O slideshow foi denunciado.
Utilizamos seu perfil e dados de atividades no LinkedIn para personalizar e exibir anúncios mais relevantes. Altere suas preferências de anúncios quando desejar.

9

Compartilhar

UQUMRC KAMC Research Methodology 2012 Update

A presentation on important research methodology concepts for research proposals. Given for the UQU Medical Research Club "Your Journey Towards Research" held at King Abdullah Medical City, Makkah. May 17, 2012

Livros relacionados

Gratuito durante 30 dias do Scribd

Ver tudo

UQUMRC KAMC Research Methodology 2012 Update

  1. 1. Research Methodology SohailBajammal, MBChB, MSc, FRCS(C), PhD(c) Assistant Professor of Orthopaedics, Umm Al-Qura UniversityDirector of CME & Research Administration, King Abdullah Medical City Makkah bajammal
  2. 2. Why are you here ona THURSDAY morning? 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. Change starts with simple ideas! HattanBadr @AbdulelahNuqali DoaaMelebari 4
  5. 5. Simple ideas turn into national initiative @NayefDajim proposed the concept of Research Summer School when he was a medical student 5
  6. 6. The first orthopaedic RCT in the region started by a 2nd year resident (Dr. Husam Al-Rumaih) @alrumaih 6
  7. 7. Today is only a flavor of research 7
  8. 8. It’s your decision where to be! Royal Australian College of General Practitioners 8
  9. 9. 9University of Galsgow Website
  10. 10. Future of Research 10
  11. 11. Research on Wheels University of Birmingham 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. Objectives• Why do we need to do research?• What is the difference between research methodology and EBM?• What are the types of research?• How to do research? 13
  14. 14. What is research?Systematic investigation towards increasingthe sum of knowledge (Chambers 20th Century Dictionary) 14
  15. 15. Why do we need to do research? “locally”• Environmental• Ethnic• Psychosocial Different• Cultural• Economic 15
  16. 16. Perspectives of Research Basic SocialScience Health Problem Legal Economic “Trauma” Clinical Diagnosis Therapy Prognosis 16
  17. 17. Doing Research MethodologyResearch EBM Using 17
  18. 18. EBM Research Patients’ Evidence Preferences Clinical Expertise Clinical CircumstancesHaynes et al. BMJ 2002;324:1350 18
  19. 19. The Bigger Picture of Translational Research 19Harvard Catalyst, 2010
  20. 20. Research Methodology 21
  21. 21. Research Methodology Planning Conducting Publishing 22
  22. 22. Research Problem Research Question Research Design Data Collection Data AnalysisResearch Dissemination
  23. 23. Physiology of Research Research Study Plan Actual Study Question Design Implement Target Intended Actual subjects Population Sample Errors Errors Actual Phenomena Intended measurements of interest variablesTruth in the Truth in the Findings in Universe Infer Study Infer the Study External Validity Internal Validity 24 From Hulley et al. Designing Clinical Research. LWW
  24. 24. Physiology of Research Research Question Target Population Phenomena of interestTruth in the Universe 25 From Hulley et al. Designing Clinical Research. LWW
  25. 25. Physiology of Research Research Study Plan Question Design Target Intended Population Sample Phenomena Intended of interest variablesTruth in the Truth in the Universe Study 26 From Hulley et al. Designing Clinical Research. LWW
  26. 26. Physiology of Research Research Study Plan Actual Study Question Design Implement Target Intended Actual subjects Population Sample Actual Phenomena Intended measurements of interest variablesTruth in the Truth in the Findings in Universe Study the Study 27 From Hulley et al. Designing Clinical Research. LWW
  27. 27. Physiology of Research Research Study Plan Actual Study Question Design Implement Target Intended Actual subjects Population Sample Actual Phenomena Intended measurements of interest variablesTruth in the Truth in the Findings in Universe Study Infer the Study Internal Validity 28 From Hulley et al. Designing Clinical Research. LWW
  28. 28. Physiology of Research Research Study Plan Actual Study Question Design Implement Target Intended Actual subjects Population Sample Actual Phenomena Intended measurements of interest variablesTruth in the Truth in the Findings in Universe Infer Study Infer the Study External Validity Internal Validity 29 From Hulley et al. Designing Clinical Research. LWW
