Design flexible and rigid pavements

Shree Swami atmanand saraswati inst. of technology, surat
Shree Swami atmanand saraswati inst. of technology, surat ASST. PROFESSOR em Shree Swami atmanand saraswati inst. of technology, surat
DESIGN FLEXIBLE AND RIGID
PAVEMENTS
• Design principles,pavement components and
their role
• Design practice for flexible and rigid
pavements (IRC methods only)
PREPARED BY:-
Karm Balar
ASST. Prof.
S.S.A.S.I.T.
S.S.A.S.I.T G.T.U
SHREE SWAMI ATMANAND SARASWATI
INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SURAT
DESIGN FLEXIBLE AND RIGID PAVEMENTS
HIGHWAY ENGINEERING
FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT RIGID PAVEMENT
Types of Pavements
Design flexible and rigid pavements
Wheel Load Distribution
Flexible Rigid
Design flexible and rigid pavements
• Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP)
Design flexible and rigid pavements
Design flexible and rigid pavements
Properties Flexible Rigid
Design
Principle
Empirical method
Based on load distribution
characteristics of the
components
Designed and analyzed by using the elastic
theory
Material Granular material Made of Cement Concrete either plan,
reinforced or prestressed concrete
Flexural
Strength
Low or negligible flexible
strength
Associated with rigidity or flexural strength
or slab action so the load is distributed over
a wide area of subgrade soil.
Normal
Loading
Elastic deformation Acts as beam or cantilever
Excessive
Loading
Local depression Causes Cracks
Stress Transmits vertical and
compressive stresses to the
lower layers
Tensile Stress and Temperature Increases
Design
Practice
Constructed in number of
layers.
Laid in slabs with steel reinforcement.
Temperature No stress is produced Stress is produced
Force of
Friction
Less. Deformation in the
sub grade is not transferred
to the upper layers.
Friction force is High
Opening to
Traffic
Road can be used for traffic
within 24 hours
Road cannot be used until 14 days of curing
Surfacing Rolling of the surfacing is
needed
Rolling of the surfacing in not needed.
Factors affecting selection of
pavements
• Type and intensity of traffic
• Availability of fund
• Sub grade soil and drainage condition
• Availability of construction materials
• Availability of equipment, skilled labors etc.
• Atmospheric conditions like amount of rainfall,
snowfall, temperature etc
• Time available for completion of project
• Level of the area above mean sea level
LOAD DISTRIBUTION
Components of Flexible Pavement
• Basement soil of road
bed.
• Important for structural
and pavement life.
• Should not deflect
excessively due to
dynamic loading.
• May be in fill or
embankment.
Function and Significance of Subgrade Properties
Cut and Fill Sections
Desirable Properties of Soil as Subgrade
Material
• STABILITY-resistance to permanent
deformation under loads.
• INCOMPRESSIBILITY-decrease in volume due
to compressive loads
• PERMANENCY OF STRENGTH-sufficient
bearing capacity and shear strength
• Minimum CHANGES IN VOLUME and
STABILITY under adverse condition of weather
and ground water
• GOOD DRAINAGE
• EASE OF COMPACTION-it ensures higher dry
density and strength
Factors affecting Subgrade Performance
• Load bearing capacity:
Affected by degree of compaction, moisture content, and soil
type.
• Moisture content:
Affects subgrade properties like load bearing capacity,
shrinkage and swelling.
Influenced by drainage, groundwater table elevation,
infiltration, or pavement porosity (which can be assisted by
cracks in the pavement).
• Shrinkage and/or swelling:
Shrinkage, swelling and frost heave will tend to deform and
crack any pavement type constructed over them.
Subgrade Soil Strength
Assessed in terms of CBR of subgrade soil for
most critical moisture conditions.
• Soil type
• Moisture Content
• Dry Density
• Internal Structure of the soil
• Type and Mode of Stress Application.
