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Notes on evaluation part iii

it is a continuation of part - II. here it describes the tools and techniques used to assess the attitudes and skills in learning.

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Notes on evaluation part iii

  1. 1. EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT IN NURSING EDUCATION Part - 03 Mrs. Babitha K Devu Assistant Professor SMVD College of Nursing
  2. 2. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Teachers have always watched and observed students in the classroom and they have made instructional decisions based on these observations. Observations can take place in a variety of settings. They can focus on student performance during a single activity or during routine classroom activities. After deciding what to observe, when to observe, and how often to observe, teachers will need to plan how to record their observations. Observations which go unrecorded in some way will not be as easily defensible to students, parents, and administrators, and may be forgotten over time.
  3. 3. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Attitude is the bridge between knowledge and practice. Thus assessment of attitude becomes an integral part of student evaluation. The assessment of attitude is essentially by observation of verbal and nonverbal behaviour of the student and is likely to be very subjective. However the development of various attitude scales has reduced its subjectivity. Educators look and listen as they move through each day, in an effort to gather as much significant observational data as possible.
  4. 4. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Techniques For Attitude Measurement: Behavioral Techniques Psychological Techniques
  5. 5. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Techniques For Attitude Measurement: Behavioral Techniques: In these techniques the evaluator try to assess the attitude of the student on account of his/her day to day behavior. Most commonly used techniques under this type are: Anecdotal records, Personal records, Cumulative records, Group discussion, Process recording
  6. 6. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Behavioral Techniques: Anecdotal records: An anecdotal record (or anecdote) is like a short story that educators use to record a significant incident that they have observed. Anecdotal notes are used to record specific observations of individual student behaviors, skills and attitudes as they relate to the outcomes in the program of studies. Such notes provide cumulative information on student learning and direction for further instruction. Anecdotal notes are often written as the result of ongoing observations during the lessons but may also be written in response to a product or performance the student has completed. Every behavior can’t be recorded, only which reflect some significance can be recorded.
  7. 7. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Behavioral Techniques: Anecdotal records: Notes taken during or immediately following an activity are generally the most accurate. Anecdotal notes for a particular student can be periodically shared with that student or be shared at the student’s request. They can also be shared with students and parents at parent–teacher–student conferences.
  8. 8. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Behavioral Techniques: Anecdotal records: Characteristics – • A factual description of an event in which:- i. How it occurred, ii.When it occurred, iii.Under what circumstances it occurred, iv.The treatment • Each anecdotal should be of one incident • Being positive and objective • Use descriptive language
  9. 9. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Behavioral Techniques: Anecdotal records: PURPOSES:- 1) To stimulate teachers to look for information i.e. to help student in self-adjustment. 2) The teacher is able to understand her pupil in realistic manner. 3) It provides healthy pupil-teacher relationship. 4) Helps the student to improve in their behavior, as it is a direct feedback of an entire observed incident. 5) Can be used by students for self appraisal and peer assessment.
  10. 10. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Behavioral Techniques: Anecdotal records: Tips for Establishing and Maintaining Anecdotal Notes • Keep a binder with a separate page for each student. Record observations using a clipboard and sticky notes. Write the date and the student’s name on each sticky note. Following the note taking, place individual sticky notes on the page reserved for that student in the binder. • Keep a binder with dividers for each student and blank pages to note down notes. The pages may be divided into three columns: Date, Observation and Action Plan.
  11. 11. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Behavioral Techniques: Anecdotal records: Tips for Establishing and Maintaining Anecdotal Notes • Keep a class list in the front of the binder and check off each student's name as anecdotal notes are added to their section of the binder. This provides a quick reference of the students you have observed and how frequently you have observed them. • Keep notes brief and focused (usually no more than a few sentences or phrases). • Note the context and any comments or questions for follow-up.
