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Clauses and Sentences

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Clauses and Sentences

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Materi lengkap tentang macam-macam clauses dan sentences bahasa inggris. dilengkapi contoh yang membuat lebih memudahkan pemahaman. Materi presentasi ini diberikan oleh guru saya

Materi lengkap tentang macam-macam clauses dan sentences bahasa inggris. dilengkapi contoh yang membuat lebih memudahkan pemahaman. Materi presentasi ini diberikan oleh guru saya

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Clauses and Sentences

  1. 1. SENTENCES AND CLAUSES
  2. 2. AA SSeenntteennccee iiss ddeeffiinneedd:: By Meaning, a sentence is a “complete thought” By Function, a sentence consists of a subject and a predicate Then….. A Sentence is a full predication containing a subject plus a predicate with a finite verb.
  3. 3. CCllaassssiiffiiccaattiioonn ooff SSeenntteenncceess bbyy TTyyppeess Declarative Sentences (Statements) In a declarative sentence the subject and predicate have normal word order. The sentence ends with a period (called full stop in British English) - The child ate his dinner. - John blows a candle.
  4. 4. Interrogative Sentences (Questions) In an interrogative sentence the subject and the auxiliary are often reversed. The sentence ends with a question mark in writing. In spoken language, most Y/N questions end with a rise pitch; most interrogative-word questions end with a fall pitch. - Did the child eat his dinner? - What does John blow?
  5. 5. Imperative Sentences (Command, Request) In an imperative sentence, only the predicate is expressed. The simple form of the verb is used, regardless of person or tense. The imperative sentence ends with period in writing. - Eat your dinner. - Fold the paper.
  6. 6. Exclamatory Sentences (Exclamations) Such sentences begin with an exclamatory phrase consisting of what or how plus a part of the predicate. The exclamatory phrase is followed by the subject and the balance of the predicate. What is used when a noun terminates the exclamatory phrase. - What beautiful hair she has! How is used when an adjective or adverb terminates the exclamatory phrase. - How beautiful she is! - How beautifully she behaves!
  7. 7. CCllaassssiiffiiccaattiioonn ooff SSeenntteenncceess bbyy NNuummbbeerr ooff FFuullll PPrreeddiiccaattiioonn  SIMPLE SENTENCES Such sentences have only one full predication in the form of an independent clause. - The man stole the jewelry. COMPOUND SENTENCES Such sentences have two or more full predications in the form of independent clauses. - The man stole the jewelry and he hid it in his home.
  8. 8. COMPLEX SENTENCES Such sentences also have two or more full predications. One of these is an independent clause (or main clause) that is similar to the form of the simple sentence, and one or more of these are dependent clause (or subordinate clause) - The man who stole the jewelry hid it in his home.
  9. 9. COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCES It contains two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. - The man stole the jewelry and he hid it in his home until he could safely get out of town. “The independent clause in all four classes of sentences may take the form of statement, question, request, or exclamation.”
  10. 10. CCLLAAUUSSEESS A clause may be defined in the same way as a sentence: It is a full predication that contains a subject and a predicate with a finite verb. There are two kinds of clauses, independent and dependent. The independent clause is a full predication that may stand alone as a sentence. The dependent clause has a special introductory word that makes the predication ‘depend’ on an independent clause.
  11. 11. IInnddeeppeennddeenntt CCllaauusseess ((iinn ccoommppoouunndd sseenntteenncceess)) Full predications may be joined coordinately by punctuation alone, coordinate conjunction, or by conjunctive adverb. - John was sick; he didn’t come to school. - John was sick, so he didn’t come to school. - John was sick; therefore, he didn’t come to school.
  12. 12. DDeeppeennddeenntt CCllaauusseess ((iinn CCoommpplleexx SSeenntteenncceess)) In a dependent clause, the full predication is altered in such a way that the clause must be attached to another clause, an independent clause. The alteration may be an added introductory word (after, before, etc.) or a change in the form of the subject or object (who, that, etc.). There are three types of dependent clauses, named according to their function in the sentence.
  13. 13. 11.. AAddvveerrbbiiaall CCllaauussee Most types of adverbial clauses are considered as modifying the verb of the main clause. A few types, such as clauses of time or place are sometimes interpreted as modifiers of the entire sentences. Like an adverb, the adverbial clause has three possible position; initial position, mid position, or final position.
  14. 14. TTyyppeess OOff AAddvveerrbbiiaall CCllaauusseess aa.. CCllaauusseess ooff TTiimmee Clauses of Time When(ever) You may begin when(ever) you are ready. While/whilst While he was walking home, he saw an accident. since They have become very snobbish since they moved into their expensive apartment. before Shut the window before you go out. after After she finished dinner, she went right to bed. until Until Mr. Smith got a promotion in our company, I had never noticed him. till We’ll do nothing further till we hear from you. As As he was walking in the park, he noticed a very pretty girl. As soon as I’ll go to the post office as soon as I wrap this package. As long as You may keep my book as long as you need it. Once Once she makes up her mind, she never changes it.
  15. 15. bb.. CCllaauusseess ooff PPllaaccee A conjunction of place may consist of an adverbial compound ending in –where or –place, with or without ‘that’ following it. - Repairs will be made wherever (they are) necessary. - She lives where the Jacksons used to live. - They sat down wherever they could find empty seats.