IS 2720 Part 8
Flexible Pavement Design
IRC (37-2001)
Basic Principles
• Vertical stress or strain on sub-grade
• Tensile stress or strain on surface course
Factors for design of pavements
• Design wheel load
 Static load on wheels
 Contact Pressure
 Load Repetition
• Subgrade soil
 Thickness of pavement required
 Stress- strain behaviour under load
 Moisture variation
• Climatic factors
• Pavement component materials
• Environment factors
• Traffic Characteristics
• Required Cross sectional elements of the alignment
Subgrade Soil
Base/Subbase
Surface

dSUR
SUB
SUR
Axle
Load

Pavement Responses Under Load
Equal Single Wheel Load (ESWL)
(Boyd & Foster - 1950)
Evaluation Of Pavement Component Layers
• Sub-grade
• To Receive Layers of Pavement Materials
Placed over it
• Plate Bearing Test
• CBR Test
• Triaxial Compression Test
Evaluation Of Pavement Component Layers
- Sub-base And Base Course
- To Provide Stress Transmitting Medium
- To distribute Wheel Loads
- To Prevent Shear and Consolidation
Deformation
In case of rigid pavements to
- Prevent pumping
- Protect the subgrade against frost action
- Plate Bearing Test
– CBR Test
Wearing Course
• High Resistance to Deformation
• High Resistance to Fatigue; ability to withstand high strains -
flexible
• Sufficient Stiffness to Reduce Stresses in the Underlying
Layers
• High Resistance to Environmental Degradation; durable
• Low Permeability - Water Tight Layer against Ingress of
Surface Water
• Good Workability – Allow Adequate Compaction
• Sufficient Surface Texture – Good Skid Resistance in Wet
Weather
- bituminous materials used in wearing course tested
by Marshall test
Flexible Pavement Design Using CBR Value Of
Sub-grade Soil
 California State Highways
Department Method
 Required data
Design Traffic in terms of
cumulative number of standard
axles(CSA)
CBR value of subgarde
Traffic Data
Initial data in terms of number of commercial
vehicles per day (CVPD).
Traffic growth rate during design life in %
Design life in number of years.
Distribution of commercial vehicles over the
carriage way
Design Life
• National Highways – 15 Years
• Expressways and Urban Roads –
20 Years
• Other Category Roads – 10 – 15
Years
Computation of Traffic for Use of Pavement Thickness
Design Chart
365 xA[(1+r)n – 1]
N = --------------------------- x D x F
r
N = Cumulative No. of standard axles to be catered for the design
D = Lane distribution factor
A = Initial traffic, in the year of completion of construction, in
terms of number of commercial vehicles per day
F = Vehicle Damage Factor
n = Design life in years
r = Annual growth rate of commercial vehicles
CBR Testing Machine
Definition:
It is the ratio of force per unit area required to
penetrate a soil mass with standard circular
piston at the rate of 1.25 mm/min. to that
required for the corresponding penetration of
a standard material.
CBR
• Basis of Design chart:
A material with a given CBR value requires
certain thickness of pavement.
• Chart developed for traffic wheel loads:
Light Traffic - 3175 kg
Heavy traffic – 5443 kg
Medium traffic – 4082 kg
Subgrade
• Soak the Specimen in Water for FOUR days
and CBR to be Determined.
• Use of Expansive Clays NOT to be Used as
Sub-grade
• Non-expansive Soil to be Preferred.
Subgrade
• Subgrade to be Well Compacted to Utilize its Full
Strength
• Top 500 mm to be Compacted to 97% of MDD (Modified
Proctor).
• Material Should Have a Dry Density of 1.75 gm/cc.
• CBR to be at Critical Moisture Content and Field Density.
