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Eiffel tower: An Architectural Presentation

An architectural analysis of the Eiffel Tower, on an historical perspective.

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Eiffel tower: An Architectural Presentation

  1. 1. Eiffel Tower
  2. 2. FACTS • Height – 324 m • Located in Champ de Mars, Paris • Iron Lattice Tower • Named after its engineer, Gusatve Eiffel • The tower has three levels for visitors – Restaurants on the first & second – Observatory on the third Construction started 28 January 1887 Completed 15 March 1889 Opening 31 March 1889
  3. 3. Design of the Eiffel Tower was originated by Maurice Koechlin and Émile Nouguier, two senior engineers Gustave Eiffel Described by Koechlin as "a great pylon, consisting of four lattice girders standing apart at the base and coming together at the top, joined together by metal trusses at regular intervals" Initially Gustave Eiffel himself showed little enthusiasm, but he did sanction further study of the project It was only after the head architect, Sauvestre added decorative arches to the base, a glass pavilion to the first level, and other embellishments did the design grab Gustav Eiffel’s praise Stephen Sauvestre
  4. 4. Initial drawing of Eiffel Tower by Maurice Koechlin
  5. 5. Foundations The foundation of the Eiffel Tower was very important because it needed to be able to successfully hold a load of about 10,000 tons. As a result of the weak soil, Gustave Eiffel created a two-system foundation for the Eiffel Tower. Use of Caissons The North and West pillars of the Eiffel Tower were close to the Seine River. It caused serious problems to the foundations since a stable soil was needed to build the Eiffel Tower. The use of casings alllowed the engineers to take up the challenge and avoid water leaks while reinforcing the foundations with the adding of brickwork and concrete. It only took four months for the foundations then the building of the pillars started.
  6. 6. Construction stages of the Eiffel Tower
  7. 7. The Eiffel Tower’s base is composed of four legs. In these legs are 2 anchor bolts that are each 26 feet long and 4 inches in diameter. One part of Eiffel’s plan for the foundation of the structure was the placement of a hydraulic jack. The hydraulic jack was used to enable the raising or lowing of the platform to make certain it was level. Erecting the metal work
  8. 8. 7 December 1887: Construction of the legs with scaffolding.
  9. 9. 20 March 1888: Completion of 1st level.
  10. 10. 15 May 1888: Start of construction of second stage.
  11. 11. 21 August 1888: Completion to 2nd level
  12. 12. 26 December 1888: Construction of upper stage
  13. 13. 15 March 1889: Construction of cupola
  14. 14. Materials The puddled iron (wrought iron) structure of the Eiffel Tower weighs 7,300 tonnes, while the entire structure, including non-metal components, is approximately 10,000 tonnes Depending on the ambient temperature, the top of the tower may shift away from the sun by up to 18 cm (7.1 in) because of thermal expansion of the metal on the side View from below the tower
  15. 15. Vertical Transports Three lifts (North, East, and West pillars ) will take you up to the 1st and 2nd floors (115m). To visit the top floor (276m), visitors needs to change lifts at 2nd floor
  16. 16. Maintenance Maintenance of the tower includes applying 50 to 60 tonnes (49 to 59 long tons; 55 to 66 short tons) of paint every seven years to protect it from rust. The height of the Eiffel Tower varies by 15 cm (5.9 in) due to temperature.
  17. 17. Eiffel Tower during the Bastille Day Bastille Day is the name given in English-speaking countries to the French National Day, which is celebrated on 14 July each year
  18. 18. Views
  19. 19. THANK YOU!