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22@ Barcelona 2000-2015: Barcelona's innovation district

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This report presents an evaluation of the milestones reached in Barcelona's 22@ innovation district from the moment of its conception and implementation up until the present.

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22@ Barcelona 2000-2015: Barcelona's innovation district

  1. 1. 22@Barcelona 2000-2015 Barcelona’s innovation district
  2. 2. Report done by: Team INNOVA coordinated by Montserrat Pareja-Eastaway Research Group CRIT ‘Creativity, Innovation and Urban Transformation’ Faculty of Economics and Business University of Barcelona Council of Business and Tourism of the Municipality of Barcelona
  3. 3. 22@Barcelona 2000-2015 Barcelona’s innovation district
  4. 4. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 6 DISTRICT NEIGHBOURHOODS District 10. Sant Martí 64 el Camp de l’Arpa del Clot 65 el Clot 66 el Parc I la Llacuna del poblenou 67 la Vila Olímpica del POblenou 68 el Oblenou 69 Diagonal Mar I Front Marítim del Poblenou 70 el Besòs I el Maresme 71 Provençals del Poblenou 72 Sant Martí de Porvençals 73 la Verneda I la Pau
  5. 5. 7 Barcelona’s innovation district Executive summary This report presents an evaluation of the milestones reached in Barcelona’s 22@ innovation district from the moment of its conception and implementa- tion up until the present. The last 15 years of 22@Barcelona are presented in a synthesized and concise way, following a holistic approach to the area that considers urban as well as economic and social aspects. We also present the synergies created in the area as a result of the implementation of the project. Why 22@Barcelona? The project emerges from the strategic municipal will to transform an area occupied by abandoned factories, economic activities that produce re- duced added value, and empty spaces that are scattered throughout the dis- trict. The project is understood within the context of the city of Barcelona’s tradition in long-term strategic city planning and city model design. How is 22@Barcelona shaped? 22@Barcelona is a project shaped around three axes: the urban, econo- mic, and social renewal of an area, all framed within the overall transforma- tion of the east of the city together with the La Sagrera station, the Vila Olím- pica (Olympic Village), and the Forum. It began in 2000 at a time of economic boom and as a result of the leadership exercised by the local government. The implementation of the project involves the creation of the 22@Barcelo- na municipal company, which brought together efforts and hopes linked to the development of the project until 2011, the year of its dissolution. The 22@Network unites the interests of businesses installed in the area, headed first by the City Council of Barcelona, and today operating under the leader- ship of the businesses themselves. What are the project’s basic characteristics? · 22@Barcelona covers 198.26 ha, 1,159,626 m2 of land, and 115 blocks. · 4614 pre-existing houses are recognized in the area, and 4000 new subsidized housing units are planned (25% rented housing). · Increase of green areas covering 145,000 m2 of land. · New facilities: 145,000 m2 of land. · Heritage elements to be conserved: 114. · Investment through the Special Infrastructure Plan (PEI): 180 million euros.
  6. 6. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 8 What urban transformation has taken place in the neighbour- hood (by September 2014)? · The 22@ sector has more than 1600 subsidized housing units comple- ted. · 40,737 m2 have been developed for green areas (public and private). · Approximately 14,000 m2 have been constructed above ground level for facilities for the productive fabric (for example, the MediaTIC buil- ding or the business incubator Almogàvers Business Factory) and the neighbourhood fabric (CEIP Llacuna primary education centre or the Camí Antic de València Community Centre and Senior Citizens’ Centre). · 15 km of streets have been redeveloped. In total, 50.60% of 22@ land awaits completion of its transformation. What kind of economic transformation has taken place in the neighbourhood? · While in 2000 3473 companies were calculated in the neighbourhood, according to the Business Census (2015), the number of companies installed in 22@ is currently 8823. · Since 2000, 4500 businesses have installed themselves in the district, which means an average of 545 new businesses installed each year. Of these 4500, 47.3% are newly formed and the rest are relocations. Approximately 30% are involved in knowledge- and technology-inten- sive activities. · In 2015, 22@ has a total of 2914 freelance workers. · The number of workers (Business Census, 2015) is estimated to be around 93,000. Of this number, workers with university qualifications represent, on average, 32.2% of overall workers in 22@. · Exporting companies invoice on average 38% of their sales volume abroad. · While in 2010 the percentage of businesses located in 22@ with a po- sitive view of the evolution of the economic context for the following year was 53%, this percentage increased to 72% in 2015. What kind of social transformation has the neighbourhood experienced? · The population of the Sant Martí district increased by 3.69% for the period 2007-2014.
  7. 7. 9 Barcelona’s innovation district · The foreign population from the EU-28 is over-represented in the neighbourhoods of Vila Olímpica (10.63%), La Llacuna (8.06%), and Diagonal Mar (8.22%). · Household disposable income is higher than in Barcelona overall and has increased substantially since 2009 in the neighbourhoods of Dia- gonal Mar and Vila Olímpica. The rest of the neighbourhoods present a household income that is below Barcelona’s and that has been decrea- sing since 2009. The transformation of the Sant Martí district for the 22@ project has ge- nerated multiple synergies in the area both in the real estate market and due to the creation of an atmosphere that fosters the arrival of artists, busines- ses, and associations related to innovation and creativity. Therefore, beyond what was planned at the end of 1998 under the leadership of the City Coun- cil of Barcelona, the 22@ district has become consolidated as an innovation district in the city of Barcelona.
  8. 8. 11 Barcelona’s innovation district Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 1. 22@ and Barcelona: The context and the district . . . . . . 19 2. 22@: A strategic and integrated project . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.1. Urban transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 2.2. Economic transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2.3. Social transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 2.4. Governance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 3. Development of the project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 3.1. Timing and accomplishment of the urban transformation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 3.2. Economic transformation and business characterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 3.3. Lines of action in the social dimension 4. Externalities and collaborations produced in the area . . 68 4.1. Cultural and social projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 4.2. Universities, technology and innovation centres, and the Smart City Campus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 4.3. DHUB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4.4. Barcelona Urban Lab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.5. Hotel construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 5. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Index
  9. 9. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 12 Table 1. Percentage of housing built according to period of construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Table 2. Population in Barcelona and in the Sant Martí district, 2007 and 2014 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Table 3. Rate of ageing in Barcelona and the Sant Martí district, 2007 and 2013 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Table 4. Population according to nationality in percentages, 2014 29 Table 5. Number of companies and relative weight of the 22@ district . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Table 6. Companies according to size in 22@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Table 7. Number of registered patents in 22@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Graph 1. Price of second-hand housing per square metre, Barcelona and Sant Martí, December 2001, 2005, 2010, and 2015 (*) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Graph 2. Population with higher education over 16 years, 2001 and 2009-2013 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Graph 3. Evolution of the average disposable household income by neighbourhood (DHI Barcelona = 100) . . . . . 61 Graph 4. Evolution of the number of companies located in 22@ . 57 Graph 5. Number of companies according to year of arrival to the 22@ district . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Graph 6. Percentage of companies according to knowledge intensity in 22@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Graph 7. Estimated turnover in millions of euros of the companies in 22@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Graph 8. Evolution of the number of workers in the companies located in 22@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Graph 9. Demand for office space (square metres) in Barcelona and in 22@ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Index of tables and graphs
  10. 10. Introduction
  11. 11. 15 Barcelona’s innovation district The transformation of Barcelona since the arrival of the democratic city councils at the end of the 1970s has been in the spotlight as a model for other cities on an international scale. The management, organization, and governance of Barcelona as well as the different urban development strategies adopted over the years have been the focus of analysis by a significant number of experts from different disciplines (Nel.lo , 2012; Degen i García, 2008; Capel, 2005; Marshall, 2004). The city has reinvented itself numerous times in order to respond to new challenges at the local and global scale: the determinants of these changes are complex and they are the result of the city’s own socioeconomic, institutional, and political diversity. The 1992 Olympic Games initiated a process of metamorphosis in the city that turned it into a clear paradigm of urban change and international exposure where political will plays a determining role (Pareja-Eastaway, 2009). The need to find strategic alternatives for the future of Barcelona at the end of the 1990s was very much influenced by the exhaustion of the expansive wave resulting from the Olympic Games and which motivated the revival of economic activity from 1986 to 1992 and the economic crisis of 1993-1995 (Trullén, 2011). The publication of the document Poblenou: The Renovation of Industrial Areas. Planning Criteria, Goals, and General Solutions in 1998 is considered the starting point of the 22@ project. The 22@Barcelona project is framed within the context of the area’s economic transformation: from an eminently industrial business fabric to the tertiarization of activities and projects. The knowledge economy underpins the economic rationale for a much further-reaching renovation of the city: as would be witnessed later, in 22@, the urban, social, and economic restructuring of the district converge. The project extends the city to the area defined by the limits of the Ciutadella Park, Gran Via, Rambla del Prim, and the sea front, mainly occupied by the old and obsolete industrial areas of Poblenou, on the basis of the conviction that the city of Barcelona must grow in a comprehensive way, facilitating the coexistence of residential and productive activities. It is thus the compact city model that guides the new project, ‘combining housing, business premises, facilities and green areas, promoting industrial, commercial, and services activities, as well as technical,
  12. 12. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 16 scientific, and cultural development, without overlooking infrastructure and public services’ (Molas i Parellada, 2011: 13). The 22@ project was launched in 2000 with the creation of the 22@ Barcelona municipal company. At that time, nothing indicated that in eight years we would witness one of the most dramatic global economic and financial crises, with serious consequences for the periphery of Southern Europe. The dynamic of the project has been strongly conditioned by this event,showingahighcapacityforresistanceandadaptationtoneweconomic references. Therefore, the change experienced by the real estate sector in the city and in the state as a whole has also had its repercussions on the development of the project both when it comes to price increases and the overheating of the sector and in the more delicate situation of stagnation and lethargy in new construction and overall transactions. The first official innovation districts are 22@ in Barcelona and the Seaport Innovation district in Boston. 22@Barcelona, understood as an international benchmark, has already had tangible replicas in different cities around the world like Medellin (MedellinovationInnovationDistrict),Tunja(Tunja’sTechnologicalInnovation District), or Montreal (Montreal’s Quartier de l’Innovation). Since 2007, more than 300 delegations per year with managers from diverse areas of different local governments have visited the city interested in transferring and adapting Barcelona’s model to their own area, receiving advice and support from the City Council of Barcelona. This report, which aims to evaluate and synthesize the 15 years that have passedsincethebeginningofthe22@project,comesatthemostappropriate time: firstly, a project of the scale of 22@ in the city of Barcelona needs indicators of its evolution and a holistic system for gathering and analysing the information available on the development of the different areas of action envisaged. Secondly, many of the variables that have given the seal of approval to the project’s validity (i.e. political continuity) are experiencing changes in terms of priorities and opportunities for the coming years. Lastly, for the design of a strategic city project for the future, it is worthwhile having access to organized and synthesized results of 15 years of developments in one of the most iconic projects in the city of Barcelona.