• Strength – Lab. CBR on Remoulded Specimens and NOT
Field CBR
Sub-base
• Material – Natural Sand, Moorum, Gravel,
Laterite, Kankar, Brick Metal, Crushed Stone,
Crushed Slag, Crushed Concrete
• Close Graded / Coarse Graded
• Parameters – Gradation, LL, PI, CBR
• Stability and Drainage Requirements
Sub-base
• Min. CBR – 2 %
• CBR 20 % -30 %
• Should Extend for the FULL Width of the
Formation
• Min. Thickness – 150-200 mm
Base Course
• Unbound Granular Bases – WBM / WMM
or any other Granular Construction
• Min. Thickness 225-250 mm
Bituminous Surfacing
• Wearing Course – Open Graded PMC,
MSS, SDBC, BC
• Binder Course – BM, DBM
• BM- Low Binder, More Voids,
Reduced Stiffness,
Bituminous Surfacing
• Provide 75 mm BM Before Laying
DBM
• Reduce Thickness of DBM Layer,
when BM is Provided ( 10 mm BM = 7
mm DBM)
• Choice of Wearing Course – Design
Traffic, Type of Base / Binder Course,
Rainfall etc
Design flexible and rigid pavements
1 de 42

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Design flexible and rigid pavements

  • 1. DESIGN FLEXIBLE AND RIGID PAVEMENTS • Design principles,pavement components and their role • Design practice for flexible and rigid pavements (IRC methods only)
  • 2. PREPARED BY:- Karm Balar ASST. Prof. S.S.A.S.I.T. S.S.A.S.I.T G.T.U SHREE SWAMI ATMANAND SARASWATI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, SURAT DESIGN FLEXIBLE AND RIGID PAVEMENTS HIGHWAY ENGINEERING
  • 9. • Jointed Plain Concrete Pavement (JPCP)
  • 12. Properties Flexible Rigid Design Principle Empirical method Based on load distribution characteristics of the components Designed and analyzed by using the elastic theory Material Granular material Made of Cement Concrete either plan, reinforced or prestressed concrete Flexural Strength Low or negligible flexible strength Associated with rigidity or flexural strength or slab action so the load is distributed over a wide area of subgrade soil. Normal Loading Elastic deformation Acts as beam or cantilever Excessive Loading Local depression Causes Cracks Stress Transmits vertical and compressive stresses to the lower layers Tensile Stress and Temperature Increases Design Practice Constructed in number of layers. Laid in slabs with steel reinforcement. Temperature No stress is produced Stress is produced Force of Friction Less. Deformation in the sub grade is not transferred to the upper layers. Friction force is High Opening to Traffic Road can be used for traffic within 24 hours Road cannot be used until 14 days of curing Surfacing Rolling of the surfacing is needed Rolling of the surfacing in not needed.
  • 13. Factors affecting selection of pavements • Type and intensity of traffic • Availability of fund • Sub grade soil and drainage condition • Availability of construction materials • Availability of equipment, skilled labors etc. • Atmospheric conditions like amount of rainfall, snowfall, temperature etc • Time available for completion of project • Level of the area above mean sea level
  • 16. • Basement soil of road bed. • Important for structural and pavement life. • Should not deflect excessively due to dynamic loading. • May be in fill or embankment. Function and Significance of Subgrade Properties
  • 17. Cut and Fill Sections
  • 18. Desirable Properties of Soil as Subgrade Material • STABILITY-resistance to permanent deformation under loads. • INCOMPRESSIBILITY-decrease in volume due to compressive loads • PERMANENCY OF STRENGTH-sufficient bearing capacity and shear strength
  • 19. • Minimum CHANGES IN VOLUME and STABILITY under adverse condition of weather and ground water • GOOD DRAINAGE • EASE OF COMPACTION-it ensures higher dry density and strength
  • 20. Factors affecting Subgrade Performance • Load bearing capacity: Affected by degree of compaction, moisture content, and soil type. • Moisture content: Affects subgrade properties like load bearing capacity, shrinkage and swelling. Influenced by drainage, groundwater table elevation, infiltration, or pavement porosity (which can be assisted by cracks in the pavement). • Shrinkage and/or swelling: Shrinkage, swelling and frost heave will tend to deform and crack any pavement type constructed over them.
