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Notes on evaluation part ii

after checking the part - I, its time to study various methods and techniques used in the evaluation.
this slide helps to know about the methods, tools, and techniques used to assess the congition/knowledge.

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Notes on evaluation part ii

  1. 1. EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT IN NURSING EDUCATION Part - 02 Mrs. Babitha K Devu Assistant Professor SMVD College of Nursing
  2. 2. Assessment Methods & Techniques Assessment methods and techniques depend on the domain to be examined. However it is not practical to assess each domain independently. The examination tool can be selected based on the major domain to be tested. There are mainly three domains under which the student’s performance is assessed. They are mainly cognitive, psychomotor and affective domains.
  3. 3. Assessment Methods & Techniques Classification of Evaluation Techniques: All techniques of evaluation can be broadly classified into two categories: 1. Quantitative Technique 2. Qualitative Technique
  4. 4. Assessment Methods & Techniques Classification of Evaluation Techniques: 1. Quantitative Technique: They are mainly used in educational evaluations. These are highly reliable and valid. The quantitative tests can be classified into – a. Oral Techniques b. Written Techniques c. Practical techniques
  5. 5. Assessment Methods & Techniques Classification of Evaluation Techniques: 2. Qualitative Technique: These are used in schools and colleges for internal assessment. These techniques are subjective and are less reliable. The techniques used are – a. Cumulative record b. Anecdotal record c. Observation Technique d. Checklist e. Rating scale
  6. 6. Assessment Methods & Tools DOMAIN METHOD S INSTRUMENT/TOOL COGNITIVE/ KNOWLEDGE Written Essay type questions Short answer type questions Multiple choice questions Oral Viva voce PSYCHOMOTO R/ SKILL Observ ation Traditional practical examinations Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) Objective structured practical examinations (OSPE) Checklist, Nursing process
  7. 7. Assessment Methods & Tools DOMAIN METHODS INSTRUMENT/TOOL AFFECTIVE/ ATTITUDE Observat ion Behavioural scales: Anecdotal records, personal records, cumulative records, communication, group discussion, process recording, etc. Psychological scales: Likert scale, semantic differential scale etc.
  8. 8. Assessment Methods & Tools The method of evaluation used in nursing education are:- A. Assessment of Knowledge B. Assessment of Attitude C. Assessment of Skills
  9. 9. Assessment Methods & Tools The method of evaluation used in nursing education are:- A. Assessment of Knowledge The method used to assess the knowledge of the learners are educational tests or achievement tests to assess the intellectual level of the students. The main tools used for assessment are oral and written examinations (Standardized or Teacher based Tests). (Subjective or Objective)
  10. 10. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions II. Short Answer Questions III.Multiple Choice Questions IV.Viva Voce
  11. 11. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions They are being used since ancient times and most commonly employed method of assessment of cognitive skills in nursing education. Some educators use them because essays have the potential to reveal students’ abilities to reason, create, analyse, synthesis and evaluate. Educators choose essay questions over other forms of assessment because essay items challenge students to create a response rather than to simply select a response.
  12. 12. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions Definitions: "A test item which requires a response composed by the examinee, usually in the form of one or more sentences, of a nature that no single response or pattern of responses can be listed as correct, and the accuracy and quality of which can be judged subjectively only by one skilled or informed in the subject." _____John M. Stalnaker (1951)
  13. 13. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions Definitions: “A test containing questions requiring the students to respond in writing, it emphasizes recall rather than recognition of the correct alternative." _____Gilbert Sax (1989)
  14. 14. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions Based on Stalnaker's definition, an essay question should meet the following criteria: 1. Requires examinees to compose rather than select their response. 2. Elicits student responses that must consist of more than one sentence. 3. Allows different or original responses or pattern of responses. 4. Requires subjective judgment by a competent specialist to judge the accuracy and quality of responses.
  15. 15. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions There are two major purposes for using essay questions. One purpose is to assess students' understanding of and ability to think with subject matter content. The other purpose is to assess students' non- content related attributes like creativity, neatness and writing abilities.
  16. 16. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions How Should Essay Questions Be Constructed? 1. Clearly define the intended learning outcome to be assessed by the item. Decide which of the following intended learning outcomes lends itself better to be assessed by an essay question. 2. Avoid using essay questions for intended learning outcomes that are better assessed with other kinds of assessment.
  17. 17. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions How Should Essay Questions Be Constructed? 3. Clearly define and situate the task within a problem situation. Eg: . Less focused essay question Evaluate the impact of Diuretics on patients. . More focused essay question Evaluate the impact of Potassium sparing diuretics on patients with hyperkalemia.