  29. 29. Physiology of Research Research Study Plan Actual Study Question Design Implement Target Intended Actual subjects Population Sample Errors Errors Actual Phenomena Intended measurements of interest variablesTruth in the Truth in the Findings in Universe Infer Study Infer the Study External Validity Internal Validity 30 From Hulley et al. Designing Clinical Research. LWW
  30. 30. Patho Physiology of Research Research Study Plan Actual Study Question Design Implement Target Intended Actual subjects Population Sample Errors Errors Actual Phenomena Intended measurements of interest variablesTruth in the Truth in the Findings in Universe Infer Study Infer the Study External Validity Internal Validity 31 From Hulley et al. Designing Clinical Research. LWW
  31. 31. The goal of research methodology Validity Errors 32
  32. 32. Errors in Research Methodology• Types of Errors: – Random Errors: mistakes by chance – Systematic Errors: bias• Stages: – During Sampling – During Measurement – During Analysis 33
  33. 33. Random Errors (Chance)• The sample is too small to make inferences• The measurement tool is not accurate (bad sphygmomanometer) 34
  34. 34. Systematic Errors (Bias)• Selection Bias: you are selecting healthier patients• Measurement Bias: surgeons tend to over- estimate their own results/X-rays 35
  35. 35. Research Planning1. Assemble a research team2. Ask a good research question3. Do a literature search4. Choose the proper study design5. Determine the sampling design6. Decide on data collection & analysis7. Get ethical approval 36
  36. 36. 1. Research Team• Research is not a one man/woman show• You need a team at every step• Ask a research methodologist & a biostatistician EARLY 37
  37. 37. 2. Good Research Question (FINER & PICO) FINER PICO• Feasible • Population • Intervention• Interesting • Comparison• Novel • Outcome• Ethical• Relevant 38
  38. 38. 3. Literature Review• To show that you are competent in this field• What was done?• How will you increase to the sum of knowledge? How is this study different?• What is the rationale of choosing specific study design, outcome measures, analysis? 39
  39. 39. 4. Types of ResearchQuantitative Qualitative Mixed-Methods 40
  40. 40. SlideShare.net 41
  41. 41. Research Mixed- Quantitative Qualitative Methods Descriptive Analytical Cross-Case report Case series Observational Experimental sectional Case-Control Cohort Study 42
  42. 42. Research Mixed- Quantitative Qualitative Methods Descriptive Analytical Cross-Case report Case series Observational Experimental sectional Case-Control Cohort Study 43
  43. 43. Research Mixed- Quantitative Qualitative Methods Descriptive Analytical Cross-Case report Case series Observational Experimental sectional Case-Control Cohort Study 44
  44. 44. Quantitative Research• Descriptive: – Case report – Case series – Cross-sectional• Analytical: – Observational: cohort studies, case-control – Experimental: randomized trials 45
  45. 45. Descriptive Studies 46
  46. 46. Case Report• A descriptive study of one patient• Detailed profile of a “rare” presentation or treatment• Helpful in developing hypothesis to be tested later using analytic study 47
  47. 47. Case Series• A descriptive study of multiple patients• “Rare” phenomenon occurring multiple times• Detailed profile of patients’ presentation and outcome• Helpful in developing hypothesis 48
  48. 48. Cross-Sectional Studies• Descriptive “Survey”• One to one questionnaire, mail, telephone, online• Attention to details: – Sampling – Construction of the questions – Construction of the responses 49
  49. 49. Analytical Studies 50
  50. 50. Case-Control Studies Shisha Smokers GO BACK IN TIME CasesNOT Shisha Smokers (e.g., Lung Cancer) Ask patients Read files Shisha Smokers GO BACK IN TIME Control (e.g., NO LungNOT Shisha Smokers Cancer) 51
  51. 51. Case-Control StudyODDS RATIO Lung Cancer Yes No Yes ShishaSmoking No 52
  52. 52. Problems with Case-Control Studies• Looking back in time (retrospective)• Recall bias• Measurement bias• You may miss important risk factors 53
  53. 53. Prospective Cohort Methodologically sound, but Unethical Shisha Lung Cancer Follow Up Smokers No Lung CancerNOT Shisha Lung Cancer Follow Up Smokers No Lung Cancer 54
  54. 54. Cohort StudyRELATIVE RISK Lung Cancer Yes No Yes ShishaSmoking No 55
  55. 55. Cohort Study• Prospective or Retrospective• Drawbacks: – Large number of patients – Follow them up for long time 56