  12. 12. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Behavioral Techniques: Anecdotal records: Tips for Establishing and Maintaining Anecdotal Notes • Keep comments objective. Make specific comments about student strengths, especially after several observations have been recorded and a pattern has been observed. • Record as the observations are being made, or as soon after as possible, so recollections will be accurate. • Record comments regularly, if possible.
  13. 13. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Behavioral Techniques: Anecdotal records: Tips for Establishing and Maintaining Anecdotal Notes • Record at different times and during different activities to develop a balanced profile of student mathematics learning. • Review records frequently to ensure that notes are being made on each student regularly and summarize information related to trends in students' learning. • Share anecdotal notes with students and parents at conferences.
  14. 14. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Behavioral Techniques: Anecdotal records: ADVANTAGES:- 1) Provision of insight into total behavioral incidents. 2) Use of formative feedback. 3) Economical and easy to develop. 4) Needs no special training.
  15. 15. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Behavioral Techniques: Anecdotal records: DISADVANTAGES:- 1) If careless recorded, the purpose will not be fulfilled. 2) Subjectivity. 3) Lack of standardization. 4) Difficulty in scoring. 5) Time consuming
  16. 16. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Behavioral Techniques: Cumulative records: Comparing to the progress records and personal records of the students, cumulative records are much comprehensive. Other than the academic progress of the student they also give information regarding intelligence, personality, aptitude, interests, attitude, values, emotional maturity and conflicts, or self – adjustment, etc. The interpretation of this record is subjective and difficult to an extent.
  17. 17. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Behavioral Techniques: Process recording: The verbatim serial reproduction of the verbal and nonverbal communications between two individuals for the purpose of assessing interactions on a continuum leading towards mutual understanding and interpersonal relationships. The evaluative approach is directed towards the learner’s behaviors in interaction with the others.
  18. 18. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Psychological Techniques: Likert Scale/Summative Scale: Various kinds of rating scales have been developed to measure attitudes directly. The most widely used is the Likert Scale. The scale is named after its inventor, psychologist Dr. Rensis Likert (1932) measure the attitudes by asking people to respond to a series of statements about a topic, in terms of the extent to which they agree with them, and so tapping into the cognitive and affective components of attitudes.
  19. 19. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Psychological Techniques: Likert Scale/Summative Scale: • Likert-type or frequency scales use fixed choice response formats and are designed to measure attitudes or opinions (Bowling, 1997; Burns, & Grove, 1997). These ordinal scales measure levels of agreement/disagreement. • In it final form, the Likert Scale is a five (or seven) point scale which is used to allow the individual to express how much they agree or disagree with a particular statement.
  20. 20. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Psychological Techniques: Likert Scale/Summative Scale: Uses: a) Basically used to measure the attitudes, values and feelings of the people. b) To have a quantified measurement of the qualitative attributes of the people. c) To assess the option of the people.
  21. 21. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Psychological Techniques: Likert Scale/Summative Scale: Characteristics: i. Psychological measurement tool ii. Illustrative in nature iii. Neutral statement iv. Bipolar scaling methods v. Measurement of the specific number of scaling categories
  22. 22. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Psychological Techniques: Likert Scale/Summative Scale: Guidelines For The Construction of Likert Scales  A five point or seven point scale may be designed with appropriate degrees of agreement & disagreement phrases.  The statement should be brief, concise and precise.  Each statement should convey only one idea.  Care should be take about language.  Statement should be such that they can be agreed/disagreed.
  23. 23. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Psychological Techniques: Likert Scale/Summative Scale: ADVANTAGES: • Easy to construct & administer • Less time consuming • More reliable & valid tool to measure psychosocial variables DISADVANTAGES:  The respondent may feel force to answer and the attitude may not be fully assessed due to preplanned statements.  Casual Approach of the respondents may provide misleading data.