  13. 13. 17 Barcelona’s innovation district Scale of the project
  14. 14. The context and the district1
  15. 15. 21 Barcelona’s innovation district The values of urban compactness and complexity developed in the past take on critical importance in the development of the new district in Poblenou. Not only is there a reassessment of the economic specialization that characterizes the area, but also a search for the creation of a productive area combined with the provision of accommodation for neighbours and new arrivals (Nel·lo, 2004). The integrated perspective of city-making adopted by the 22@ model finds its origins in the strategic considerations of the first PEM (Economic and Social Strategic Plan of Barcelona), signed in March 1990. The general objective of the Plan is ‘To consolidate Barcelona as an entrepreneurial European city, with influence in the macro-region where it is situated, with a modernqualityoflife,sociallybalancedandstronglyrootedinMediterranean culture,’ taking into account the desires and sensibilities of all the agents and institutions that are ‘sensitive to and concerned about the future of the city and representative of its economic and social sectors and of the area.’ The 3rd Economic and Social Strategic Plan of Barcelona, approved in 1999, made reference to ‘new 22@ urban planning for a new economy’, focusing on the concept of the knowledge city.
  16. 16. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 22 22@ is a compact city project where productive and residential functions converge. As considered in the study carried out by Terradas et al. (2008), the area where 22@ is located has some ‘a priori’ essential characteristics: among others, the design of Cerdà’s plan, the place’s identity as industrial heritage, the extension of Avinguda Diagonal, and the sea front. The new city- making model formulated in the Plan for the Urban, Economic, and Social Transformation of Poblenou had to confront a large variety of building types in the district, housing blocks developed over the decades, the existence of empty sites, and an urban layout that was not very suitable for the reformulation of uses. The 22@ urban planning project is framed within the so-called second (or third) renewal of the city since the milestones of the Olympic adventure in 1992 were reached (Esteban, 1999). Barcelona’s urban planning project incorporated new elements that no longer had a specific deadline in their implementation and that had to respond to new challenges for the city in a context of budgetary limitations. Once international recognition was achieved after the Olympics, Barcelona had to back a new integrated city model where the improvement of infrastructure, the development of specific projects with the predominance or collaboration of private initiatives, and connections with the metropolitan area would be decisive. The decade of the 1990s witnessed a change in the scale of the city of Barcelona and the emergence of a new model of metropolis with different nuclei (poly-centric city): certain concentrations of economic specialization as well as diverse production and an organized urban network formed a network of cities (Trullén i Boix, 2003). From then on, public intervention aimed at the improvement of the city’s competitiveness also had to include the territorial network of already established cities. After the construction of the Ronda de Dalt (B-20 motorway) and the Ronda Litoral (B-10 motorway) and the redevelopment of the area of the Vila Olímpica as a result of the celebration of the Olympic Games, Poblenou was resituated in an area of new centrality and good connectivity. The consolidation of Cerdà’s grid and the transformation of the sea front with the burying of the train lines created an ideal situation to proceed towards the
  17. 17. 23 Barcelona’s innovation district regeneration of the industrial area of Poblenou in a much broader framework of reforms associated with the eastern part of the city and defined by the triangle formed by: - The La Sagrera ‘corridor’ - Rambla Prim - The extension of Avinguda Diagonal to the sea This area includes the inter-modal station for high-speed trains at La Sagrera, the new urban centre around Plaça de les Glòries, and spaces along the river Besòs, together with the area that served in its day as the stage for the 2004 Forum where the Conference Centre or the photovoltaic panel will be located. The transformation of 22@ forms part of the set of transformations that have taken place since the end of the 20th century in the east of the city of Barcelona of which the last to be carried out is the Sant-Andreu-La Sagrera operation, which involves the transformation of 164 ha around this new infrastructure corridor. The implantation of large communication axes is essential for creating cohesion in the area and boosting economic dynamism.
  18. 18. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 24 The consolidation of La Sagrera as an important centre of international connectivity turns 22@ into one of the best-connected districts in Barcelona The Special Infrastructure Plan (PEI) envisaged that in ten years 48% of people that travelled to Poblenou would do so in public transport, 29% in private transport, and 23% by other means. Public transport, like in the rest of the city, became a key element for connecting the 22@ area with other surrounding neighbourhoods and municipalities. Since the end of the 1980s, the reintroduction of the tram in the city of Barcelona was considered as a complement to the metro line. In the Metropolitan Transport Authority’s 1999 Infrastructure Master Plan (PDI) the Trambesòs network was included. The Trambesòs started operation on 8 May 2004, a day before the inauguration of the 2004 Forum, connecting the Plaça de les Glòries to the Sant Adrià station. Different stations would be gradually added to this tramline, reaching Badalona in 2007. Today, the Trambesòs has a total of 37 stations across lines T4 (14 stations), T5 (12 stations), and T6 (11 stations). The neighbourhood has become one of the best-connected in Barcelona with multiple facilities and services: this central location close to leisure areas and its atmosphere of a traditional neighbourhood make it a very attractive area for new arrivals from other parts of Barcelona or from overseas. This appealisalsomadepossiblethankstothecreationofasignificantnewhousing stock. The rate of housing construction in the Sant Martí neighbourhood has been unequal over the years: there are consolidated neighbourhoods with a very old housing stock together with newly created neighbourhoods such as the Vila Olímpica and Diagonal Mar. Table 1 presents the distribution of the housing stock according to its period of construction. For the case of
  19. 19. 25 Barcelona’s innovation district On the other hand, the area’s appeal and the context of the housing market in Barcelona have determined unique housing price evolution. Graph 1 reflects the evolution of second-hand housing prices by square metre in Barcelona and in Sant Martí. Sant Martí, the neighbourhoods of Poblenou, Diagonal Mar, and Provençals de Poblenou are those most affected in the period 2001-2012 in terms of housing construction.
  20. 20. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 26 Graph 1. Second-hand housing prices per square metre, Barcelona and Sant Martí, December 2001, 2005, 2010, and 2015 (*) Although the prices of second-hand housing present a similar trend in the first years of comparison, their fall is more pronounced in Barcelona than in Sant Martí, which maintains a higher price per square metre than the average of the city of Barcelona. Without doubt, neighbourhoods such as Diagonal Mar or Vila Olímpica, with a demand that is resistant to falls, curb the decrease in prices. From the point of view of social cohesion, one of the criticisms made of the 22@ project has been that the evolution of the price of housing could push a large part of the inhabitants of those neighbourhoods into exclusion. In relation to the overall city, it is true that there are two neighbourhoods, La Vila Olímpica del Poblenou and Diagonal Mar i el Front Marítim del Poblenou, in which this hypothesis could be corroborated in the future, given that the average prices of housing in these neighbourhoods in 2013 was located between 25% and 37% above the average price for Barcelona. However, the same cannot be said of the rest of the neighbourhoods in the district, since the prices in 2013 were between 7.5% and 37% lower than the average prices of housing in the city. Source: Department of Statistics (DES), City Council of Barcelona (*) Third trimester
  21. 21. 27 Barcelona’s innovation district The population of the Sant Martí district increased by 3.69% in the period 2007-2014. SantMartí,where22@Barcelonaislocated,isoneofthedistrictsthathave changed most in recent years both in terms of population and productive specialization. While the population of Barcelona decreased during the period 2007-2014, the Sant Martí district shows a positive percentage, fundamentally determined by the population increase in Diagonal Mar (34.59%), in the neighbourhood of La Llacuna del Poblenou (11.52%), and in Poblenou (9.38%) (see Table 2). The population that has arrived to the district is an especially young population that has made the rate ageing decrease (the quotient between the number of people aged 65 years and over and of people aged under 15 years in X per cent; an increase of this rate means more ageing in the population, while a reduction means the opposite, a rejuvenation of the population) by 5 percentage points from 2007 to 2014 in relation to the average of Barcelona which decreased by 3.8 points for the same period (see Table 3).
