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Note on Evaluation and Assessment in Nursing Education (Part - 01)

Detailed about the scope, purpose and types of assessment

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Note on Evaluation and Assessment in Nursing Education (Part - 01)

  1. 1. EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT IN NURSING EDUCATION Part - 01 Mrs. Babitha K Devu Assistant Professor SMVD College of Nursing
  2. 2. Introduction • Evaluation is part of life, in our life we need to make evaluation frequently – like which dress you want to wear in marriage – What you want to give in gift to your friend. • In educational scenario evaluation have important role in judging student progress to know up to what extent student have achieved the desired set goal.
  3. 3. Introduction Evaluation is such an essential part of teaching and learning. Evaluation in education is the process of judging the effectiveness of educational experience through careful appraisal or involves measurement but is different from it. Measurement is appraisal in terms of a fixed standards whereas an evaluation implies the use of relative and flexible standards.
  4. 4. Introduction Educational evaluation is made in relation to the objectives that have been determined previously by faculty, individual teacher and student. The word ‘assess’ comes from the Latin verb ‘assidere’ meaning ‘to sit with’. Assessment can focus on the individual learner, the learning community (class, workshop, or other organized group of learners), the institution, or the educational system.
  5. 5. DEFINITIONS • EVALUATION: “ It is a process of making judgment that to be used as a basis for planning. It consists of establishing goals, collecting evidence concerning growth or lack of growth towards goals, making judgments about the evidence and revising procedures and goals in the light of the judgments.” ___ Wiles
  6. 6. DEFINITIONS • EVALUATION: “ It is the process of determining to what extent the educational objective are being realized.” ___ Ralph Tylor “ It is a systematic examination of educational and social programs.” ____ Conbach
  7. 7. DEFINITIONS • ASSESSMENT: “Assessment is the process of documenting, usually in measurable terms, knowledge, skill, attitudes, and beliefs.” “Assessment in education is the process of gathering, interpreting, recording, and using information about pupils’ responses to an educational task.” ___ Harlen, Gipps, Broadfoot, Nuttal,1992
  8. 8. Nature of evaluation Evaluation in educational context implies broad programme that examines achievements, attitude, interests, personality, traits and skills factors which are taken into consideration. Thus cognitive, affective and psychomotor learning outcome is measured in the evaluation process. The evaluation is a two part process. The first part of evaluation is the determination of what is to evaluate (Goal) and the second part is the judgment of whether the goals are being achieved.
  9. 9. Purposes of evaluation The overall purpose will be to provide information to enable each student to develop according to his potential with in the frame work of educational objectives. Bloom stated the following purposes:- 1) To discover the extent of competence through which the student have developed in initiating, organizing and improving his/her day to day work and to diagnose his/her strength and weakness with a view to further guidance.
  10. 10. Purposes of evaluation 2) To appraise the status of and changes in student’s behaviour. 3) To assess the student’s progress from time to time and disclose student’s needs and possibility. 4) To predict the student’s future in academic success. 5) To provide basis for modification of the curriculum and course. 6) To motivate students for better attainment and growth. 7) To improve instructional and measuring devices. 8) To locate areas where remedial measures are needed.
  11. 11. Purposes of evaluation in nursing  To determine the level of knowledge and understanding of the students at various times.  To determine the level of student’s clinical performance at various stage.  To diagram each student’s strength and weakness and to suggest remedial measures.  To encourage student’s learning by measuring their achievement and inform them their success.  To help students to acquire the attitude of and skills in self evaluation and self directing in their study.  To provide motivation in practicing critical thinking, the application of principle, the making of judgment, etc.
  12. 12. Purposes of evaluation in nursing  To estimate the effectiveness of teaching and learning technique, of subject content and instructional media in reaching the goals.  To gather information for administrative purpose such as selecting students for higher courses, placement of students for advanced training, etc.
  13. 13. scope of evaluation a) Certification b) Feedback c) Monitoring the program d) Safeguarding the public e) Baseline for guidance and counseling f) Placement and promotion in job g) Development of tools and techniques and appraise the methods of instructions.
  14. 14. characteristics of evaluation 1. Continuous process. 2. Includes academic and non academic subjects. 3. Procedure for improving the product. 4. Discovers the needs of an individual student and to design learning experience that will solve their needs. 5. Correlation between the educational system and the system of evaluation. 6. Complex process which need scientific techniques and tools.
  15. 15. principles of evaluation Evaluation is a process of determining the extend to which educational objectives are achieved by pupils. It should not be viewed as merely a collection of techniques for obtaining information about pupil’s behaviour. (Gronlund & Guilbert) Evaluation is most effective when based on sound operational principles. The following principles stated by Gronlund provide a framework within which the process of evaluation may be viewed.
  16. 16. principles of evaluation  Determining and classifying what is to be evaluated always has priority in the evaluation process: The objectives must be clearly stated before evaluation is made.  Techniques should be selected in term of the purposes to be served.  Comprehensive evaluation requires a variety of evaluation techniques. No single evaluation technique is adequate to evaluate various outcome.  Proper use of evaluation techniques require an awareness of their limitations as well as their strength
  17. 17. principles of evaluation  Evaluation is a means to an end and not as end itself.  Evaluation procedures must contribute to improved decisions of instruction, guidance and administrative nature.  Adequacy of experience should be made in terms of excellence of performance and quality of experience.  Record for practice should reflect the objectives of practice and give evidence to the extent of achievement of these objectives.