  24. 24. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Psychological Techniques: Semantic Differential Scale – It is one of the most effective and widely used technique. In 1967 Osgood, Suci and Tannenbaum introduced this method. Although the original purpose was not to assess attitude but was well adopted for attitude assessment. This consists of a series of contrasting adjective pairs listed on opposite ends of a bipolar scale.
  25. 25. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Psychological Techniques: Semantic Differential Scale – Definition It is a type of rating scale designed to measure the connotative meaning of objects, events and concepts. Theses connotations are used to derive the attitude of the objects, events and concepts.
  26. 26. Assessment Methods & Tools B. Assessment of Attitude Psychological Techniques: Semantic Differential Scale –
  27. 27. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills Knowledge is tested in theory examination and skills are evaluated in clinical or practical examination. Various methods of skill assessment include: 1. Traditional practical examinations 2. Observed checklists 3. Rating scale 4. Viva voce 5. OSCE/OSPE
  28. 28. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills Any of this methods independently cannot assess the skills of the students with good validity, objectivity and reliability. So a wise combination of these tools is mandatory for a holistic and comprehensive skill assessment among health professionals.
  29. 29. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 1. Traditional or Conventional Practical Examination It is concerned with the assessment of practical performance skill and practice competency acquired by a student during the course of a particular programme. They are conducted in the practice laboratories or real – life practice areas such as IPDs. It is used to make judgment on not only skills, but all three domains including knowledge, attitude, IPR and skills.
  30. 30. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 1. Traditional Practical Examination PURPOSES * To assess the practical skills and practice competencies of nursing students. * To assess the practice domain by observing students reactions to real – life or simulated situations. * To assess the student's problem solving skills. * To assess the documentation skills. * To assess the skill of transforming theoretical knowledge in practice by the student.
  31. 31. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 1. Traditional or Conventional Practical Examination GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING:- A. Planning Phase  Consider the learning experience and learning objectives.  Decide the appropriate place.  Plan to conduct in a familiar place for students.  Arrange for adequate supply to carry out procedure.  Take prior permission and initiate to concerned areas.  The evaluation criteria must be planned and intimated to the students.
  32. 32. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 1. Traditional or Conventional Practical Examination GUIDELINES FOR CONDUCTING:- B. Conducting Phase  Reach the area as per planned schedule.  Convey rules and regulations of the examinations and assign patients randomly.  Provide sufficient time to perform  Follow confidentiality.
  33. 33. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 1. Traditional or Conventional Practical Examination ADVANTAGES: Provides an opportunity to assess the skills and competency of the students. It is an opportunity to the examiners for assessing the use of compartmentalized knowledge in an integrated manner by a student. For assessing the communication and IPR skills.
  34. 34. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 1. Traditional or Conventional Practical Examination DISADVANTAGES: Time consuming process. Not feasible for large group assessment. Sometimes the disturbance factors in ward affect the smooth conduction of examinations. Not considered a standardized assessment when conducting while working with patients and personal bias is expected.
  35. 35. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 2. Observed checklists It is an approach to monitor performance of specific skills, behaviors, or dispositions of individual student. Checklist is basically a method of recording whether a characteristic is present or an action is performed.
  36. 36. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 2. Observed checklists Definition: A checklist is a simple instrument consisting of prepared list of expected items of performance or attributes, which are checked by a evaluator for their presence or absence. A checklist enables the observer to note whether or not a trait or characteristics is present.
  37. 37. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 2. Observed checklists Characteristics: Can be used for formative assessments by focusing on performance of specific skills such as writing skills, speaking skills or action-based skills. Should be carefully prepared and must include all important elements of a specific task that student must know or perform. Each element should be sequentially and carefully included and adequate weightage should be given. Observe one at a time and use only when assessing a particular characteristics.