  18. 18. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions How Should Essay Questions Be Constructed? 4. Present a reasonable task to students. 5. The task can be written as a statement or question. 6. Specify the relative point value and the approximate time limit in clear directions. 7. State the criteria for grading.
  19. 19. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions How Should Essay Questions Be Constructed? 8. Use several relatively short essay questions rather than one long one. 9. Avoid the use of optional questions. 10. Improve the essay question through preview and review.
  20. 20. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions Types: Depending upon the amount of freedom given to student to organize his/her ideas and write answers.  Traditional essay questions or Extended response type question  Structured essay questions or Restricted response type question
  21. 21. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions Types:  Traditional essay questions or Extended response type question This is used to test the factual knowledge of the students along with their ability to provide ideas to substantiate them and to present them in coherent language. The criterion factors are limited in this type. This type is useful for testing higher levels of cognitive learning such as synthesis, analysis, and evaluation. Eg:- Discuss your views on educational medias used in nursing education.
  22. 22. Assessment Methods & ToolsA. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions Types:  Structured essay or Restricted response type question This type of questions reduce the freedom of the students to write about the given topic by setting limits on the answer required and on its organization. This type of questions is best for testing lower level of cognitive learning or knowledge and also scoring is easy. Hence be more reliable and objective. Eg: a. Define Educational medias b. Classify the educational medias c. Discuss in detail about Visual medias used in
  23. 23. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions Advantages • Assess higher-order or critical thinking skills - effective way of assessing complex learning outcomes that cannot be effectively assessed by other commonly used paper-and-pencil assessment procedures. • Evaluate student thinking and reasoning. • Provide authentic experience.
  24. 24. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions Limitations 1. Assess a limited sample of the range of content. 2. Are difficult and time consuming to grade. 3. Provide practice in poor or unpolished writing.
  25. 25. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions Misconceptions oAssess higher-order or critical thinking skills regardless of how the responses are written. Example A: What are the major advantages and limitations of essay questions? (Only recall) Example B: Given their advantages and limitations, should an essay question be used to assess students’ abilities to create a solution to a problem? (Reasoning) oEssay questions are easy to construct.
  26. 26. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge I. Essay Type Questions Misconceptions oThe use of essay questions eliminates the problem of guessing. oEssay questions benefit all students by placing emphasis on the importance of written communication skills. oEssay questions encourage students to prepare more thoroughly.
  27. 27. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge II. Short Answer Questions It is very similar to objective items as a clearly-defined answer is required in both. In this the answer has to be generated and supplied by the learner rather than chosen from the options provided. SAQ is also called objective questions, because they can be marked with a very high degree of reliability, if suitably designed.
  28. 28. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge II. Short Answer Questions Definition: In this test, a student is given direct questions and expected to provide firing in words or phrases or numerical responses to the questions.
  29. 29. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge II. Short Answer Questions Purposes: 1. Useful to assess the recall ability of students. (Lower cognitive domain) 2. Used to assess students in a classroom while a lecture is in progress. 3. Useful in formative assessment. 4. Can be used in summative assessment to supplement other forms of questions.
  30. 30. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge II. Short Answer Questions Guidelines For Making SAQs: Identify the learning objective, the overall purpose and content of the item.  Make questions precise, avoid incomplete statements.  Item should be expressed in such a way that only a single, brief answer is possible and that answer should be kept ready along with the framing of questions.  Prepare a structured checklist and marking sheet.
  31. 31. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge II. Short Answer Questions Guidelines For Making SAQs:  The item should be expressed in a positive form than negatively phrased items.  Try to avoid providing clues to the required answer.  When a numerical answer is expected, the degree of precision and the units to express should be indicated.  Long complex sentences should be avoided.  Space for answering should be provided as much after the completion of questions.  The weightage and criteria for marking for each questions must be mentioned clearly.
  32. 32. Assessment Methods & Tools A.Assessment of Knowledge II. Short Answer Questions TYPES:  Statement completion type/ Fill in the blanks Example – Diphtheria is caused by _______.  Definitions Example – Define cardiac arrest.  Unique answer type/One best response Example – Which are the layers of heart?  Label/Draw diagram Example – Draw a neat labelled Circle of Willis.
  33. 33. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge II. Short Answer Questions TYPES:  Numerical problem type Example – Doctor’s Order: Infuse 50 mg of Amphotericin B in 250 mL NS over 4 hr 15 min; Drop factor: 12gtt/mL. What flow rate (mL/hr) will you set on the IV infusion pump  Open SAQs Example – write the clinical manifestations of HTN.  Problem solving SAQs Example –how do osmotic diuretics reduce ICP? - A patient is admitted with hypertension. List the initial steps of actions required.