  18. 18. types of evaluation There are mainly two types of evaluation:- Based on time Based on manner in which one interpret the result of the learner performance Summative Formative Criterion Reference Norm Reference
  19. 19. types of evaluation Based on Time: This classification was based on the frequency of conducting evaluation. M Scriven (1967) coined the term summative and formative evaluation. Summative Evaluation is the commonly known type of evaluation. It comes at the end of the term, course or programme of teaching. Formative Evaluation is on going, continuous evaluation.
  20. 20. types of evaluation • Summative Evaluation: Definitions:-  It describes judgement about the merits of an already completed program, procedure or product. ___ A. J. Nitke (1983)  It is conducted at the end of the instructional segment to determine if learning is sufficient or complete then move the learner to the next segment of instruction. ___ R L Ebel & Frisbic (1986)  It is done at the conclusion of instruction and measures the extent to which students have attained the desired outcome. ____ W Weersma & S G Jury (1990)
  21. 21. types of evaluation • Summative Evaluation: It is done at the end of any program or instruction or course, term or semester. Annual examination and half yearly examination in school, public examination are the example of such evaluation. It is also called external assessment. It is used to assign the grades for student’s achievement which can be used for promotion to the next grade and judgement of high and low performers within a certain group for passing or failing in an examination.
  22. 22. types of evaluation • Summative Evaluation: It is vertical dimension seeing whether the student has achieved educational objective and how much he has achieved. It help to grade, rank, select the students and also help in curriculum evaluation. Purposes: • For certification • Determines the student’s mastery on learning outcomes based on the objectives.
  23. 23. types of evaluation • Summative Evaluation: Summative Assessment (To determine terminal performance) Have the students achieved? (Intended outcome of instructions) Evaluate the effectiveness of the instruction Provide additional individual remediation Assign grades or certify mastery
  24. 24. types of evaluation • Formative Evaluation: Definitions:-  It is concerned with judgement made during the design or development of a program, which is directed towards modifying, forming or otherwise improving the programs before it is completed. ___ A. J. Nitke (1983)  It is conducted to monitor the instructional process to determine whether learning is taking place as planned. ___ R L Ebel & Frisbic (1986)  It occurs over a period of time and monitors student’s progress. ____ W Weersma & S G Jury (1990)
  25. 25. types of evaluation • Formative Evaluation: It is an ongoing continuous evaluation conducted during learning process in order to improve teaching – learning process and students learning outcomes. By this evaluation teachers can modify the teaching learning methods and the student’s can improve their learning by counseling to modify the learning styles. In order to be effective formative assessment should be conducted more frequently and must cover small content area with different difficulty level and give immediately feedback to the students.
  26. 26. types of evaluation • Formative Evaluation: Are the students achieving the intended learning outcomes? Feedback to reinforce learning Proceed with planned instructions Remediation of individual/group Diagnostic testing (To study persistent difficulty) Formative Evaluation (To monitor learning progress) No Yes
  27. 27. types of evaluation CHARACT- ERISTICS FORMATIVE SUMMATIVE PURPOSE To monitor progress of student by getting feedback To check final status of students CONTENT FOCUS •Detailed •Narrow scope •General •Broad scope METHODS •Daily assignments •Observations •Tests •Projects FREQUENCY Daily or weekly Quarterly or after completion of term/semester/course
  28. 28. types of evaluation Based on manner in which one interpret the result of the learner performance there are two types of evaluation - Criterion Reference and Norm Reference Evaluation. • Criterion Reference Evaluation: This determines whether each student has achieved specific skills or concepts. In this each individual is compared with a preset standard for acceptable achievement. The performance of other students is irrelevant. For Example assessing a student’s skill to administer IM Injection based on a checklist.
  29. 29. types of evaluation • Norm Reference Evaluation: In this assessment the test scores are compared with a person’s performance similar to others with similar educational backgrounds. This can be used as a preliminary tool before making the actual evaluation tool. In this instead of looking at the actual score of the student, we see how well they did in relation to others.
  30. 30. Criteria for selection of assessment techniques & methods The techniques/methods or tools used for evaluation are means for collecting evidence about student’s development in desired direction. There are some criteria one should follow while preparing the tools for assessment.
  31. 31. Criteria for selection of assessment techniques & methods Assessment Tool: Criteria Validit y Others Specifi city Releva nce Practic ability Object ivity Reliab ility
  32. 32. Criteria for selection of assessment techniques & methods  Validity: It means the extend to which a test measures what it is intended to measure. It is an important criterion to be met. Types are: 1. Face validity 2. Content validity 3. Construct validity 4. Criterion related validity
  33. 33. Criteria for selection of assessment techniques & methods  Reliability: It is a measure of the consistency and precision with which it tests what it is supposed to test. Methods are: 1. Test retest method 2. Split Half method
  34. 34. Criteria for selection of assessment techniques & methods  Objectivity: It describes the degree of consensus with which two or more evaluators score the same test. It eliminates fixed opinion or judgment of the person who score it.
  35. 35. Criteria for selection of assessment techniques & methods  Practicability/Feasibility: It depends on various factors such as ease of administrability, scoring and interpretation, also the economy of resources like money or time.
  36. 36. Criteria for selection of assessment techniques & methods  Relevance: It is the appropriateness of the assessment tool to evaluate what actually to be evaluated.
  37. 37. Criteria for selection of assessment techniques & methods  Specificity: The item in a test must be specific to the objectives.  Others: It includes  Discrimination  Efficiency  Precise and clear  Comprehensiveness  Length
  38. 38. steps of evaluation