  22. 22. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 28 According to data from the population register, the foreign population of Barcelona and the Sant Martí district for the year 1996 represented approximately 2% in both cases. For the year 2014, the foreign population represented 17% in the city of Barcelona and 16% in the Sant Martí district. The composition of the population according to nationality on 1 January 2014 can be observed in Table 4 below. We can see that in the different neighbourhoods of the Sant Martí district there is an over-representation in relation to the average in Barcelona of the population from the EU-28, particularly in La Llacuna, Vila Olímpica, Poblenou, and Diagonal Mar. On the other hand, the concentration of Asians in the areas of Besòs and Maresme is evident with 12.31% of the population being of Asian origin, in comparison to 3.8% for Barcelona overall. Taula 3. of ageing in Barcelona and in the Sant Martí district, 2007 and 2013 Source: Department of Statistics, City Council of Barcelona
  23. 23. 29 Barcelona’s innovation district Source: Department of Statistics, City Council of Barcelona Table 4. Population according to nationality in percentages, 2014 On the other hand, and taking into account the attraction of talent to Barcelona during the period, it is interesting to observe the evolution of the level of education among the population over 16 years of age. Looking at recent years (2009-2013) in general in Barcelona, the population with higher education increases progressively. The qualitative jump observed when we compare the data with those of 2001 is substantial in the city of Barcelona but more interestingly a specific parallelism is seen with the Diagonal Mar neighbourhood (Graph 2).
  24. 24. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 30
  25. 25. 31 Barcelona’s innovation district Graph 2. Population with higher education over 16 years of age, 2001 and 2009-2013 Lastly, comparing household income from 2008 and 2012 in the different neighbourhoods of Sant Martí (Barcelona = 100), we can verify the increase in disposable household income in two neighbourhoods, Vila Olímpica and Diagonal Mar. While in the rest a slight downward tendency is observed, ex- cept in the case of La Llacuna where a more significant fall in income is seen across the neighbourhood (see Graph 3). Graph 3. Evolution of average disposable household income by neighbourhood (DHI Barcelona = 100) 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 2001 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 BCN Sant Martí El Parc i la Llacuna del Poblenou La Vila Olímpoica del Poblenou El Poblenou Diagonal Mar i el Front Marítim del Poblenou Source: Department of Statistics, City Council of Barcelona 106.2 88.9 133.3 146.6 93.6 89.8 104.4 127.4 61.1 52.4 85.1 80.4 40 80 120 160 2008 2012 El Parc i la Llacuna del Poblenou La Vila Olímpica del Poblenou El Poblenou Diagonal Mar i el Front Marítim del Poblenou El Besòs i el Maresme Provençals del Poblenou Source: Compiled by authors using data from the Department of Statistics of the City Council of Barcelona
  26. 26. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 32 In summary, we can confirm that the 22@Barcelona project forms part of the overall transformation of the eastern side of the city, which at the same time is interweaved with the polycentric metropolitan region of Barcelona. Connectivity has improved substantially over the years, making the neigh- bourhood an attractive area for many families. The population that arrives to the Sant Martí district is not necessarily linked to the productive activity of 22@ but it does produce an increase in the level of disposable household income in the overall district as well as an improvement in the percentage of the population with higher education. As we have seen, the appeal of some of the neighbourhoods in Sant Martí is observed above all in the arrival of a significant number of families from other European countries.
  27. 27. A strategic and integrated project2
  28. 28. 35 Barcelona’s innovation district In the 1980s and 1990s, Barcelona became internationally recognized for the extent and quality of its urban transformation. High-profile physical, economic, and cultural improvements transformed the city of Barcelona from an industrial and port city in decline into a metropolis that often finds itself at the top of rankings of the most attractive European cities for living, working, and investing (Observatori de Barcelona, 2015). A city’s present is strongly determined by its path dependency: the course of history leaves its marks and guides the future of cities (Musterd and Murie, 2010). The industrialization of Poblenou began in the 19th century with the establishment of the textile industry in the area, and later with the settling of food and metallurgical industries. From 1861 to 1904 the textile sector led industrial expansion while at the same time new specializations also developed, with notable large facilities such as Macosa, Vidrieria Vilella, or Papelera Godó. Between 1905 and 1939 industrial consolidation took place, with the first generation of the metallurgical industry and the first car factories: Hispano-Suiza, Ford, and General Motors. Between 1940 and 1964 there was new momentum facilitated by a period of expansion in the mechano-metallurgical and car industries. This period corresponds to the establishment of Hispano Olivetti, Pegaso-ENASA, and Montesa (Marrero, 2003). The relocation or dismantling of industry in the area in the 1960s led to the predominance of transport and logistics industries. The relative obsolescence and the different degrees of abandonment of the old industrial areas of Poblenoutogetherwiththeneedtotackletheholistictransformationofapart of the city of Barcelona that was relatively underused became the two most important catalysts for the initiation of the 22@Barcelona transformation project under the initial leadership of the City Council of Barcelona. The planning of Barcelona by Cerdà (1859) already incorporated the extension of the city towards the sea, although at the beginning of the redevelopment only industrial activities occupied the blocks designed for the area of Sant Martí de Provençals, where Poblenou is located. However, it is the configuration of the metropolitan and central mobility and accessibility systems promoted after the Olympic Games (i.e. Ronda Litoral to Poblenou) that grants Poblenou, for the first time in its history, a powerful set of
  29. 29. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 36 accesses and connections all along its seaside limit (City Council of Barcelona, Memòria PEI, 2000). The 22@ project is more than a planning project because it marked a new way of understanding the city (Oliva, 2003). The main objective is to transformwhatusedtobetheparadigmofindustrialsocietyinBarcelonainto one of the key areas in the knowledge society, specifically, in next-generation activities related to education and requiring creativity and innovation. 22@ covers 1.4 million square metres (115 blocks from Cerdà’s Eixample) and an above ground level building potential of some 4 million square metres One of the first elements to be confronted by the proposal to renovate Poblenou with the 22@ project was potential speculation on the land and the existing housing stock. We must not forget that the shortage of housing in comparison to the strong increase in demand (baby boom generations, immigration, etc.), together with the liberalization of the financial sector, was one of the burning problems in the city and, at the same time, a sure source of profit for investors. As indicated by Clarós (2005): ‘once pressures from the real estate sector (which demanded a mass rezoning of the old industrial land of Poblenou for residential use) were overcome, the determined municipal backing of economic and productive activity in the city, at a time when the loss of the specific weight of Barcelona and of the Catalan economy in the Spanish context demanded a revamping of the industrial sectors, was without doubt the decisive factor in the first phase, which would conclude in July 2000 with the approval of a modification to the General Metropolitan Plan to transform the industrial areas of Poblenou.’
  30. 30. 37 Barcelona’s innovation district 2.1 Urban transformation The industrial zoning (22a) of this area required an initial urban transformation instrument: the definitive approval at the end of 2000 of the Modification of the General Metropolitan Plan (MPGM) for the renovation of the industrial areas of Poblenou, the 22@BCN activities district, which would allow for further construction, more public spaces or green areas, and social housing uses. The previous industrial activities would be substituted by offices, other business services, and facilities related to new technologies and knowledge. Considering the subsequent economic transformation that the area would experience, it was necessary to provide a critical mass of high-density office buildings (a potential of 3.2 million m2) appropriate to a central business district that aimed to be competitive on a global scale, capable of competing in the real estate market and of attracting new economic activity (Mur and Clusa, 2011). On the other hand, the Special Infrastructure Plan (PEI) for Poblenou, which would allow for the redevelopment of 37 kilometres of streets in
  31. 31. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 38 the 22@Barcelona district with highly competitive services, also presents innovative elements by enabling private financing mechanisms for the unitary redevelopment of the district according to high-quality criteria with regard to the electricity supply, telecommunications, and rubbish collection. There should be full coordination with higher urban planning authorities (i.e. MPGM): ‘The PEI is an instrument that accompanies and is based on the main urban development plan, the Modification of the PGM, and in this regard the basic requirements are that its proposals and decisions are carried out in strict and direct relation with the different transformation provisions provided for in the Modification of the PGM: predetermined areas of transformation, other areas defined over time, isolated actions on pre-existing sites and/or buildings, etc.’ (City Council of Barcelona, Memòria PEI, 2001). The third planning mechanism provided for is the Modification of the Special Plan for Historical/Artistic Architectural Heritage of the city of Barcelona, approved definitively in November 2006. The planning derived from the MPGM22@ reinforces the idea of preserving ‘a significant number of buildings and complexes, either for their industrial heritage value or to shape the landscape and history of the area’ (City Council of Barcelona, MPEPAH, 2006). The concept of heritage in the MPGM22@ promotes the industrial legacy through interventions that revitalize buildings, while maintaining their most remarkable characteristics. The process is carried out in three phases: - The creation of an industrial census through field research; - The creation of an inventory that gathers all the most significant elements and with enough importance to be maintained totally or partially; and - The design of the template file that gathers the elements that form part of the Special Plan. The modification of Barcelona’s Catalogue of Heritage Sites (Modification of the Special Plan for Historical/Artistic Architectural Heritage in the city of Barcelona) is a result of the will to recognize the city’s industrial past and its contribution to defining the urban space. To the 33 elements already catalogued, 68 new elements are added, of which 6 are proposed as Cultural Assets of Local Interest. The preservation of the industrial
  32. 32. 39 Barcelona’s innovation district heritage is accompanied by conservation measures for other elements such as alleyways, residential buildings, or structural elements, with specific regulatory instruments. With the will to build a compact city where the mix of uses characterizes the functionality of the new environment, deciding on the housing units that were to be incorporated into the design of 22@ became a critical element at the beginning of the project. At the end of the 1990s, Barcelona and its metropolitan area found themselves subjected to strong pressure from a housing demand that would determine, among other things, the beginning of the increase in prices that would end with the speculative bubble. The area of intervention had some 4,614 housing units, in an illegal situation given their location on industrial land (Mur and Clusa, 2011). However, 22@ planned the construction of 4000 new subsidized units on the land provided by the City Council, of which 25% would be subsidized rentals.
