings reestablish a
connection with the exterior
Thus shaping the exterior space
and describing the form, massing
and image of a building in space.
The plane of exterior wall can
be the primary façade of a
building. These facades serve as
wall that define spaces like
courtyards, streets, etc.
A plane extended in a direction other than its
intrinsic direction becomes a volume. It ahs
three dimensions- length , width and depth.
All volumes can be analyzed to consist of-
Points or vertices where several planes come
Lines or edges where two planes meet
Planes or surfaces which define the limits or
boundaries of volume.
Form is the identifying characteristic of a
volume. It is established by the shapes and inter
relationships of the planes that describe the
boundaries of volume.
A volume can be either a solid space displaced
by mass or a void space contained or enclosed
limits of volume
A volume can be seen as either a
portion of space contained and
defined by wall, floor, ceiling or
quantity of space displaced by
the mass of building.
Building forms can be read as
masses that define volumes of
space like a series of buildings
enclosing an urban square.
Building forms can also
be a volume of space
carved out of massive
A line established by two points in space about
which forms and spaces can be arranged in a
symmetrical or balanced manner.
It is essentially a linear condition so it
has qualities of length and direction
and induces movement and promotes
views along its path.
The balanced distribution and
arrangement of equivalent forms and
spaces on opposite sides of a dividing
line or plane or about a center or axis.
An axis is established by two points;
a symmetrical condition requires the
balanced arrangement of equivalent
patterns of form and space on
opposite sides of a dividing line or
plane, about a center or axis.
Types of symmetry-
Balanced symmetry of similar
or equivalent elements on
opposite sides of a median axis
so that only one plane can
divide the whole into essentially
Radial symmetry refers to the
balanced arrangement of
similar, radiating elements
such that the composition can
be divided into similar halves
by passing a plane at any angle
around a center point or along
a central axis.
can have a
An entire building
can be made
symmetrical or the
condition can occur
in only one portion
of the building and
irregular pattern of
forms spaces about
The articulation of the importance or
significance of a form or space by its size
shape or placement relative to the other forms
and spaces of the organization.
In most of the architectural compositions
real differences exist among their forms and
spaces which reflect the degree of importance
of these forms and spaces as well as the
functional formal and symbolic roles they play
in the organization.
The visual emphasis can be achieved by
endowing a shape or form with-
A unique shape
A strategic location
HIERARCHY BY SIZE
A form or space may dominate a
composition by being significantly different
in size from all the other elements.
HIERARCHY BY SHAPE
A form or space can be made visually
dominant by differentiating its shape
from that of the other elements in the
HIERARCHY BY PLACEMENT
A form or space may be strategically
placed so as to make it the most
important element in composition.
In the view the cathedral
is dominating over the
The plan of the palace shows
hierarchy by shape
A line, plane or volume that by its continuity and regularity
serves to gather, measure, organize a pattern of forms and
A datum can be a straight line. It can be a planar or
RHYTHMA unifying movement characterized by a patterned repetition or
alternation of formal elements or motifs in the same or modified
space can be
its size and
Structural patterns often incorporate repetition
of vertical supports at regular intervals which
define modular bays or division of space.
provide continuity. Any
break in the pattern
importance of the
interrupting element or
The principle that an architectural concept, structure, or
organization can be altered through a series of discrete
manipulations and permutations in response to a specific
context or set of conditions without a loss of identity or
Transformation of a