  38. 38. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 2. Observed checklists Guidelines to Construct: Express each item in clear, specific, observable and in simple language. Items can be continuous or divided into groups of related items. The items created has to be evaluated by the experts. Avoid negative statements. Ensure that each item has a clear response. Review the items independently. It must be complete and comprehensive in nature. Leave space to record anecdotal notes or comments. Each element should be marked as Present/Absent, inappropriately done and an option “not applicable” can be
  39. 39. Sample Observational Checklist S.N o Items/Elements Done Not Done Inappro. Done N A 1. Wash hands 2. Review manufacturers instructions 3. Explain procedure to patients 4. Selection of hands 5. Removal of nail polish and cleaning of finger Checklist for Pulse Oximetry
  40. 40. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 2. Observed checklists Advantages: Useful in evaluating performance skills that can be divided into a series of specific actions. Allow inter-individual comparisons. It is simple to use and record. Decreases the error chances. Useful for evaluating activities which has to be performed.
  41. 41. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 2. Observed checklists Disadvantages: Usefulness is limited as it does not indicate quality of performance and can’t do overall clinical performance. The degree of accuracy of performance is limited if presence or absence is used only as an attribute. It has limited use in qualitative observations. Not easy to prepare.
  42. 42. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 3. Rating Scale It is a term used to express opinion or judgment regarding some performance of a person, object, situation and character. Rating scale is an important technique of evaluation. Rating is the assessments of a person by another person. This is one of the oldest methods of personality assessment. There are certain general approaches to assess personality like holistic or overall approach, projective test approach and trait approach.
  43. 43. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 3. Rating Scale Definition: It refers to a scale with a set of opinion, which describes varying degree of the dimensions of an attitude or a phenomenon being observed.
  44. 44. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 3. Rating Scale TYPES: (a)Graphic rating scale: (b)Descriptive rating scale: (c)Numerical rating scale: (d)Comparative rating scale:
  45. 45. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 3. Rating Scale TYPES: (a)Graphic rating scale: A straight line, may be represented by descriptive phrases at various points. To rate the subject for a particular trait a check mark is made at the particular point.
  46. 46. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 3. Rating Scale TYPES: (b)Descriptive rating scale: This type does not use numbers but divides the assessment into a series of verbal phrases to indicate the level of performance.
  47. 47. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 3. Rating Scale TYPES: (c) Numerical rating scale: In which numbers are assigned to each trait. If it is a seven point scale, the number 7 represents the maximum amount of that trait in the individual, and 4 represents the average. The rater merely enters the appropriate number after each name to indicate judgment of the person.
  48. 48. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 3. Rating Scale TYPES: (d)Comparative rating scale: In this person makes a judgment about an attire/attitude/object by comparing it with others/ranking it.
  49. 49. ACTIVITY: HOW FAR DO YOU UNDERSTAND SUBJECTS IN NURSING?
  50. 50. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 3. Rating Scale CHARACTERISTICS OF RATING SCALE: • These are value judgments about attributes of one person by another person. • These are most commonly used tools to carry out structured observations. • These are generally developed to make qualitative judgment about qualitative attributes. • Provide more flexibility to judge the level of performance.
  51. 51. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 3. Rating Scale PRINCIPLES OF RATING SCALE:  It relates to learning objective.  Needs to be confined to performance areas that can be observed.  Clearly defines mode of behaviour.  The behaviour should be readily observed in a number of situations.  Allow some space in the rating scale for the rater to give supplementary remarks.  3 to 7 rating positions may be provided.  All raters should be oriented to the specific scale as well as the process of rating in general.
  52. 52. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 3. Rating Scale PRINCIPLES OF RATING SCALE: The rater should be unbiased and trained. Consider evaluation setting, feedback and student participation. Have experts and well informed raters. Change the ends of scale so that good is not always at the top or bottom. Assure that rater autonomy will be maintained.
  53. 53. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 3. Rating Scale ADVANTAGES: • Easy to administer and score. • Its easy to make and less time consuming. • Easily used for large group. • Also used for quantitative methods. • May also be used for assessment of interest, attitude, personal characteristics. • Used to evaluate performance and skills.