  33. 33. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 40 Financing the project: obtaining profits The 22@ project required innovative formulas for obtaining extra resources to facilitate the development of the transformation. Some of these resources would be achieved through the transfer of part of the profits made with minimum general investment participation from the City Council coming from extraordinary expenses. The block in Cerdà’s Eixample is the basic planning unit through which urban planning management and the obtainment of profits are exerci- sed, with prior agreement from more than 50% of the owners of the land. The block facilitates the distribution of duties and profits in proportional relation to the ownership of the land occupied by existing businesses. It is the incentive of development potential (up to 2.7 square metres for @ activities pertinent to the knowledge society and up to 2.2 square metres for other tertiary uses such as hotels) that generates profits that serve to pay for: - compensation for relocation (around 600 euros per existing square metre); - demolition; - compensation for existing buildings (around 200 euros/m2 of current buildings); - internal development costs of the block; and - proportional contribution to the redevelopment en- visaged in the PEI.
  34. 34. 41 Barcelona’s innovation district The 22@BCN project is the result of two years of intense debates around the future of Poblenou and represents the settlement of the city’s historical debt to the neighbourhood, preserving the productive character of the area but promo- ting its modernization and harmonious incorporation into the rest of the city. García-Bragado, 2001
  35. 35. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 42 2.2 Economic transformation The economic pillar of the 22@ project is supported by backing a model characterized by the ‘internationalization of the economy, the tertiarization of activity, growing productive flexibility, and the emergence of a new technological paradigm around information and communication technologies’ (Trullén, 2011: 22). At the beginning of the 21st century, what is produced is not as important as how it is produced. Theories based on the industrial district and the clusterization of activities, where the creation of synergies between companies, corporations, and individuals is the essential axis of the productive system, serve to justify the adoption of this model as inspiration for the 22@ project. A project where the urban dimension, the city, is an indispensable element in the creation of ecosystems that are favourable to innovation and immaterial production. Agglomeration economies caused by the close location of activities are sought out by new top-down governance strategies that take place in Poblenou with the development of the 22@ Barcelona project. The book La metròpoli de Barcelona cap a l’economia del coneixement: diagnosi econòmica i territorial de Barcelona 2001 (The metropolis of Barcelona towards the knowledge economy: economic and territorial diagnosis of Barcelona 2001), prepared by a team from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), gathers the main contributions of different discussions on the city’s new direction. It is in this document where we find the variables that, economically, would design the architecture of the economic aspect of Poblenou as a technological district, the new 22@. Characteristics of @ activities They use production processes with intensive use of new technology media. They have high occupational density. They are directly related to the generation, processing, and transmission of information and knowledge. They are non-polluting and non-invasive and they can be developed in central urban environments.
  36. 36. 43 Barcelona’s innovation district The new knowledge-intensive activities would present higher occupational density than the industrial manufacturing activities requiring the use of land and planning instruments that incorporate these peculiarities. Now the ‘sector’ is no longer decisive, but rather the ‘district’. Theeconomicinspirationofthe22@districtispresentedinBarcelonaCiutat del Coneixement: Economia del Coneixement, tecnologies de la informació i la Comunicació i Noves Estratègies Urbanes (Barcelona Knowledge City: Knowledge Economy, Information and Communication Technologies, and New Urban Strategies), published in 2004 by the City Council of Barcelona. The general vision of what Barcelona will be, where, on the one hand, research, development, and innovation and, on the other, human capital play a key role, is concretized and particularized with recommendations that are very present throughout the development of 22@. 1. Increase the knowledge base through the creation of new knowledge. 2. Increase knowledge by attracting knowledge. 3. Intervention in the transfer and exchange of knowledge. 4. Management and commercialization of intellectual property and knowledge products. 5. Re-investment in knowledge: profits redirected towards knowledge production. 6. Development of support for knowledge activities. 7. Compatibility in the development of complementary activities and knowledge ac- tivities. 8. Intervention in complementary infrastructures, especially transport. 9. Land for knowledge activities. 10. Intervention in the quality of life. 11. Intervention in the social system. Barcelona Ciutat del Coneixement (2004)
  37. 37. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 44 The development of economic activity in the 22@Barcelona district is influenced by boosting and promoting different sectors that are considered strategic for the city’s development. The dynamic of this approach is based on the identification of clusters around which the economic planning of the district is centred. As defined by Porter, ‘A cluster is a geographically proximate group of interconnected companies and associated institutions in a particular field, linked by commonalities and complementarities’ (Porter, 1998). Strategically, in 22@Barcelona initially four clusters were defined with the aim of concentrating economic activity with growth potential in the district, later adding a fifth. In some cases, the sector presents an observable tradition in Catalonia and, in particular, in Barcelona. This would be the case, for example, of design. In other cases, we find more so the will to promote new emerging sectors with a high growth capacity in the global economy. The selection of these groups was not based on existing activities or on traditional sources of growth in the area, but rather on their role in the area’s future and the desire of some large companies to establish themselves in the area (Pareja-Eastaway and Pradel, 2010). As a catalyst, the City Council moved some public companies and universities to the district in order to support the industrial clustering. In terms of economic development, the strategy could be labelled as a top-down approach to the creation of strategic clusters.
  38. 38. 45 Barcelona’s innovation district In 2008, with the strategic goal of reinforcing support to businesses that wanted to install themselves in 22@, the 22@PLUS initiative was promoted. This initiative was conceived as a value proposition for companies exploring their possible implantation in the district and a services catalogue was developed presenting all of 22@’s added value elements: technological infrastructure, knowledge infrastructure, networks for business cooperation, cluster strategies, access to public and private funding, access to talent, access to markets, facilities, and innovative spaces for companies and entrepreneurs, business landing and take-off platforms, etc. Within this service there is the ‘Business One Door’, through which a company that wants to install itself in the district receives support in this installation process, the necessary information for its integration into the cluster, and access to the services and instruments that 22@Barcelona provides. It is worth highlighting the important role in entrepreneurship promotion played by Barcelona Activa, the city’s local development agency. Its support programmes for entrepreneurs and the business incubators in Glòries and Almogàvers Business Factory have been key in the creation of a new
  39. 39. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 46 generation of entrepreneurs in the district. These entrepreneurial initiatives have been complemented by the active participation of university incubators. The combination of leading companies such as Telefónica, T-Systems, or Mediapro with new technology-based companies has led to a true space for innovation and interrelation. The ‘innovation ecosystem’ has been enriched by companies like Telefónica developing open innovation and entrepreneurship programmes (e.g. Wayra). Many of the companies that have grown in an incubator such as Wayra subsequently locate in the district and maintain close links with the original company. Intermsofemploymentcreation,intheforecastsmadebytheMPGM22@ in relation to the creation of new jobs, an average occupation of between 25 and 30 square metres was considered per worker. This would lead to a total of 100,000 to 130,000 jobs. The characteristics of the jobs created must include their capacity to pay high rents and prices for land and offices. Companies that cannot generate enough added value to compensate for the increase in prices in the area have no other alternative than relocation and transformation. 2.3 Social transformation 22@ is located in Poblenou in the district of Sant Martí, characterized until the beginning of the 22@ project as a district that not only changed the physical aesthetic of the neighbourhood with new and better infrastructures, but that champions the meaning of ‘compact city’ and aims to promote a social transformation of the area, both from the point of view of new arrivals and of the residents of the neighbourhood before the transformation. The Poblenou neighbourhood originally housed workers from the large companies located in the district. Historical activism, relational networks, and the proliferation of all types of civil society association activities contributed to a strong sense of neighbourhood belonging that took root in a large part of the population. As indicated by Clarós et al. (2005), ‘the complexity of transformation in a socially and culturally vibrant area would soon reveal the first disagreements with citizens that were not against the transformation but were unsatisfied and disappointed by the proposals and by the lack of participation.’