  • 21. Subgrade Soil Strength Assessed in terms of CBR of subgrade soil for most critical moisture conditions. • Soil type • Moisture Content • Dry Density • Internal Structure of the soil • Type and Mode of Stress Application. IS 2720 Part 8
  • 22. Flexible Pavement Design IRC (37-2001) Basic Principles • Vertical stress or strain on sub-grade • Tensile stress or strain on surface course
  • 23. Factors for design of pavements • Design wheel load  Static load on wheels  Contact Pressure  Load Repetition • Subgrade soil  Thickness of pavement required  Stress- strain behaviour under load  Moisture variation • Climatic factors • Pavement component materials • Environment factors • Traffic Characteristics • Required Cross sectional elements of the alignment
  • 25. Equal Single Wheel Load (ESWL) (Boyd & Foster - 1950)
  • 26. Evaluation Of Pavement Component Layers • Sub-grade • To Receive Layers of Pavement Materials Placed over it • Plate Bearing Test • CBR Test • Triaxial Compression Test
  • 27. Evaluation Of Pavement Component Layers - Sub-base And Base Course - To Provide Stress Transmitting Medium - To distribute Wheel Loads - To Prevent Shear and Consolidation Deformation In case of rigid pavements to - Prevent pumping - Protect the subgrade against frost action - Plate Bearing Test – CBR Test
  • 28. Wearing Course • High Resistance to Deformation • High Resistance to Fatigue; ability to withstand high strains - flexible • Sufficient Stiffness to Reduce Stresses in the Underlying Layers • High Resistance to Environmental Degradation; durable • Low Permeability - Water Tight Layer against Ingress of Surface Water • Good Workability – Allow Adequate Compaction • Sufficient Surface Texture – Good Skid Resistance in Wet Weather - bituminous materials used in wearing course tested by Marshall test
  • 29. Flexible Pavement Design Using CBR Value Of Sub-grade Soil  California State Highways Department Method  Required data Design Traffic in terms of cumulative number of standard axles(CSA) CBR value of subgarde
  • 30. Traffic Data Initial data in terms of number of commercial vehicles per day (CVPD). Traffic growth rate during design life in % Design life in number of years. Distribution of commercial vehicles over the carriage way
  • 31. Design Life • National Highways – 15 Years • Expressways and Urban Roads – 20 Years • Other Category Roads – 10 – 15 Years
  • 32. Computation of Traffic for Use of Pavement Thickness Design Chart 365 xA[(1+r)n – 1] N = --------------------------- x D x F r N = Cumulative No. of standard axles to be catered for the design D = Lane distribution factor A = Initial traffic, in the year of completion of construction, in terms of number of commercial vehicles per day F = Vehicle Damage Factor n = Design life in years r = Annual growth rate of commercial vehicles
  • 33. CBR Testing Machine Definition: It is the ratio of force per unit area required to penetrate a soil mass with standard circular piston at the rate of 1.25 mm/min. to that required for the corresponding penetration of a standard material.
  • 34. CBR • Basis of Design chart: A material with a given CBR value requires certain thickness of pavement. • Chart developed for traffic wheel loads: Light Traffic - 3175 kg Heavy traffic – 5443 kg Medium traffic – 4082 kg
  • 35. Subgrade • Soak the Specimen in Water for FOUR days and CBR to be Determined. • Use of Expansive Clays NOT to be Used as Sub-grade • Non-expansive Soil to be Preferred.
  • 36. Subgrade • Subgrade to be Well Compacted to Utilize its Full Strength • Top 500 mm to be Compacted to 97% of MDD (Modified Proctor). • Material Should Have a Dry Density of 1.75 gm/cc. • CBR to be at Critical Moisture Content and Field Density. • Strength – Lab. CBR on Remoulded Specimens and NOT Field CBR
  • 37. Sub-base • Material – Natural Sand, Moorum, Gravel, Laterite, Kankar, Brick Metal, Crushed Stone, Crushed Slag, Crushed Concrete • Close Graded / Coarse Graded • Parameters – Gradation, LL, PI, CBR • Stability and Drainage Requirements
  • 38. Sub-base • Min. CBR – 2 % • CBR 20 % -30 % • Should Extend for the FULL Width of the Formation • Min. Thickness – 150-200 mm
  • 39. Base Course • Unbound Granular Bases – WBM / WMM or any other Granular Construction • Min. Thickness 225-250 mm
  • 40. Bituminous Surfacing • Wearing Course – Open Graded PMC, MSS, SDBC, BC • Binder Course – BM, DBM • BM- Low Binder, More Voids, Reduced Stiffness,
  • 41. Bituminous Surfacing • Provide 75 mm BM Before Laying DBM • Reduce Thickness of DBM Layer, when BM is Provided ( 10 mm BM = 7 mm DBM) • Choice of Wearing Course – Design Traffic, Type of Base / Binder Course, Rainfall etc