  54. 54. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 3. Rating Scale DISADVANTAGES: • Difficult to fix up rating. • Chances for subjective evaluation, thus the scales may become unscientific.
  55. 55. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE It is a modern type of examination often used in various professional disciplines including nursing. An OSCE is designed to test clinical skill performance such as communication, clinical examination, nursing procedure by a student in clinical area where the student is asked to perform a particular task on a patient and is evaluated by the examiner.
  56. 56. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE An OSPE is designed to assess competence in skill performance such as chemical analysis, identification of equipment and interpretation of results, etc. at different stations in a lab set up. OSCE/OSPE is designed to overcome the deficiencies in the traditional practical examination. The method of assessment is more objective because each complex clinical competency is broken down into smaller components. This leads to better sampling of the clinical skills to be tested and improves the validity of OSCE/OSPE.
  57. 57. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE All students are tested for the same competencies and all students are provided with the same duration of time. In this method predetermined decisions are made on the competencies to be tested and checklists are prepared to evaluate important skills. Scoring of a particular competency is done by same examiner for all students. These modifications in the clinical examination improve its validity and reliability.
  58. 58. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE MEANING: Objective : All students are assessed on same skills at each stations with the same marking scheme. Here examiners use a checklist for evaluating the trainees. Hence it is more objective. Structured: Both has a better sampling from all elements of the curriculum and the trainee sees the same problem and performs the same tasks in the same time frame. Clear instructions has to be given to avoid any confusion or delay. Clinical/Practical: The tasks are representative of those faced in real clinical situations to assess the clinical or practical skills. The students are asked to response to only the questions or scenario which is given in each station.
  59. 59. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE An earlier innovation in this regard is the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) later extended to the practical examination (OSPE) described in 1975 and in greater detail in 1979 by Harden and his group from Dundee. This method with some modifications has stood the test of time and has largely overcome the problems of the conventional clinical examinations mentioned earlier. Unfortunately, the method is still used very rarely and that too only for formative evaluation in our country except for the AIIMS, New Delhi, where it forms part of the summative evaluation for students.
  60. 60. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE Definition: The OSCE is an approach to the assessment of clinical competence in which the components of competence are assessed in a planned or structured way with attention being paid to the objectivity of the examination. _____ Dr. Harden
  61. 61. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE Definition: The OSPE is a method of practical examination, assessment tool where subjects and materials are used instead of patients in a lab instead of a real life situation.
  62. 62. Assessment Methods & Tools
  63. 63. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE Purpose Problems in routine clinical examination are: • Variability • Global assessment • Marks awarded by overall impression • Many abilities are ignored • Difficulty in terms of time, money and number of patients and examiners required • Tests the product not the process OSCE is designed to overcome these deficiencies
  64. 64. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE COMPONENTS ASSESSED Various components of clinical competence are assessed using OSCE, – For example, the components of advance clinical nursing practice skills typically assessed by OSCE are… 1. Interpersonal and communication skills 2. History taking skills 3. Physical examination of specific body system 4. Mental health assessment
  65. 65. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE COMPONENTS ASSESSED 5. Clinical decision making including the information of differential diagnosis 6. Interpretation of clinical findings and investigations, management of a clinical situation including treatment and referral 7. Patient education 8. Health promotion 9. Clinical problem solving skills 10. Acting safely and appropriately in an urgent clinical situation 11. Critical thinking in therapeutic management
  66. 66. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE
  67. 67. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE The OSCE examination consists of about 15-20 stations each of which requires about 4-5 minutes of time. All stations should be capable of being completed in the same time. The students are rotated through all stations and have to move to the next station at the signal. Since the stations are generally independent students can start at any of the procedure stations and complete the cycle. Thus, using 15 stations of 4 minutes each, 15 students can complete the examination within 1 hour. Each station is designed to test a component of clinical competence.