  40. 40. 47 Barcelona’s innovation district Therearetwolinesofactionintermsofsocialregeneration:thecreationof a space for professionals and for citizens in general. In this sense, the district promotes ‘the creation of new formal and informal relational networks,’ fostering the implementation of projects or collaborations between companies, whether national or international. In general, all programmes or actions that promote both the use of new information and communication technologies and the collaboration of citizens and companies with social, educational, and cultural organizations in the district are welcome. The importance of the ‘triple helix’ Etzkowitz and Leydesdorff (2000) define a model of innovation that is based on the interaction between university, industry, and government. This model explains the development of knowledge-based economies. The model goes beyond lineal systems based on demand-based innovation policies (market pull) or supply policies (technology push); it suggests strengthening the synergies that emerge between the agents from a bottom-up perspective as opposed to innovation initiatives promoted at the national or regional level; i.e. top-down. This model could include ‘markets’ as a fourth element. In this sense, demand becomes a key factor for the development of innovation. The agents can act sepa- rately or by coordinating actions through the development of new knowledge, new economic sectors, or regions: by promoting innovation ecologies, actors can take on the roles of others, with hybrid structures emerging that allow for the permanent articulation of joint actions. On the other hand, the importance of the appropriate educational facilities is key for ensuring the production of talent in the area: high-quality public and private schools as well as universities. The presence of this infrastructure would guarantee the availability of a high-quality labour force and thus attract companies to the area.
  41. 41. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 48 2.4 Governance The integrated regeneration of an area presents some specific challenges when we are dealing with previously occupied areas that already belong to the existing urban fabric. The physical, economic, and social characteristics inherent to these areas present particularly complex challenges and proces- ses for those exercising political and technical leadership of the process. For these reasons, the planning of districts like 22@ that combine eco- nomic vitality with social and environmental sustainability require sophis- ticated leadership and a proactive approach (Barber and Pareja-Eastaway, 2010). The development of the 22@ project over time and the achievement of the progressive regeneration of the district have relied on the indisputable leadership of the City Council of Barcelona. Leadership of the planning process: 22 ARROBA BCN, S.A.U. The leadership of the planning process, together with a broader view of regeneration, was promoted by a single agency: the municipal company 22 ARROBA BCN, S.A.U., which was created in 2000 by the City Council of Bar- celona with the aim of boosting and managing the transformation planned in the 22@Barcelona project. Not only did it take charge of the urban trans- formation, but also had the mission of promoting the implementation and development of strategic content in the new spaces created and of favouring the international visibility of new business, scientific, teaching, and cultural activities in the area. The 22 ARROBA BCN company is a management instrument with its own legal status that gathers all the necessary instruments for rebuilding the district, including overall management and promotion. It is important to highlight that this company is responsible for the most strategic content of the project, including steering it towards the knowledge economy and deci- ding on the suitability of the profile of the new companies. While in the beginning the organizational structure of the company was complex and integrated all the different facets of the project (see Figure x), in 2011 it reduced its field of action to urban development alone
  42. 42. 49 Barcelona’s innovation district Leadership of the clusters: non-profit organizations Vertical alliances The 22@ project had well-defined timing: the beginning of the physical transformation would come first, accompanied by the economic transforma- tion of the district. The initial forecast for the accomplishment of the diffe- rent phases that form the integrated perspective of the district’s transforma- tion was approximately 10 years. The timing originally planned for the project experienced a relative dis- ruption due to the dramatic consequences of the 2008 crisis. Nevertheless, as we shall see in the following section, 22@ is one of the districts that has best withstood the crisis, maintaining more employment creation than des- truction over the years.
  43. 43. Development 3
  44. 44. 53 Barcelona’s innovation district 3.1 Timing and accomplishment of the urban transformation Urban transformation over these 15 years has been at the service of the economic and social dynamization of the district. The rezoning of industrial land has been crucial for providing the area with new residential areas and new productive activities. 22@Barcelona has used 150 planning instru- ments. The current situation of the area effected by the MPGM is 70.07% with urban development management approved, and of this, 70.50% also has transformation planning approved. That means that, in total, 50.60% of 22@ land after 15 years is awaiting completion of its transformation. In the last five years (2010-2015), urban development in the area has been clearly marked by the negative impact of the crisis and the generalized uncertainty about the future and viability of new proposals for urban deve- lopment on a global scale. ð The percentage of approved land reached, within the 22@ area, goes from 68.92% on 31 December 2010 to 70.5% on 31 December 2014. ð Public green areas or private green areas for public use increased by 6857 square metres since 2010, representing a total of 40,737 square metres on 31 December 2014. Housing The balance between productive and residential activity involves the construction of new housing in the area and the promotion of rehabilitation. The project recovers approximately 4600 houses built in the old industrial areas and that were affected by their location on non-residential land since 1953. The goal that guarantees social diversity in the area is the construction of 4000 new subsidized housing units. By September 2014, 1600 new subsidi- zed units had been built. Clearly, the real estate crisis has left a mark on the course of social housing development and in December 2010, the construc- tion of subsidized units was already, since the beginning of the project, 1520.
  45. 45. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 54 Public space The creation of new public spaces and green areas in the 22@ district in- volves using 10% of once industrial land mainly in private hands for this pur- pose. Overall the development of the whole district would allow for 114,000 square metres for this use. 40,737 square metres have been developed for green areas (public and private) within the 22@ area. New facilities The 22@ project established that 10% of the land transformed would be used for public facilities. This represents approximately 145,000 square me- tres. Of these facilities, priority is given to those intended to promote 7@ activities; i.e. that involve training, research, and outreach in the area of new technologies. Basically, two types of actions can be distinguished: on the one hand, those that are linked to the new productive profile of the district such as spaces for communication between new research centres and com- panies and, on the other hand, facilities that are intended to address the deficit in community facilities. · Facilities for the productive fabric: around 14,000 square metres of land have been developed for this type of facility. Among others, the Media-TIC building, the Mediacomplex, the business incubator Almo-
  46. 46. 55 Barcelona’s innovation district gàvers Business Factory, and spaces occupied by universities such as UOC, UPF, UPC, or UB. · Facilities for the community fabric: newly built facilities include the CEIP Llacuna primary education centre, the Camí Antic de València Community Centre and Senior Citizens’ Centre, the Community Centre in Vila Olímpica, and the Aliança childcare facility. Infrastructure Infrastructure is one of the main elements of the project’s urban transfor- mation, with very competitive services such as centralized air-conditioning, modern energy networks, or selective pneumatic rubbish collection beco- ming some of the area’s competitive advantages. The goal for redevelop- ment at the beginning of the project was 37 kilometres of streets. The 22@ project has redeveloped 15 kilometres of streets
  47. 47. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 56 The real estate sector has decidedly backed the 22@Barcelona project: 86 of the 141 plans approved have been promoted by the private sector and licences have been granted to build 691,291 m2 above ground level for productive activity. 3.2 Economic transformation and business characterization Since the beginning, 22@Barcelona has been the focus of the municipal promotion of the location of high added value technology companies in the district. The backing of the ‘new economy’ as a driver of economic growth and employment creation in Barcelona is shown to be highly resistant to the shocks caused by the economic crisis since 2008. Since 2012, there has been a 12.2% increase in the number of companies installed in 22@ According to the classification criteria used for the development of the Business Census, since 2007 and excluding freelance workers, the 22@ dis- trict shows an increase in the number of companies located there (see Graph 4).
  48. 48. 57 Barcelona’s innovation district Graph 4. Evolution of the number of companies located in 22@ Source: 22@ Census 2015 (GAPS) The number of freelance workers in the district in 2015 was 2914, while in 2010 there were 4400 (GAPS, 2012, 2015). This reduction in the number of freelance workers could be determined by the high failure rate of these workers during periods of economic crisis and recession. In 2012, 775 new companies located in 22@, which compensated for the 359 closures and the 151 relocations outside the district. For the year 2015, the net growth of 894 companies co- rresponds to 1937 new companies, 612 relocations outside of 22@, and the closure of 431 companies. Accor- ding to the 2015 Business Census, 41% of companies located in 22@ are the result of relocation, coming mainly from other neighbourhoods in Barce- lona (65%) or the metropolitan area of Barcelona (24%). The progression of companies setting up in the 22@ district, once the area was ready to accommodate new knowledge-intensive companies, shows a change in trend from 2000: while 36.6% arrive to the district before the year 2000, 61.5% arrived later (1.9% of businesses responded ‘Do Not Know’ or ‘No Opinion’). The critical period for the arrival of businesses was between 2007 and 2010: 29.9% of the companies installed in 2015 arrived in this period (see Graph 5) The calculation of the number of companies installed considers: - Newly created companies in the district - Relocation of existing compa- nies to the district - Companies leaving the district (due to relocation or closure)
  49. 49. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 58 55.1% of companies installed in 22@ in 2015 arrived to the district after 2007 Graph 5. Number of companies according to year of arrival to the district Source: 22@ Census 2015 (GAPS) Enterprise creation is highly sensitive to the economic context and future prospects: phenomena such as the global, financial, and economic crisis that began in 2008 represent a substantial change in the situation observed up until then in the district. Thus, while between 2000 and 2010 approximately 450 new companies were created, a certain downturn is observed since then with only 59 companies created between 2010 and 2012. The tertiarization of the economy also affects 22@: since 2001 a decrease is observed in the district in manufacturing activity and this is replaced by almost exclusive dedication to services. While services represented 76.5% of economic activity in the district in 2001, in 2015 they represent 87.7%. Therefore, manufacturing activities go from covering 22.9% of activity at the beginning of the 2000s to 11.5% in the year 2015. The comparison between the years 2012 and 2015 of the number of bu- sinesses in the 22@ district in relation to all of Catalonia, the province of Barcelona, and the city of Barcelona reveals the growing importance of the district in this period. The number of companies in 22@ increases its relative weight with regard to all three territories by more than one percentage point in all cases (see Table 5).