  16. 16. cc.. CCllaauusseess ooff CCoonnttrraasstt There are two types of clauses of contrast; concessive and adversative Concessive clause offers a partial contrast, it states a reservation that does not invalidate the truth of the main clause. Adversative Clause makes a stronger contrast that may range all the way to complete opposition.
  17. 17. Concessive Clause Conjunction: although, though, even though - Though he had always preferred blondes, he married a brunette. Adversative Clause Conjunction: while, where, whereas, when - While Roy is friendly with everyone, his brother makes very few friends.
  18. 18. dd.. CCllaauusseess ooff CCaauussee because They had to more because their building was to be torn down. since Since he couldn’t take his wife with him, he decided not to go to the conference as As he was in a hurry, he hailed the nearest cab now (that) Now ( that ) he’s inherited his father’s money, he doesn’t have to work any more whereas (formal) Whereas a number of the conditions in the contract have not been met, our company decided to cancel the contract. As long as As long as it’s raining, I won’t go out tonight. On the ground (that) His application for the job was rejected on the ground that he had falsified some of the information
  19. 19. ee.. CCllaauusseess ooff RReessuulltt So … that so – adjective – that so – adverb – that She is so emotional that every little thing upsets her. She behaved so emotionally that we knew something terrible had upset her. Such (a) … that such a – singular countable noun such – plural countable noun such – noncountable noun This is such an ugly chair that I am going to give it away. These are such ugly chairs that I am going to give them away. This is such ugly furniture that I am going to give it away. So (that) They spent their vacation at the seashore, so (that) when they came home they were quite tan.
  20. 20. ff.. CCllaauusseess ooff PPuurrppoosseess Conjunction: so, in order that, in the hope that, to the end that - The flowers will be delivered at late in the evening so it will be fresh in the next morning. - He decided to take a trip around the world in order that he wanted to learn other cultures. - They are working night and day in the hope that they can finish the building on time. - To the end that justice may be served, the defendant will be offered every opportunity to establish his innocence.
  21. 21. gg.. CCllaauusseess ooff CCoonnddiittiioonn if If I see him, I’ll invite him to our party. Even if Even if I had known about the meeting I couldn’t have come. Unless (if … not) Unless it rains, we’ll go to the beach tomorrow. In the event that In the event that the performance is called off, I’ll let you know at once. In case In case a robbery occurs in the hotel, the management must be notified at once. Provided that We will be glad to go with you to the theatre provided that we can get a baby sitter. On condition that The company will agree to arbitration on condition that the strike is called off at once. If only She would forgive her husband everything if only he would come back to her.
  22. 22. hh.. CCllaauusseess ooff EExxcceeppttiioonn Except that The building would have already been finished except that a trucking strike had delayed delivery of some materials. But that But that his pistol failed to fire, he would surely be dead now. Save that Save that he lapsed into vulgarity every now and then, he had great appeal to his genteel woman readers. Only that This antique vase is in very good condition, only that there is little crack near the top. Beyond that The police could get nothing out of the boy beyond that he had become separated from his mother in the crowd. Other than (the fact) that Other than (the fact) that he is now in good financial condition, I have no news to report.
  23. 23. ii.. CCllaauusseess ooff MMaannnneerr As if They all treat him as if he were a king. As though He walked around as though he was in a daze. as She always does as her husband tells her.
  24. 24. jj.. CCllaauusseess ooff DDeeggrreeee CCoommppaarriissoonn As + adj. or adv …. as The new machine is just as efficient as the old one (was). So + adj. or adv …. as The new machine works so efficiently as the old one (did). Adj. or adv + -er …. than More + adj. or adv…. than Less + adj. or adv …. than The new machine is more efficient than the old one (was).
  25. 25. kk.. CCllaauusseess ooff PPrrooppoorrttiioonn oorr EExxtteenntt as As he acquires more power, he becomes more unscrupulous. As …. so As you sow, so shall you reap. (proverb) In proportion as … so In proportion as the value of land increased, so taxes become higher. To the extent that The project will succeed only to the extent that each of us puts his best effort into it. According as We can earn more or less according as the company can gives us overtime work. As (so) far as As (so) far as we can see, he appears satisfied with his arrangement. Insofar as Insofar as I understand modern art, I find it very exciting. In the degree that You will succeed in the degree that you apply yourself dilligently.
  26. 26. EExxeerrcciissee 11 JJooiinn eeaacchh ooff tthhee ccllaauusseess iinn AA ttoo tthhee aapppprroopprriiaattee ccllaauussee iinn BB.. A B 1. Come again a. As long as is necessary 2. Wait b. By the time they got back. 3. He went out again c. Just as he was ringing the bell 4. They must go home d. As soon as you can 5. There was nothing left e. After he had finished his dinner 6. He repaired our shoes for us f. Every time I meet her 7. I opened the door g. Since you went to live in London 8. I haven’t heard from you h. The moment he spoke 9. She asks after you i. Before they get too tired 10. I knew who it was j. While we waited.
  27. 27. EExxeerrcciissee 22.. CCoommpplleettee tthhee ffoolllloowwiinngg sseenntteenncceess 1. He was so kind that …. 2. Come a little nearer so that …. 3. I’ll give you some money in case …. 4. Even if things are bad, ….. 5. They live such a long way that … 6. He hurriedly back in order that …. 7. I didn’t come any earlier for fear …. 8. He will give his wife more money on condition that … 9. We’ll leave for our automobile trip tomorrow even if …. 10. Some newspaper have no advertising at all, whereas ….

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