  68. 68. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE About 30 seconds is kept for moving to the next station. When there are many number of stations two rest stations can be placed in between to give students a chance to organize their thought. Instructions related to OSCE/OSPE should be given to the students in advance. Couplet & Double Station: Some competencies may best be assessed by coupled or linked stations. For example, a couplet station may consist of a history- physical examination combined with a problem-solving station.
  69. 69. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE STATION : TWO TYPES PROCEDURE STATIONS e.g. Taking history of a patient Examine eye of a patient RESPONSE/QUESTION STATIONS •MCQs related to finding •Interpretation of lab report etc.
  70. 70. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE - STEPS Identify the task/skills to be observed Arrangement of stations Preparation of checklist Instruction to the candidates Administration of OSCE/OSPE Feedback from candidates and examiners Validation & Item analysis Question Bank
  71. 71. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE - STEPS The examination will measure objectively the competencies based on the objectives of the course or the requirement of the licensing body. Example:- Domain – Knowledge, Psychomotor Skill – Elicit signs of Anemia Identify the task/skills to be observed
  72. 72. Assessment Methods & ToolsC. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE - STEPS Instructions for station set-up • List the equipments required for the station • Instructions or questions to be performed by the candidate • Materials -Table/chair/couch and other materials as required for the task • Patient or subject • An assessor or examiner • Time frame and changing signal Arrangement of stations
  73. 73. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE - STEPS Once the tasks are finalized at each station, checklists, questions, answer keys and response sheets have to be prepared. Patients or simulated patients have to be selected and briefed about their role at the particular station. Each member in the examination team has to be made clear about their roles. The venue has to be prepared. Arrangement of stations
  74. 74. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE - STEPS The checklist should be complete and include the main components. Any unnecessary or exaggerated term must be avoided. At all such stations there are observers with agreed check lists to score the student's performance. Weightage for each item in the check list can be decided by the examiners depending on their importance. Preparation of checklist
  75. 75. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE - STEPS The candidates have to be informed prior regarding the format and evaluation methods used in the examination. Instruction to the candidates
  76. 76. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE - STEPS There should not be any means of contact between the students who have completed and those who are waiting. There should be only one entry and exit to access the OSCE/OSPE stations. Ensuring confidentiality throughout the process is mandatory. Administration of OSCE/OSPE
  77. 77. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE - STEPS Feedback from candidates and examiners Validation & Item Analysis Question bank
  78. 78. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE - STEPS Advantages: More valid, reliable and objective Test not only skills and knowledge but attitudes also Test the student’s ability to integrate knowledge, clinical skills and communication with the patient Can be used with large number of students in less time Reproducible Provides unique programmatic evaluation Less complexity Valid examination Summative and well formative
  79. 79. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE - STEPS Disadvantages: Development and administration are time consuming and costly OSCE involves lots of planning The assessment of skills tends to get compartmentalized in an OSCE, holistic approach is not there (this can be overcome by combining OSCE with conventional practical examination which is called as semi-objective structured practical examination {SOSPE})
  80. 80. Assessment Methods & Tools C. Assessment of Skills 4. OSCE/OSPE - STEPS Disadvantages: The reliability of OSCEs has been found to be low if there are a small number of stations, noisy environments, untrained patients and lack of structured checklists Need for standardization of simulated patients and examiner Repetitive and boring so can create uncooperativeness Needs more man power, planning and resources
  81. 81. Assessment Methods & Tools Conclusion: Educational assessment is concerned with the achievements of educational objectives at the end of the course. A quality assessment gives feedback to the students, parents and teachers. Assessment findings have very important role in curriculum revision. Assessment can be classified into formative and summative assessment. Students should always be evaluated on all three educational domains of knowledge, attitude and skill. Selection of appropriate tool and its quality are vital in assessment. The tool selected should be of good validity, reliable, objective and feasible. Thus wise selection, construction, administration and scoring of the test by a teacher is the integral steps of accurate assessment.

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