  50. 50. 59 Barcelona’s innovation district Table 5. Number of companies and relative weight of the 22@ district (*) All companies-companies without salaried employees (**) Year 2014 Considering the primary activities of these companies, one interesting element for analysing the district’s capacity to create high added value and respond to market demands is the knowledge intensity of the companies installed. According to the Business Census in 22@, knowledge-intensive companies have increased progressively in the district, representing 32.3% in 2015. Of this 32.3%, the vast majority are dedicated to the provision of knowled- ge-intensive services such as technical architecture and engineering services or information technologies services. Of the activities with low knowledge intensity, services are still the majority (46.1%); here we would include all activities related to restaurant services, the hotel business, or trade (see Graph 6).
  51. 51. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 60 Graph 6. Percentage of companies according to knowledge intensity in 22@ Source: 22@ Census 2015 (GAPS) According to the 2015 Census, among knowledge-intensive services, the following especially stand out: · Professional, scientific, and technical activities (69 to 75) (*) (13,4%) - Legal and accounting services, consultancy, architecture and engi- neering. - R&D, advertising, market research, design, photography, and translation - Veterinary services · Information and communications (58 to 63) (*) (9,0%) - Editing, cinematography, video, radio, television, and sound. - Telecommunications, information technologies, information servi- ces. (*)(National Classification of Economic Activities – CNAE, 2009) The estimated turnover of the companies reaches 10,300 million euros, showing a considerable increase (13%) since 2012 (see Graph 7) According to the survey carried out by GAPS on a sample of 812 com- panies, 58% of employees in 22@ are contracted by companies with more than 199 employees, while companies with between 10 and 49 employees contracted 28% of employees, and small companies (between 1 and 9 em-
  52. 52. 61 Barcelona’s innovation district ployees) represented 14% of employees in 22@ (see Table 6). Small- and medium-sized enterprises have been over-represented in 22@ since the be- ginning, responding to a large extent to the characterization of the business fabric in Catalonia. Graph 7. Estimated turnover of 22@ companies in millions of euros Source: 22@ Census 2015 (GAPS) Table 6. Companies according to size in 22@ Source: 22@ Census 2015 (GAPS) The extrapolation of the results of the Business Census allows us see a significant recovery in the number of workers in the district. Of the 90,000 calculated in 2010, a substantial decrease of 5.5% is produced in 2012, which is more than recovered in 2015 with a total of 93,000 workers (see Graph 8). The number of workers in 22@ has gone from approximately 85,000 in 2012 to almost 93,000 in 2015.
  53. 53. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 62 Graph 8. Evolution of the number of workers in businesses located in 22@. Source: 22@ Census 2015 (GAPS) Workers with university qualifications represent, on average, 32.2% of overall workers in 22@ and foreign workers represent on average 11%. The internationalization of companies in Catalonia has been the key in many cases to withstanding the crisis. This is also the case in 22@ where the number of exporting companies went from 24.9% to 27.4% in the period 2012-2015. Offices The 22@ district has a stock of more than 789,000 square metres of office space distributed over a total of 38 projects with a current offer of 95,000 square metres (Cushman & Wakefield, 2015). In the last 10 years (2004-2014), there has been an investment volume of more than 1600 mi- llion euros in office space in the vicinity of 22@. In 2014, 22@ registered the only land purchase intended for developing office space in the last five years (2009-2014). Benson Elliot has decided to develop a project of around 23,000 square metres of office space in 22@.
  54. 54. 63 Barcelona’s innovation district The demand for office space in 22@ increased in 2014 by 136% compared with the previous year Cushman & Wakefield’s study Business Briefing. 22@ District indicates fu- ture growth in the demand for offices in Barcelona and, in particular, in 22@ given its position as a ‘prime zone in the city’ (see Graph 9). Graph 9. Office space demand (square metres) in Barcelona and in 22@. Source: Cushman & Wakefield, 2015 One indicator of the dynamism of the innovation ecosystem created in 22@ is the number of registered patents in the district. As shown in Table 7, the number of patents increased considerably in the period 2008-2012 in comparison to 2001-2005. Table 7. Number of patents registered in 22@ Source: Register of patents and brands
  55. 55. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 64 In short, economic activity in 22@, although having suffered the difficul- ties caused by the crisis, presents a positive outlook demonstrated by the growth in the number of businesses and workers in the district. At the same time, the business perception of the economic context has changed conside- rably in the last three years: while in 2012 32% of companies considered that the economic context tended towards positive evolution, this percentage in- creased to 72% for the year 2015. 3.3 Lines of action in the social dimension Two main types of programmes linked to the district’s social dimension can be distinguished: on the one hand, programmes addressed to people that arrive to the district attracted by the possibilities for capturing talent and managing entrepreneurship that are associated with the district’s pro- ductive excellence. On the other hand, programmes aimed at residents of the area that have installed themselves recently or that were there before the beginning of the project. 22@Barcelona has been a leader in establishing actions addressing the creation, management, attraction, and retention of talent as an indisputable tool for the provision of human capital for the development of the knowled- ge economy (Granados, 2011). Therefore, entrepreneurship has been foste- red by the public bodies in programmes designed by the City Council, some of which are specifically linked to the district. Of the set of programmes associated with the 22@ area, there are ge- neral ones for the overall business fabric such as 22@Network, and there are particular ones with very specific target groups such as 22@CreaTa- lent. Some of the programmes have lasted during the entire period of the district’s existence, transforming themselves and adapting to changes in the area and in their members; others have had a more ephemeral life conditio- ned by circumstances external to their own success or failure. Throughout its history, the district has placed different emphasis on the will to spread the international image of Barcelona as a host city for professionals. Some programmes, although falling under the umbrella of the overall city, have a special impact in 22@. This is the case of ‘Do it in Barcelona’, a programme aimed at facilitating the installation of foreign entrepreneurs with ideas to develop projects in the city.
  56. 56. 65 Barcelona’s innovation district Programme Description 22@CreaTalent During the school year 2008-2009 in nine primary and secondary education centres in the 22@ district. The objectives of this programme were the promotion of scientific-technological vocations among young people, the development of their creative and innovation capacity, the incorporation of English and new technologies as habitual training tools, and the participation of parents and teachers in the training process 22@Staying in Company This programme includes a series of scholarship programmes intended for national and international university students that wish to carry out internships in innovation-based companies in Barcelona. IN22@ This initiative has the goal of incentivizing the establishment of personal and professional relations among and between the local business community and the international business and professional communities present in Barcelona and linked to the areas of innovation and the knowledge economy 22@Breakfast Continuous meetings of an hour and a half in duration, normally once a month, open to all companies and professionals installed in the area where the district’s news is presented and mention is made of milestones reached by specific companies or professionals. Conferences on Urban Clusters (2007, 2008, 2009, 2010) Conferences for the exchange of experiences and knowledge between the academic world and the professional world around urban clusters and 22@ in particular. ICUF – International Corporate Universities Forum This forum has the goal of creating collaborations between business centres and universities
  57. 57. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 66 Other organizations, such as the International Network of Science and Te- chnology Parks, have promoted actions that fit perfectly with the character of 22@. Among others, the fem-talent initiative, which together with other organizations such as the Department of Women and Civil Rights of the City Council of Barcelona, promotes equality of opportunities and the manage- ment of women’s talent in the knowledge economy. Its activities include ta- lks, seminars, and conferences on issues related to female entrepreneurs as well as award-giving ceremonies. 22@Network In 2004, under the leadership of the City Council of Barcelona, the Asso- ciation of Companies and Institutions 22@Network was set up as a civil so- ciety initiative to ‘actively participate in the process of developing and conso- lidating the 22@ district as a dynamic area that is both transformational and in the technological vanguard.’(http://www.22network.net/qui_som/index. php?idioma=eng&) . Formed currently by 104 companies, the Association is governed by the General Assembly and the Board of Directors. The services offered to the partner businesses are diverse: from the most general, such as discounts in the use of certain spaces, facilities, or services, to the most specific, such as the 22@Breakfasts, when each month the partners are informed about the district’s news and Neighbourhood Association of Poblenou The Association emerged in the 1970s with the democratization of the country and the recuperation of neighbourhood mobilization and demands. The beginning of the relationship between the new 22@ pro- ject and the Neighbourhood Association required the willingness to dia- logue and negotiate. Both the demand for social housing in the neigh- bourhood, achieving a third of the 4000 planned for the entire district, and the protection of Can Ricart have been two of the most significant demands made around the urban transformation of Poblenou. As well as the need to guarantee fluid and effective mobility in the modification of the Glòries junction.
  58. 58. 67 Barcelona’s innovation district topics relevant to their profiles. Three Business Conventions have also been organized, the last one in June 2015. Among other achievements, the publication of the book 22@ laboratori de sostenibilitat (22@ laboratory of sustainability) is noteworthy. It was pro- moted by the Business and Environment Commission of the 22@Network Association and it specifies how sustainability contributes value to the most innovative businesses in the district that introduce it into their products and services.