  56. 56. Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT) Drug A F/U OutcomesPatients RANDOMwith MI Drug B F/U Outcomes 57
  57. 57. Why RCT is the highest level of evidence?• Randomization: balance known and unknown prognostic factors• Blinding: – Patients – Researchers – Outcome assessors• Aim for complete follow-up 58
  58. 58. 5. Sampling TargetThe Universe Population Sample “Sampling“Population” Frame” 59
  59. 59. Bad Sampling TargetThe Universe Population“Population” “Sampling Frame” Sample 60
  60. 60. Bad Sample• Prevalence of scoliosis in school boys in Makkah• If you did a study in AbdulrahmanFageeh Schools, this is a bad sample (biased) 61
  61. 61. Sampling Quantitative Sampling Non- Probability probability Sampling Sampling Simple Multistage Systematic Stratified Convenience SnowballRandom Cluster 62
  62. 62. Sample Size• You need to have enough research participants (patients) to show a difference or to make valid inferences about the population• Depends on: – The incidence of the outcomes you are assessing in each group – The prevalence of the disease 63
  63. 63. Sample Size• Compare applying pressure with no pressure to control active bleeding?• Compare antibiotics with no antibiotics for bad open fractures to reduce the risk of infection?• Compare antibiotics with no antibiotics for pneumonia to reduce septic shock?• Compare LMWH with Unfractionated heparin to reduce the risk of DVT after TKA? 64
  64. 64. Sample Size Calculation• Different statistical sample size calculation formula for different study type• Consult a biostatistician• Sample size calculators – Online/Free – Commercial: e.g., SPSS 65
  65. 65. 66
  66. 66. 67
  67. 67. 68
  68. 68. Patho Physiology of Research Research Study Plan Actual Study Question Design Implement Target Intended Actual subjects Population Sample Errors Errors Actual Phenomena Intended measurements of interest variablesTruth in the Truth in the Findings in Universe Infer Study Infer the Study External Validity Internal Validity 69 From Hulley et al. Designing Clinical Research. LWW
  69. 69. 6. Data Collection• What data will you collect?• What are the independent and dependent variables?• What are the primary & secondary outcomes?• Are you choosing disease-oriented outcomes or patients-oriented outcomes? 70
  70. 70. Data Collection• The choice of your outcome will have implications on: – Data Collection Forms – Statistical Analysis• Which way will you collect data about age? – Categorical: <18, 18-25, 26-30 – Continuous 71
  71. 71. Research Methodology Planning Conducting Publishing 72
  72. 72. Conducting Research• Ask for help  – Research assistants – Biostatistician• Monitor the conduct of the study – No deviation from protocol – Patients safety & confidentiality – Complete data 73
  73. 73. Publishing Research• During the planning phase: who will do what?• Oral & written• Pick your audience (pick a Journal)• Write your paper with the Journal you picked in mind• Don’t give up, you will get rejected 74
  74. 74. Research Methodology Planning Conducting IRB Publishing 75
  75. 75. Take Home Messages• Research is not a one man/woman show – You need a team to do good research• Research is a science – You need to learn how to do it• Research is like riding a bicycle – You need to practice 76
  76. 76. Take Home Messages• Research needs planning – If you fail to plan, you plan to fail• Not all of us need to do research – But all of us should practice EBM• Never ever give up – You will get rejected 77
  77. 77. GCC EBHC
  78. 78. Research Summer School 79
  79. 79. Excellent Book 80
  80. 80. Objectives• Why do we need to do research?• What is the difference between research and EBM?• What are the types of research?• How to do research? bajammal 81
  • MayadaNazer

    Mar. 18, 2019
  • DrAfzalPatwary

    Mar. 21, 2018
  • ahmedaljabbari

    May. 9, 2017
  • elsasastrawati

    Sep. 19, 2016
  • AbduljaleelSamad

    May. 8, 2016
  • neeraj0071

    Apr. 21, 2015
  • PROFSATYA1

    Nov. 2, 2013
  • Mohammed-1988

    May. 21, 2012
  • AhmadAlJaloud

    May. 18, 2012

A presentation on important research methodology concepts for research proposals. Given for the UQU Medical Research Club "Your Journey Towards Research" held at King Abdullah Medical City, Makkah. May 17, 2012

Vistos

Vistos totais

2.263

No Slideshare

0

De incorporações

0

Número de incorporações

8

Ações

Baixados

0

Compartilhados

0

Comentários

0

Curtir

9

×