  34. 34. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge II. Short Answer Questions Advantages of Short Answer Questions • Short Answer Questions are relatively fast to mark and can be marked by different assessors, as long as the questions are set in such a way that all alternative answers can be considered by the assessors. • Short Answer Questions are also relatively easy to set compared to many assessment methods. • Short Answer Questions can be used as part of a formative and summative assessment, as the structure of short answer questions are very similar to examination questions, students are more familiar with the practice and feel less anxious. • Unlike MCQs, there is no guessing on answers, students must supply an answer.
  35. 35. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge II. Short Answer Questions Disadvantages of Short Answer Questions • Short Answer Questions (SAQ) are only suitable for questions that can be answered with short responses. It is very important that the assessor is very clear on the type of answers expected when setting the questions, because SAQ is an open-ended questions, students are free to answer any way they choose, short-answer questions can lead to difficulties in grading if the question is not worded carefully.
  36. 36. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge II. Short Answer Questions Disadvantages of Short Answer Questions • Short Answer Questions are typically used for assessing knowledge only, students may often memorize Short Answer Questions with rote learning. If assessors wish to use Short Answer Questions to assess deeper learning, careful attention (and many practices) on appropriate questions are required. • Accuracy of assessment may be influenced by handwriting/spelling skills • There can be time management issues when answering Short Answer Questions
  37. 37. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions Multiple choice is a form of an objective assessment in which respondents are asked to select only correct answers out of the choices from a list. The multiple choice format is most frequently used in educational testing, in market research, and in elections, when a person chooses between multiple candidates, parties, or policies. Although E. L. Thorndike developed an early scientific approach to testing students, it was his assistant Benjamin D. Wood who developed the multiple choice test. And Frederick J Kelly used it as a part of large scale assessment.
  38. 38. Assessment Methods & Tools A.Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions Definition: A multiple choice question (MCQ) is one in which the learner is invited to select one alternative (the correct one being the ‘key’) from a list of options (including the former and the ‘distracters’ – incorrect answers) in response to the question (‘stem’).
  39. 39. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions PARTS: A standard MCQ will consist of three core elements, the stem, the distracters and the Answer Key. The Stem: It is the beginning part of the item, a question or an incomplete statement to be answered or completed by the respondent. The Alternatives: it consist of the distracters and the key. The key is the correct answer to the question and the distracters are the other options which is similar to the key but incorrect.
  40. 40. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions PARTS: Example:- 1. The causative organism of tuberculosis is __________ . The Stem a.Mycobacterium Marinum b.Mycobacterium Tuberculosis - Key c.Mycobacterium Kansasii Distracters d.Mycobacterium Xenopi Al te rn ati ve
  41. 41. Assessment Methods & Tools A.Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions TYPES:  Single or One best Response Type Multiple Responses or completion type Relationship-Assertion (Reason- Assertion) Type Matching Type
  42. 42. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions TYPES:  Single or One best Response Type The most commonly and traditionally used type. Example – 1: In addition to nucleus, which organelles contain DNA a. Golgi bodies b. Mitochondria and chloroplasts c. Ribosome's Example – 2: Who has invented microscope? a. Robert Koch b. Alexander Fleming c. Bernad
  43. 43. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions TYPES: Multiple Responses or completion type This item is used to assess the higher level of cognition. Example – 1: Features of bacterial meningitis include ______ . a. Headache b. Elevated CSF glucose c. Reduced CSF protein d. Elevated WBC
  44. 44. Assessment Methods & Tools A.Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions TYPES: Multiple Responses or completion type Example – 2: (Analogy Type) Vitamin A : Night blindness – Vit C : _____ a. Beriberi b. Scurvy c. Pellagra d. Oesteomyletis
  45. 45. Assessment Methods & ToolsA. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions TYPES:  Relationship-Assertion (Reason-Assertion) Type – The test is meant to judge the candidate's knowledge and with it, his ability to reason out correctly. Choose the correct alternative from the following : Assertion (A) : Vaccines prevent diseases. Reason (R) : Vaccines must be given to children. A. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A. B. Both A and R are true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A. C. A is true but R is false. D. A is false but R is true. E. Both A and R are false.