  59. 59. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 68
  60. 60. 69 Barcelona’s innovation district Externalities and collaborations4
  61. 61. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 70
  62. 62. 71 Barcelona’s innovation district 4.1 Cultural and social projects Art Factories The Art Factories (Fàbriques de Creació) project launched in October 2007 stems from the need expressed by the city’s artists and collectives to have spaces to create, responding to a historic demand for well-conditioned spaces for artistic creation and research. Rents and prices of facilities are high and, at the same time, there is a successive loss of large factory spaces in disuse, a process experienced with particular intensity in the Poblenou neighbourhood. Facing this reality and in order to respond to these needs, the city’s go- vernment initiated research on municipally-owned spaces in disuse in order to turn them into Art Factories. From this point on an open network of cen- tres was created which grew with the incorporation of new centres including both pre-existing spaces with an already consolidated operation and new spaces. The Art Factories emerge, thus, as ideal spaces for innovation and cultu- ral production. The final goal involves placing culture as a strategic axis in
  63. 63. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 72 Barcelona for the development of economic, social, and urban aspects of the city, as well as helping to boost the creativity of its inhabitants. In this regard, creativity must be understood in the broadest sense, involving the development of artistic abilities, intellectual exchange, the promotion of cri- tical thinking, research, and leisure-based proposals. Within the project, promoted by the Institute of Culture of the City Coun- cil of Barcelona, four of these spaces are located in the Sant Martí district and three in 22@: Hangar, La Escocesa, and La Central del Circ. All are mu- nicipally-owned buildings managed by private organizations, the Association of Visual Artists of Catalonia, the Association of Ideas, and the Association of Circus Professionals of Catalonia. Poblenou Urban District Poblenou Urban District is a professional non-profit association founded in 2012 that works to ‘establish the neighbourhood as the newest cultural and entrepreneurial epicentre inside the metropolitan frame of Barcelona.’ It organizes a series of activities and events that aim ‘to show the richness and quality of the artistic, historical and cultural heritage Poblenou has.’ The celebration of the ‘Open Day’ and ‘Open Night’ is worth highlighting. These events invite participants to get to know the reality of the partner spaces and serve as a driving force for organizing multiple activities. The Association periodically publishes a guide of the partner spaces
  64. 64. 73 Barcelona’s innovation district Name Description Location El niu Artists’ centre for contemporary creation. Produces, displays, and disseminates audiovisual and multimedia creations, multiplatform art, and independent contemporary music. The subject of study, creation, and exhibition is ‘audio and visual’ culture based on the emergence of digital technology in the world of art, design, and communication. People working there include musicians, DJs, VJs, graffiti artists, illustrators, dancers, performers, photographers, video creators, ephemeral architects, and interior designers, among others. Almogàvers, 208 http://niubcn.com/ Nau21 Nau21 is a space for open production, exchange, and dialogue, intended for projects that require the collaboration of different disciplines and diverse creators. It is a resource centre and a meeting place for all disciplines involved in science, art, and technology. The Nau21 project is the heir of the experiences of many people and collectives directly related to the urban environment of Can Ricart and the city of Barcelona. Can Font (Nau 21 in Can Ricart) http://www.nau21.net/ index.en.html Can Framis Museum, Vilacasas Foundation Can Framis was inaugurated in Barcelona in April 2009. Around 300 works are displayed, from the 1960s up until today and from diverse artists born or residing in Catalonia. Temporary exhibitions are held in Can Framis’ Espai A0. Can Framis Roc Boronat, 116-126 http://www. fundaciovilacasas.com/ en Poblenou Crea! The overall set of spaces dedicated to creation in the neighbourhood. http://poblenoucrea. cat/en Centres for artistic and creative expression in the neighbourhood
  65. 65. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 74 4.2 Universities, technology and innovation centres, and the Smart City Campus Since the beginning, 22@ has welcomed the installation of university cen- tres in the district. Five universities have sought a space there: the Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF), the IL3 of the Universitat de Barcelona (UB), the Universi- tat Oberta de Catalunya (UOC), the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), and the BAU Centre of the Universitat de Vic (UVic). In 2013, a public-private collaboration agreement was signed between the 22@Network Association and universities located in the 22@ district (UPF, UPC, UOC) with the objective of dy- namizing the 22@ district. This agreement was developed by the 22@Network Commission of Universities and Technology Centres where as well as the univer- sities, the district’s technology centres are also represented. One of the progra- mmes in the framework of this agreement is a volunteering programme for post- graduate students to carry out internships in businesses related to knowledge in the district and to promote and dynamize their activity. Under the 22@MÀSTER programme, universities have access to a database of internships in companies in 22@Barcelona where they can sign up the students that are best suited to the business needs. In this programme, any university located in or outside of the district can participate. In order to participate in the programme, at least one of the parties (university or business/institution) must be located within the 22@Barcelona district. Therefore, universities outside of the district have the opportunity to access internships in companies located in 22@Barcelona. The area has welcomed the installation of centres specialized in research and innovation. On the one hand, large companies such as Telefónica or Isdin have located their R&D departments in 22@ and, on the other hand, specialist cen- tres such as the Biomedical Research Park or the Catalan Energy Institute have sought out spaces in the district or very close to it.
  66. 66. 75 Barcelona’s innovation district Catalan Energy Institute (ICAEN) http://icaen.gencat.cat/ca/index.html Blood and Tissue Bank http://www.bancsang.net/en_index/ Barcelona Biomedical Research Park https://www.prbb.org/ Research Centre for International Economics (CREI)-UPF http://crei.cat/ Centre for Research in Health and Economics (CRES)-UPF https://www.upf.edu/cres/es/ Research Centre in Economics in the Mediterranean (CREMed)_UPF https://www.upf.edu/rdi/parcs/parcsch.html Research Group in Computational Imaging and Simula- tion Technologies in Biomedicine (CISTIB-CIlab) https://www.upf.edu/recerca/en/grups/ Catalan Institute of Climate Sciences (IC3) http://www.ic3.cat/?idioma=1 University Institute of Culture (IUC)-UPF https://www.upf.edu/iuc/en/ University Institute for Applied Linguistics (IULA)-UPF http://www.iula.upf.edu/indexuk.htm Audiovisual University Institute (IUA)-UPF https://www.upf.edu/iua/en/ Science Communication Observatory (OCC)-UPF http://www.occ.upf.edu/?idioma=l3&wseccio=&data_agenda= Eurecat, Technology Centre of Catalonia http://eurecat.org/en/ Telefònica R&D http://www.tid.es/ Orange R&D Fusion for Energy http://fusionforenergy.europa.eu/ Leitat Technological Centre http://leitat.org/english/ b_TEC Park, Barcelona Technological Innovation http://en.btec.cat/ CINC Barcelona Business Centre http://www.cinc.com/en/centro-de-negocios/centro-de- negocios.php Design Hub Barcelona http://www.dissenyhubbarcelona.cat/main/in- dex.html Hangar https://hangar.org/en/ IaaC Fab Lab BCN http://iaac.net/fab-labs/fab-labs-bcn/about/ Niu: contemporary artistic space http://www.niubcn.com/ Palo Alto http://www.paloaltobcn.org/ Porta 22 http://w27.bcn.cat/porta22/es/assetsocupacio/ equipaments/pagina19142/centro-para-el-desa- rrollo-profesional-porta22.do UPC School of Professional & Executive Development http://www.talent.upc.edu/ Barcelona Activa http://www.barcelonactiva.cat/barcelonactiva/cat/ Barcelona Activa Entrepreneur Centre and Business Incubator http://emprenedoria.barcelonactiva.cat/empre- nedoria/en/index.jsp Technological Circle of Catalonia (CTECNO) http://www.ctecno.cat/en/ KIM-BCN, Knowledge Innovation Market http://kimglobal.com/en/ BANC- Business Angels Network Catalonia http://www.bancat.com/es/ Isdin http://www.isdin.com/eng/ 22@Network Innovation Commission http://www.22network.net/index.php?idioma=eng& Source: Research and Innovation Map of Barcelona and the 22@Network
  67. 67. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 76 The Smart City Campus is one of the latest projects under development in 22@. This project is framed within the Smart City ethos and aims to bring companies, technology and innovation centres, universities, and other agents related to urban technology and innovation together, in order to pro- mote synergies, generate co-creation spaces (incubators, laboratories), and to provide testing grounds for urban solutions. The Smart City Campus includes important elements of Barcelona’s in- dustrial heritage, such as Can Ricart, La Escocesa, and Ca l’Alier. The cost of the reform of Ca l’Alier is expected to be six million euros, covered jointly by Cisco and Schneider. The upgrading of existing heritage elements is accom- panied by new buildings, with investments from companies such as Cisco or Schneider Electric, research centres from the ICT field, and the headquarters of the Barcelona Institute of Technology (BIT). The BIT and the Smart City Campus are an example of public-private co- llaboration models fostered by Barcelona that promote the city as a platform for research and development of new market opportunities that arise from Barcelona as a Smart City. Can Ricart and Can Jaumandreu have been conceded by the City Council to the Universitat de Barcelona, which already has a space in the district, the
  68. 68. 77 Barcelona’s innovation district IL3 (Institute for Lifelong Learning), in order to develop the Humanities and Social Sciences Park (PHCS) within the framework of the Minerva Project. This will bring together all of the initiatives related to research in the Social Sciences in the UB. Can Jaumandreu will begin to operate in April 2015, and Can Ricart will be put into practice in two phases, the first throughout the first semester of 2017, and the second in 2019. 4.3 DHUB The premier space for design in Barcelona, Design Hub Barcelona, ope- ned its doors in 2014 and become the headquarters of Arts and Design Pro- motion (FAD), the Barcelona Centre of Design (BCD), and the Museum of Design of Barcelona. The DHUB concentrates the main cultural, economic, and social events related to design in the city. Promoted by the City Council of Barcelona and the main design promotion organizations, it contributes to locally and internationally projecting the image of Barcelona as a benchmark in design. Design Hub Barcelona represents, moreover, a new community facility in the neighbourhood with a new public library, a road axis connecting it to different neighbourhoods, and recovered urban space in the surroundings with new gardened areas.
  69. 69. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 78 4.4 Barcelona Urban Lab The consolidation of Barcelona’s role as an innovative city is reflected in the use of certain spaces in the city as urban laboratories. Since 2008, 22@ has established itself as a space for testing innovative solutions for busines- ses that wish to implement trials and even pilot tests of prototypes in all types of spheres: urban development, education, mobility, etc. Barcelona Urban Lab aims to boost business innovation in 22@Barcelona, allowing companies to try out innovative projects that search for a better quality of life for citizens in a real space so they can be subsequently com- mercialized in Barcelona or in other cities around the world. Some of the pilot projects tested in 22@ include: SIIUR: Integral Solution for Urban Infrastructure PublicstreetlightingwithLEDtechnologyandintegrationofservices for citizens. SIIUR consists of a new lighting system equipped with LED technology and sensors that process environmental information and detect presence, temperature, humidity, noise, and pollution. Sensors on rubbish containers Installation of sensors to determine the level of fullness of rubbish containers and selective rubbish collection (glass, paper, and plastic). Noise pollution Installation of noise micro-sensors on different lampposts in public areas to evaluate their viability and reliability in the detection of levels of urban environmental noise and to be able to make a noise map of the city in almost real time. Sensors for parking space availability Installation of sensors that communicate the availability of parking spaces and that allow for use of this information to guide drivers to empty parking spaces in a more efficient way, through informative panels on the street or mobile applications. Traffic control Installation of traffic control sensors to control and manage transit in an automatic way, through data sent via 3G by 50 sensors installed in different points in the city. Pilot for the remote reading of gas, electricity, and water meters Installed in more than 150 homes in 3 buildings developed by the Municipal Housing Trust. This system can test the possibility of obtaining consumption data in an instantaneous way and transmitting it to central headquarters, thus avoiding estimations in consumption and residents themselves or authorized operators having to carry out the reading manually.
  70. 70. 79 Barcelona’s innovation district Sustainable mobility project Deployment of the necessary infrastructure to install recharge points for electric vehicles (pylons). Fibre optic in homes This pilot aims to make a fibre optic network (FTTH) that reaches homes in Poblenou to increase the bandwidth that comes with the traditional system with copper cabling. Traffic lights adapted for blind people in all crossings in 22@ Barcelona Remotecontroltoactivateandthusreducetheconstantnoiseofthe traffic lights. Includes an automatic volume regulation mechanism that allows for emission of acoustic indicators according to the external environmental noise. Traffic control cameras Connected by fibre optic to the public roads central office to control traffic in real time. Bicycle lanes Different types of bicycle lanes have been tested in the 22@ district in order to detect which of the pilots contributed to better circulation and security for cyclists and at the same time did not impede the normal functioning of transit. 4.5 Hotel construction Due to the relative delay in the development of the end of Avinguda Dia- gonal, at the beginning of the project Poblenou and the 22@ district did not offer a critical mass of hotel rooms, particularly of those that would be appropriate for the type of business tourism expected in the area. Today, there are more than 15 hotels of different ranges distributed throughout the district.
  71. 71. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 80 Hotel Hilton Diagonal Mar Barcelona Passeig del Taulat, 262-264 (Barcelona) 5* Hotel Hotel Amrey Diagonal Avinguda Diagonal, 161 (Barcelona) 3* Hotel Hotel GBB 4 Barcelona Carrer del Doctor Trueta, 164 (Barcelona) 4* Hotel Hotel Barcelona Princess Avinguda Diagonal, 1 (Barcelona) 4* Hotel Hotel Confortel Barcelona Carrer de Ramon Turró, 196- 198 (Barcelona) 4* Hotel Hotel Barceló Atenea Mar Passeig de Garcia Fària, 37-47 (Barcelona) 4* Hotel Hotel Sallés Pere IV Carrer de Pallars, 128-130 (Barcelona) 4* Hotel Hotel Apsis Porta Marina Carrer de Sancho de Ávila, 32- 34 (Barcelona) 4* Hotel Hotel Me Barcelona Avinguda Diagonal, 272-286 (Barcelona) 5* Hotel Hotel & Spa Villa Olimpic@ Suites Carrer de Pallars, 121 (Barcelona) 4* Hotel Hotel Rafaelhoteles Diagonal Port Carrer de Lope de Vega, 4 (Barcelona) 4* Hotel Hotel AC Barcelona Passeig del Taulat, 278 (Barcelona) 4* Hotel Hotel Husa Barcelona Mar Carrer de Provençals, 10 (Barcelona) 4* Hotel Holiday Inn Express Barcelona City 22@ Pallars, 203 (Barcelona) 3* Hotel Hotel Ibis Barcelona Pza Glories 22 Calle Ciutat de Granada, 99 (Barcelona) 2* Hotel
  72. 72. 81 Barcelona’s innovation district Conclusions 5
  73. 73. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 82
  74. 74. 83 Barcelona’s innovation district Barcelona’s innovation district, 22@Barcelona, has become an internatio- nal benchmark for analysis and replication. Since its launch, 15 years have passed and it is worth exploring where in the process the district finds itself, what has been achieved, what is yet to be completed, and what is envisaged for the future. The international recognition that surrounds the transformation of Bar- celona in this period has been seen as the contemporary expression of the city’s long tradition in innovative and progressive planning dating back to the 19th century. Many milestones have been reached over the decades of strategic planning that distinguish Barcelona from other cities in the world and the 22@Barcelona innovation district is one of them. This report uses existing partial reviews that have been developed at di- fferent points in the transformation of the district and key examples from the process. Among others things, we have made use of the Business Census (GAPS, 2012, 2013, 2015) and the analysis of the real estate and housing im- pact (Mur and Clusa, 2012), as well as in-depth interviews carried out by the authors of this document throughout the year 2014. 22@Barcelona is considered as a challenge for the city at a time when it is necessary to lead the transformation of the economy towards cross-cutting knowledge-intensive specialization determined by the emergence of new te- chnologies and the digitalization of contents on many scales. The local government’s leadership role in the process moving towards the knowledge economy is, without doubt, a model based on a top-down approach guided and planned by the public authorities. However, this me- tamorphosis follows a holistic approach that not only involves the economic transformation of the area but also its urban transformation and the integra- tion of social aspects.
  75. 75. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 84 The urban regeneration carried out in the 22@Barcelona district clearly reveals a will to promote regeneration and innovation without forgetting the area’s roots in the past. Thus, the compact city emerges as a model that combines both the area’s productive function since it was called the ‘Cata- lan Manchester’ and its residential function, promising the construction of accessible housing on the part of the local government. Furthermore, the project has acted as a driver for the social transformation of the district, both in terms of population growth as well as creating a suitable environment for the settling down of a wide range of associations, artists and other stakehol- ders related to innovation and creativity. The clusterization of economic activities first under four specializations (ICT, BioMed, Energy, and Media, later adding Design) is considered as a stra- tegy for the generation of synergies and externalities between businesses in sectors considered key for the economic development and growth of the city. The development of the process in 22@ was planned for approximately a decade but the arrival of the econo- mic and financial crisis spoiled the dynamic of the process. Despite that, a fundamental part linked to infrastructure was carried out before the slowdown of activity. The arri- val of businesses to the area is blocked by the paralysis of economic activity in the city as a whole, although 22@ is an area where the preservation of jobs and the exporting dynamic of the businesses soften the effects of the crisis. More recently, and in a context of improvement in the behaviour of the economic activity, the 22@ district continues advancing towards the conso- lidation of a new pole of innovation with a new model based on the colla- boration between universities, enterprise and the public sector, by means of initiatives such as the Diagonal-Besòs Campus, while at the same time strengthening the attention towards the social and sustainable dimensions, as well as incorporating the social and solidarity economy into the transfor- mation process of the productive model.
  76. 76. 85 Barcelona’s innovation district The 22@ model based on clusters of activity expands to other parts of the city such as the Sarrià-Sant Gervasi Knowledge District where, under the guidance of the City Council of Barcelona and with the collaboration of all the relevant agents in the district, there is consistent backing of the idea of the ‘clusterization of the city.’ 22@Barcelona is today a benchmark for many cities that coincide in their desire to transform old underused industrial zones and their decisive backing of sectors that generate jobs and wealth. The model applied to Barcelona has been a source of inspiration for other cities around the world, granting it the added value of transferability.
  77. 77. 22@Barcelona- 2000-2015 86
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