  46. 46. Assessment Methods & Tools A.Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions TYPES: Matching Type – here the student is asked to identify the relationship b/w two things. Vit A - Rickets Vit C - Night blindness Vit D - Scurvy
  47. 47. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions Guidelines for constructing MCQs: General Suggestions - • Write the prompt first, then the correct answer, then the distracters (incorrect options) • Make sure distracters match the correct answer in terms of length, complexity, phrasing, style • Base each item on a learning outcome for the course • Ask a peer to review items if possible • Allow time for editing and revising • Minimize the amount of reading required for each item
  48. 48. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions Guidelines for constructing MCQs: General Suggestion - • Be sensitive to cultural and gender issues • Keep vocabulary consistent with student level of understanding • Avoid convoluted stems and options • Avoid language in the options and stems that clues the correct answer • Check grammatical appropriateness of the item
  49. 49. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions Guidelines for constructing MCQs: General Suggestion - • Write a few items each day, and then assemble them just before the test. • Make sure each item is independent of the others. • Control the difficulty by placing different levels of questions. • Avoid temptation to check many things in one question.
  50. 50. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions Guidelines for constructing MCQs: Tips for Writing Multiple-Choice Item Stems - • Use a single, clearly-stated problem or question. • Describe the problem fully and avoid irrelevant information. • Include most information in the stem so that the options can be short. • State the stem as a question, or as an incomplete statement if needed to avoid awkward wording.
  51. 51. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions Guidelines for constructing MCQs: Tips for Writing Multiple-Choice Item Stems – • Be as brief as possible and avoid undue complexity. • Avoid negatives when possible, as well as idioms (e.g., “toss-up” or “nest-egg”), passive voice, and absolutes (e.g., always, never, all, etc.). • When making the stem an incomplete statement, make sure the options follow the stem in a grammatically correct manner.
  52. 52. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions Guidelines for constructing MCQs: Tips for Writing Multiple-Choice Answer Options – • Include a total of 3 to 5 options. (But no rule) • Make options similar in grammar, length, complexity, and style. • Move repeated text to the stem if possible. • Write the correct answer first, and then write the incorrect options in a parallel style. • Make all options plausible to students who do not know the correct answer.
  53. 53. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions Guidelines for constructing MCQs: Tips for Writing Multiple-Choice Answer Options – • Decrease the possibility of students guessing by avoiding options such as “all of the above” or “both A and B.” • Use “none of the above” with caution, and only when there are absolutely correct answers to the question so that none of the available options are partially correct. • Vary the positions of the correct options. • Make sure there is only one best or correct answer.
  54. 54. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions Advantages: • Easy to administer and score. • Can cover a large content area. • High reliability, validity and objectivity. • Item analysis is possible • Questions can be constructed to address various levels of cognitive complexities.
  55. 55. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge III. Multiple Choice Questions Disadvantages: o Not useful to test the highest level of cognitive domain. o Difficulty/time consuming to construct MCQs. o Provide an opportunity to guess. o Cannot test the writing skill, communication skill, psychomotor and interpersonal skills. o Cheating is possible.
  56. 56. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge IV. Viva Voce Viva voce is a Latin phrase literally meaning "with living voice" but most often translated as "by word of mouth.“ it is also termed as oral examination which consist of dialogue between the examiner and a student where the examiner asks questions and the student replies.
  57. 57. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge IV. Viva Voce Oral examination is meant to evaluate certain qualities of the students such as the depth of knowledge, ability to discuss and defend one’s decisions, attitude, confidence, alertness, ability to perform under stress and professional competence. The focus of oral examination should be to test students’ problem-solving skills, ability to develop an answer with rational and ability to come to a decision quickly. Less focus should be given on factual recall during viva.
  58. 58. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge IV. Viva Voce PURPOSE: • Assess the communication skills • Supplement the information obtained through other techniques of evaluation. • Identify and analyse the student’s presence of mind. • Evaluate the student’s spontaneity and mannerism. • Assess the soundness of knowledge. • Diagnose the student’s limitation and weakness and take remedial action.
  59. 59. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge IV. Viva Voce PRINCIPLES:  Should not be limited to a single topic  All questions should be strictly relevant to the purpose of the viva  Questions should be short  Should not be too long  Individually should be examined  Prior intimation should be given before 24 hours
  60. 60. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge IV. Viva Voce ADVANTAGEs:  Provides direct contact with the candidates  Provides flexibility  Makes students formulates replies without cues  Facilitates simultaneous assessment by 2 or more examiners  Opportunity to get feedback on the performance of the students.
  61. 61. Assessment Methods & Tools A. Assessment of Knowledge IV. Viva Voce DISADVANTAGEs:  Lacks standardization, objectivity and reproducibility of the result  Permits favouritism  Cannot be used for references  Influence possible  Costly in terms of time

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